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attachment to the Persians, were the only people who refused to acquiesce in so just a contribution. Lamachus was therefore sent against them, and he ravaged their territory.; but a violent tempest having destroyed his whole fleet, he beheld himself abandoned to the mercy of that people, whose natural ferocity might well have been increased by the severe treatment they had lately received. But° they had recourse to no other vengeance but benefactions ; they furnished him with provisions and troops for his return, and were willing to consider the depredations which had been committed in their country as advantageous to them, if they acquired the friendship of the Athenians at

that price.

P Some time after this event, the populace of Heraclea excited a violent commotion against the rich citi. zens and senators, who having implored assistance to no effect, first from Timotheus the Athenian, and afterwards from Epaminondas the Theban, were necessitated to recal Clearchus, a senator, to their defence, whom themselves had banished; but his exile had neither improved his morals, nor rendered him a better citizen than he was before. He therefore made the troubles in which he found the city involved, subservient to his design of subjecting it to his own power. With this view he openly declared for the people, caused himself to be invested with the highest office in the magistracy, and assumed a sovereign authority

• Heraclienses honestiorem beneficii, quam ultionis occasionem rati, instructos commeatibus a'ıxiliisque dimittunt : bene agrorum suorum populationem impensam existimentes, si, quos hostes habuerant, amicos reddidissent. Justin.

PĄ. M. 3640. Ant. J. C. 36%.

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in a short time. Being thus become a professed tyrant, there were no kinds of violence to which he had not recourse against the rich and the senators, to satiate his avarice and cruelty. He proposed for his model Dionysius the Tyrant, who had established his power over the Syracusians at the same time.

After a hard and inhuman servitude of twelve years, two young citizens, who were Plato's disciples, and had been instructed in his maxims, formed a conspiracy against Clearchus, and slew him ; but though they delivered their country from the tyrant, the tyranny still subsisted.

4 Timotheus, the son of Clearchus, assumed his place, and pursued his conduct for the space of fifteen years.

He was succeeded by his brother Dionysius, who was in danger of being dispossessed of his authority by Perdiccas; but as this last was soon destroyed, Dionysius contracted a friendship with Antigonus, whom he assisted against Ptolemy in the Cyprian war,

He espoused Amastris, the widow of Craterus, and daughter of Oxiathres, the brother of Darius. This alliance inspired him with so much courage, that he assumed the title of king, and enlarged his dominions by the addition of several places which he seized on the confines of Heraclea.

* He died two or three years before the battle of Ipsus, and after a reign of thirty three years, leaving two sons and a daughter under the tutelage and regency of Amastris.

9 A. M. 3652. Ant. J. C. 352. xvi. p. 435. • Diod. I. xvi. p. 478.

» 3067. Ant. J. C. 337. Diodl. le A. M. 3700. Ant. J. C, 304.

This princess was rendered happy in her administration, by the affection Antigonus entertained for her. She founded a city, and called it by her name ; after which she transplanted thither the inhabitants of three other cities, and espoused Lysimachus, after the death of Antigonus.


Hiero, and his son Hieronymus, reigned at Syracuse; the first fifty four years, and the second but one year.

"Syracuse recovered its liberty by the death of the last, but continued in the interest of the Carthaginians, which Hieronymus had caused it to espouse. His conduct obliged Marcellus to form the siege of that city, which he took the following year. I shall enlarge upon the history of these two kings in another place.


Several kings likewise reigned in the Cimmerian Bosphorus, as also in Thrace, Cyrene in Africa, Paphlagonia, Colchis, Ibera, Albania, and a variety of other places ; but their history is very uncertain, and their successions have but little regularity.

These circumstances are very different with respect to the kingdom of the Parthians, who formed themselves, as we shall see in the sequel, into such a powerful monarchy, as became formidable even to the Roman empire. That of the Bactrians received its original about the same period; I shall treat of each in their proper places.

* A. M. 3735. Ant. J. C. 269. "3780. Ant. J. C. 224

w 3791. Ant. J. C. 213.



HERODOTUS. Francof. An. 1608.
THUCYDIDES. Apud Henricum Stephanum, An.

1588. XENOPHON. Lutetiæ Parisiorum, apud Societatem

Græcarum Editionum, An. 1625. POLYBIUS. Parisiis, An. 1609. DIODORUS SIculus. Hanoviæ, typis Wechelianis,

An. 1604. PLUTARCHUS. Lutetiæ Parisiorum, apud Socie.

tatem Græcarum Editionum, An. 1624. STRABO. Lutetiæ Parisiorum, typis regiis, An. 1620. ATHENÆUS. Lugduni, An. 1612. PAUSANIAS. Hanoviæ, typis Wechelianis, An. 1613. APPIANUS ALEXANDER. Apud Henric. Stephan.

An. 1592. Plato. Ex nova, Joannis Serrani interpretatione.

Apud Henricum Stephanum, An. 1578. ARISTOTELES. Lutetiæ Parisiorum, apud Societa

tem Græcarum Editionum, An. 1619. ISOCRATES. Apud Paulum Stephanum, An. 1604. Diogenes LAERTIUS. Apud Henricum Stepha

num, An. 1594.









EGYPT comprehended anciently, within limits of no very great extent, a* prodigious number of cities, and an incredible multitude of inhabitants.

It is bounded on the east by the Red Sea and the Isthmus of Suez; on the south by Ethiopia, on the west by Lybia, and on the north by the Mediterranean. The Nile runs from south to north, through the whole country, about two hundred leagues in length. This country is enclosed on each side with a ridge of mountains, which very often leave, between the foot of the hills and the river Nile, a tract of ground, of not above half a day's journey in length, and sometimes less.

On the west side, the plain grows wider in some places, and extends to twenty five or thirty leagues. The greatest breadth of Egypt is from Alexandria to Damietta, being about fifty leagues.

· It is related that under Amasis, there were 20,000 inhabited cities in Egypt. Her. I. ii. c. 177.

A day's journey is 24 eastern, or 33 English miles and a quarter:

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