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and having but a small compass to describe in turning about it, had less way to make than the second, third, fourth, &c. especially when the chariots were drawnı by four horses, which took up a greater space between the first and the others, and obliged them to make a larger circle in coming round. This advantage twelve times together, as it must happen, admitting the stadium was to be run round twelve times, gave such a superiority to the first, as seemed to assure him infallibly of the victory against all his competitors. To me it seems, that the fleetness of the horses, joined with the address of the driver, might countervail this odds; either by getting before the first, or by taking his place; for it is not to be supposed, that in the progress of the race, the antagonists always continued in the same order they started. They often changed places in a short interval of time, and in that variety and vicissitude consisted all the diversion of the spec- . tators.

It was not required, that those who disputed the victory should enter the lists, and drive their chariots in person. Their being spectators of the games, or sending their horses thither, was sufficient; but in either case, it was previously necessary to register the names of the persons, for whom the horses were to run, either in the chariot or single horse races.

i At the time that the city of Potidæa surrendered to Philip, three couriers brought him advices; the first, that the Illyrians had been defeated in a great battle by his general Parmenio; the second, that he had carried

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the prize of the horse race in the Olympic games ; and the third, that the queen was delivered of a son. Plutarch seems to insinuate, that Philip was equally delighted with each of these circumstances.

* Hiero sent horses to Olympia, to run for the prize, and caused a magnificent pavilion to be erected for them. Upon this occasion Themistocles harangued the Greeks, to persuade them to pull down the tyrant's pavilion, who had refused his aid against the common enemy, and to hinder his horses from running with the rest. It does not appear that any regard was had to this remonstrance; for we find by one of Pindar's odes, composed in honour of Hiero, that he won the prize in the equestrian races.

'No one ever carried the ambition of making a great figure in the public games of Greece so far as Alcibiades, in which he distinguished himself in the most splendid manner, by the great number of horses and chariots, which he kept only for the races. There never was either private person or king that sent, as he did, seven chariots at once to the Olympic games, wherein he carried the first, second, and third prizes; an honour no one ever had before him. The famous poet Euripides celebrated these victories in an ode, of which Plutarch has preserved a fragment in vit. Alcib. The victor, after having made a sumptuous sacrifice to Jupiter, gave a magnificent feast to the innumerable multitude of the spectators at the games. It is not easy to comprehend how the wealth of a private person should suffice to so enormous an expense. But Antisthenes, the scholar of Socrates, who relates what he saw, informs us, that many cities of the allies, in a kind of emulation with each other, supplied Alcibiades with all things necessary for the support of such incredible magnificence: equipages, horses, tents, sacrifices, the most exquisite provisions, the most delicate wines; in a word, all that was necessary to the support of his table or train. The passage is remarkable; for the same author assures us, that this was not only done when Alcibiades went to the Olympic games, but in all his military expeditions and journeys by land or sea.

* Plut. in Themist. p. 124.

! Plut, in Alcibiad, p. 196.

“ Wherever (says he) Alcibiades travelled, he made use of four of the allied cities as his servants. Ephesus furnished him with tents, as magnificent as those of the Persians; Chios took care to provide for his horses; Cyzicum supplied him with sacrifices, and provisions for his table ; and Lesbos gave him wine, with all the other necessaries of his house."

I must not omit, in speaking of the Olympic games, that the ladies were admitted to dispute the prize in them as well as the men; which many of them obtained. m Cynisca, sister of Agesilaus, king of Sparta, first opened this new path of glory to her sex, and was proclaimed victrix in the race of chariots with four horses. This victory, which till then had no example, did not fail of being celebrated with all possible splendor. A magnificent monument was erected in Sparta in honour of Cynisca ; and the

Pag. 288.

Pag. 272.

1. Pausan. l. iii. p. 172. VOL. I.


Lacedemonians, though otherwise very little sensible to the charms of poetry, appointed a poet to transmit this new triumph to posterity, and to immortalize its memory by an inscription in verse. P She herself dedicated a chariot of brass, drawn by four horses, in the temple of Delphos, in which the charioteer was also represented; a certain proof that she did not drive it herself. In process of time, the picture of Cynisca, drawn by the famous Apelles, was annexed to it, and the whole adorned with many inscriptions in honour of that Spartan heroine.

Of the Honours and Rewards granted to the Victors. These honours and rewards were of several kinds. The spectators' acclamations in honour of the victors were only a prelude to the rewards designed them. These rewards were different wreaths of wild olive, pine, parsley, or laurel, according to the different places where the games were celebrated. Those crowns were always attended with branches of palm, that the victors carried in their right hands; which custom, according to Plutarch,' arose, perhaps, from the nature of the palmtree, which displays new vigor the more endeavours are used to crush or bend it, and is a symbol of the champion's courage and resistance in the attainment of the prize. As he might be victor more than once in the same games, and sometimes on the same day, he might also receive several crowns and palms.

When the victor had received the crown and palm, an herald, preceded by a trumpet, conducted him through the stadium, and proclaimed aloud his name and country, who passed in that kind of review before the people, whilst they, redoubled their acclamations and applauses at the sight of him.

P Id. l. v. p. 309.

9 Id. l. vi. p. 334.

: Sympos. I. viii. p. 4.

When he returned to his own country, the people came out in a body to meet him, and conducted him into the city, adorned with all the marks of his victory, and riding upon a chariot drawn by four horses. He made his entry not through the gates, but through a breach purposely made in the walls. Lighted torches were carried before him, and a numerous train followed to do honour to the procession. · The athletic triumph almost always concluded with feasts, made for the victors, their relations, and friends, either at the expense of the public, or by particulars, who regaled not only their families and friends, but often a great part of the spectators. • Alcibiades, after having sacrificed to Jupiter, which was always the first care of the victor, treated the whole assembly. Leophron did the same, as Athe. neus reports;' who adds, that

who adds, that Empedocles, of Agrigentum, having conquered in the same games, and not having it in his power, being a Pythagorean, to regale the people with flesh or fish, he caused an ox to be made of a paste, composed of myrrh, incense, and all sorts of spices, of which pieces were given to all who were present.

One of the most honourable privileges granted to the athletic victors, was the right of taking place at the public games. At Sparta it was a custom for

* Plut. in Alçib. p. 196.

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