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* The kingdom of Pontus in Asia Minor was anciently dismembered from the monarchy of Persia, by Darius the son of Hystaspes, in favour of Artabazus, who is said, by some historians, to have been the son of one of those Persian lords who conspired against the Magi.

Pontus is a region of Asia Minor, and is situated partly along the coast of the Euxine sea, Pontus Euxinus, from which it derives its name. It extends as far as the river Halys, and even to Colchis. Several princes reigned in that country since Artabazus. a The sixth monarch was Mithridates I. who is

properly considered as the founder of the kingdom of Pontus, and his name was assumed by the generality of his successors.

He was succeeded by his son Ariobarzanes, who had governed Phrygia under Artaxerxes Mnemon, and reigned twenty six years.

His successor was Mithridates II. Antigonus suspecting, in consequence of a dream, that he favoured Cassander, had determined to destroy him, but he eluded the danger by flight. This prince was called the Founder, and reigned thirty five years.

Mithridates III. succeeded him, added Cappadocia and Paphlagonia to his dominions, and reigned thirty



six years.

After the reign of two other kings, Mithridates, the great grandfather of Mithridates the Great, ascended the throne, and espoused a daughter of Seleucus Calli

2 A. M. 3490. Ant. J. C. 514.

« 3600. Ant. J. C. 404,
63641. Ant.J. C. 363. 3667. Ant. J. C. 337.
« Κτισης.

3702. Ant. J. C. 302.

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hicus, king of Syria, by whom he had Laodice, who was married to Antiochus the Great.

He was succeeded by his son Pharnaces, who had some disagreement with the kings of Pergamos. He made himself master of Sinope, which afterwards became the capital of the kingdom of Pontus.

After him reigned Mithridates V. and the first who was called a friend to the Romans, because he assisted them against the Carthaginians in the third Punic war.

He was succeeded by his son Mithridates VI. surnamed Eupater. This is the great Mithridates who sustained so long a war with the Romans, and reigned sixty six years.


Strabob informs us, that Cappadocia was divided into two satrapies, or governments, under the Persians, as it also was under the Macedonians. The maritime part of Cappadocia formed the kingdom of Pontus: the other tracts constituted Cappadocia, properly so called, or the Cappadocia major, which extends along mount Taurus, and to a great distance beyond it.

i When Alexander's captains divided the provinces of his empire among themselves, Cappadocia was governed by a prince named Ariarathes. Perdiccas attacked and defeated him, after which he caused him to be slain.

His son Ariarathes reentered the kingdom of his father some time after this event, and established himself so effectually, that he left it to his posterity. The

FA. M. 3819. Ant. J. C. 185.

Strab. l. xii. p. 534.

8 3880. Ant. J. C. 124. i 3682. Ant. J. C. 322.

generality of his successors assumed the same name, and will have their place in the series of the history.

Cappadocia, after the death of. Archelaus, the last of its kings, became a province of the Roman empire, as the rest of Asia also did much about the same time.


Armenia, a vast country of Asia, extending on each side of the Euphrates, was conquered by the Persians, after which it was transferred, with the rest of the empire, to the Macedonians, and at last fell to the share of the Romans. It was governed for a great length of time by its own kings, the most considerable of whom was Tigranes, who espoused the daughter of the great Mithridates, king of Pontus, and was also engaged in a long war with the Romans. This kingdom supported itself many years, between the Roman and Parthian empires, sometimes depending on the one, and sometimes on the other, till at last the Romans became its masters.


Epirus is a province of Greece, separated from Thessaly and Macedonia by mount Pindus. The most powerful people of this country were the Molossians.

The kings of Epirus pretended to derive their descent from Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, who established himself in that country, and called themselves Æacides, from Æacus, the grandfather of Achilles.

"The genealogy of the last kings, who were the only sovereigns of this country, of whom any accounts

* Diod. I. xvi. p. 465. Justin. l. viii. c. 6. Plut. in Pyrrho.

remain, is variously related by authors, and conse. quently must be dubious and obscure.

Arymbas ascended the throne, after a long succes. sion of kings ; and as he was then very young, the states of Epirus, who were sensible that the welfare of the people depended on the proper education of their princes, sent him to Athens, which was the residence and centre of all the arts and sciences, in order to cultivate, in that excellent school, such knowledge as was necessary to form the mind of a king. He there learned the art of reigning effectually, and as he surpassed all his ancestors in ability and knowledge, he was in consequence infinitely more esteemed and beloved by his people than they had been. When he returned from Athens, he made laws, established a senate and magistracy, and regulated the form of the government.

Neoptolemus, whose daughter Olympias had espoused Philip, king of Macedon, attained an equal share in the regal government of Arymbas his elder brother, by the credit of his son in law. After the death of Arymbas, Æacides, his son, ought to have been his successor ; but Philip had still the credit to procure his expulsion from the kingdom by the Molossians, who established Alexander the son of Neoptolemus sole monarch of Epirus.

Alexander espoused Cleopatra, the daughter of Philip, and marched with an army into Italy, where he lost his life in the country of the Brutians.

Æacides then ascended the throne, and reigned without any associate in Epirus. He espoused Phthia,

Quanto doctior majoribus, tanto et gratior populo fuit. Justin. l.

xvü. c. 3.

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the daughter of Menon, the Thessalian, by whom he had two daughters, Deidamia and Troida, and one son, the celebrated Pyrrhus.

As he was marching to the assistance of Olympias, his troops mutinied against him, condemned him to exile, and slaughtered most of his friends. Pyrrhus, who was then an infant, happily escaped this massacre.

Neoptolemus, a prince of the blood, but whose particular extraction is little known, was placed on the throne by the people of Epirus.

Pyrrhus, being recalled by his subjects at the age of twelve years, first shared the sovereignty with Neoptolemus; but having afterwards divested him of his dignity, he reigned alone.

m This history will treat of the various adventures of this prince. He died in the city of Argos, in an attack to make himself master of it.

Helenus, his son, reigned after him for some time in Epirus, which was afterwards united to the Roman empire.


Heraclea is a city of Pontus, anciently founded by the Bæotians, who sent a colony into that country by the order of an oracle.

When the Athenians were victorious over the Persians, and had imposed a tribute on the cities of Greece and Asia Minor, for the fitting out and support of a fleet intended for the defence of the common liberty, the inhabitants of Heraclea, in consequence of their

m A. M. 3733. Ant. J. C. 271. * Justin, xvi. c. 3--5. Diod. I. xy. p. 390.

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