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The kingdom of Syria had twenty seven kings; which makes it evident that their reigns were often very short : and indeed several of these princes waded to the throne through the blood of their predecessors.

They are usually called Seleucides, from Seleucus, who reigned the first in Syria. History reckons up six kings of this name, and thirteen who are called by that of Antiochus ; but they are all distinguished by different surnames.

Others of them assumed different names, and the last was called Antiochus XIII. with the surnames of Epiphanes, Asiaticus, and Commagenes. In his reign Pompey reduced Syria into a Roman province, after it had been governed by kings for the space of two hundred and fifty years, according to Eusebius.

The kings of Syria, the transactions of whose reigns are contained in the fifth and sixth volumes, are eight in number.

Seleucus Nicanor. He reigned twenty years."
Antiochus Soter, nineteen.*
Antiochus Theos, fifteen.
Seleucus Callinicus, twenty.
Seleucus Ceraunus, three.a
Antiochus the Great, thirty six..
Seleucus Philopater, twelve.

Antiochus Epiphanes, brother of Seleucus Philo. pater, eleven.


WA. M. 3704. * 3724. y 3743.

+ 3781 c3817.

z 3758. 3829.

VOL. 1.


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· Macedonia frequently changed its masters, after the solemn partition had been made between the four princes. Cassander died three or four years after that partition, and left three sons. Philip, the eldest, died presently after his father. The other two contended for the crown without enjoying it, both dying soon after without issue.

Demetrius Poliorcetes, Pyrrhus, and Lysimachus, made themselves masters of all, or the greatest part of Macedonia ; sometimes in conjunction, and at other times separately.

& After the death of Lysimachus, Seleucus possessed himself of Macedonia, but did not long enjoy it.

h Ptolemy Ceraunus, having slain the preceding prince, seized the kingdom, and possessed it alono but a very short time, having lost his life in a battle with the Gauls; who had made an irruption into that country

Sosthenes, who defeated the Gauls, reigned but a short time in Macedonia.

Antigonus Gonatus, the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, obtained the peaceable possession of the kingdom of Macedonia, and transmitted those dominions to his descendants, after he had reigned thirty four years.

He was succeeded by his son Demetrius, who reigned ten years, and then died, leaving a son named Philip, who was but two years old.

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* A. M. 3707

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* Antigonus Doson reigned twelve years in the quality of guardian to the young prince.

Philip, after the death of Antigonus, ascended the throne at the age of fourteen years, and reigned something more than forty.

• His son Perseus succeeded him, and reigned about eleven years.

He was defeated and taken prisoner by Paulus Emilius ; and Macedonia, in consequence of that victory, was added to the

proy. inces of the Roman empire,



This fourth kingdom, composed of several separate provinces very remote from one another, had not any succession of princes, and did not long subsist in its first condition. Lysimachus, who first obtained it, having been killed in a battle after a reign of twenty years, and all his family being exterminated by assassinations, his dominions were dismembered, and no longer constituted one kingdom.

Beside the provinces which were divided among the captains of Alexander, there were others which had been either formed before, or were then erected into different and independent Grecian states, whose power greatly increased in process of time,


Whilst Alexander was extending his conquests in the East, Zypethes had laid the foundation of the kingdom of Bithynia.

It is not certain who this Zypethes was, unless we may conjecture with Pausa

A. M. 3772


- 3824.

1 3686,

nias that he was a Thracian. His successors, however, are better known.

9 Nicomedes I. This prince invited the Gauls to assist him against his brother, with whom he was engaged in a war. Prusias I.

Prusias II. surnamed the Hunter, in whose court Hannibal took refuge, and assisted him with his counsels, in his war against Eumenes II. king of Pergamus.

Nicomedes II. was killed by his son Socrates.

Nicomedes III. was assisted by the Romans in his wars with Mithridates, and bequeathed to them at his death the kingdom of Bithynia, as a testimonial of his gratitude to them; by which means these territories became a Roman province.


This kingdom comprehended only one of the smallest provinces of Mysia, on the coast of the Egean sea, against the island of Lesbos.

* This kingdom was founded by Philatera, an eunuch, who had been a servant to Docima, a commander of the troops of Antigonus. Lysimachus confided to him the treasures he had deposited in the castle of the city of Pergamus, and he became master both of these and the city after the death of that prince. He governed this little sovereignty for the space of twenty years, and then left it to Eumenes, his nephew.

* Eumenes I. enlarged his principality by the addition of several cities, which he took from the kings of Syria, having defeated Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, in a battle. He reigned twelve years.

9 A. M. 3726.

* 3840.

$ 3721.


• He was succeeded by Attalus I. his cousin german, who assumed the title of king after he had conquered the Galatians ; and he transmitted his dominions to his posterity, who enjoyed them to the third generation. He assisted the Romans in their war with Philip, and died after a reign of forty three years. He left four sons.

His successor was Eumenes II. his eldest son, who founded the famous library of Pergamus. He reigned thirty nine years, and left the crown to his brother Attalus, in the quality of guardian to one of his sons, whom he had by Stratonice, the sister of Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia. The Romans enlarged his dominions considerably, after the victory he obtained over Antiochus the Great.

* Attalus II. espoused Stratonice, his brother's widow, and took extraordinary care of his nephew, to whom he left the crown, after he had worn it twenty one years.

* Attalus III. surnamed Philometor, distinguished himself by his barbarous and extravagant conduct. He died after he had reigned five years, and bequeathed his riches and dominions to the Romans.

* Aristonicus, who claimed the succession, endeav- . oured to defend his pretensions against the Romans, but the kingdom of Pergamus was reduced, after a war of four years, into a Roman province.

A. M. 3763. Ant. J. C. 241. 3807. Ant. J. C. 197. w 3845. Ant. J. C. 159. * 3866. Ant. J. C. 138.

y 3871. Ant. J. C. 133.

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