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ducing into it the implacable hatred which subsisted between Carthage and Rome, and ingeniously deduces the original of it from the very remote foundation of those two rival cities.

Carthage, whose beginnings, as we have observed, were very weak, grew larger by insensible degrees, where it was founded. But its dominion was not long confined to Africa. The inhabitants of this ambitious city extended their conquests into Europe, by invading Sardinia, seizing a great part of Sicily, and reducing almost all Spain ; and having sent powerful colonies every where, they enjoyed the empire of the seas for more than six hundred years; and formed a state which was able to dispute preeminence with the greatest empires of the world, by their wealth, their commerce, their numerous armies, their formidable fleets, and above all, by the courage and ability of their captains. The dates and circumstances of many of these conquests are little known. I shall take but a transient notice of them, in order to enable my readers to form some idea of the countries which will be often mentioned in the course of this history.

Conquests of the Carthaginians in Africa. The first wars made by the Carthaginians were to free themselves from the annual tribute which they had engaged to pay the Africans for the land these had permitted them to settle in. This conduct does them no honour, as the settlement was granted them upon condition of their paying a tribute. One would be apt to imagine that they were desirous of covering the obscurity of their original by abolishing this proof of it. But they were not successful on this occasion. The Africans

- Justin, 1. ixx. c. i.

had justice on their side, and they prospered accord. ingly, the war being terminated by the payment of the tribute.

• The Carthaginians afterwards carried their arms against the Moors and Numidians, and won conquests from both. Being now emboldened by these happy successes, they shook off entirely the tribute which gave them so much uneasiness, and possessed themselves of a great part of Africa.

* About this time there arose a great dispute between Carthage and Cyrene, on account of their respective limits. Cyrene was a very powerful city, situated on the Mediterranean, towards the greater Syrtis, and had been built by Battus the Lacedemonian.

It was agreed on each side, that two young men should set out at the same time from either city, and that the place of their meeting should be the common boundary of both states. The Carthaginians (these were two brothers Phileni) made the most haste ; and their antagonists pretending that foul play had been used, and that these two brothers above mentioned had set out before the time appointed, refused to stand to the agreement, unless the two brothers, to remove all suspicion of their unfair dealing, would consent to be buried alive in the place where they had met. They acquiesced with the proposal ; and the Carthaginians erected, on that spot, two altars to their memories, and paid them divine honours in their city; and from that time, the place was called “ The altars of the

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6 Justin. I. xix. c.ü. Afri compulsi stipendium urbis conditæ Carthaginiensibus remittere Justin, I. xix. c. ii.

• Sallust de bello Jugurth. n. 77. Valer. Max. I. v. c. 6

over.

Phileni, Aræ Philenorum,” and served as the boun

dary of the Carthaginian empire, which extended from • thence to the pillars of Hercules.

Conquests of the Carthaginians in Sardinia, &c. History does not inform us exactly, either of the time when the Carthaginians entered Sardinia, or of the manner they got possession of it. This island was of great use to them, and during all their wars supplied them abundantly with provisions. It is separated from Corsica by a strait of about three leagues

The metropolis of the southern and most fertile part of it, was Caralis, or Calaris, now called Cagliari. On the arrival of the Carthaginians, the natives withdrew to the mountains in the northern parts of the island, which are almost inaccessible, and whence the enemy could not dislodge them.

The Carthaginians seized likewise on the Baleares, now called Majorca and Minorca. Port Magon, in the latter island, was so called from Mago, a Carthaginian general, who first made use of, and fortified it. It is not known who this Mago was ; but it is very probable that he was Hannibal's brother. This harbour is, at this day, one of the most considerable in the Mediterranean.

* These isles furnished the Carthaginians with the most expert slingers in the world, who did them great service in battles and sieges. They slung large stones

• These pillars were not standing in Strabo's time. Some geographers think Arcadia to be the city which was anciently called Philenorum Are ; but others believe it was Naina or Tain, situated a little west of Arces dia, in the gulf of Sidra.

Strab. I. v. p. 224. Diod. I. v. p. 296.

Liv. l. xxviii. n. 37.
Diod. I. 9. n. 298, and l. xix. p. 742. Liv. loco citato.

of above a pound weight; and sometimes threw leads en bullets i with so much violence, that they would pierce even the strongest helmets, shields, and cuiras., ses; and were so dexterous in their aim that they scarce ever missed the blow. The inhabitants of these islands were accustomed, from their infancy, to handle the sling ; for which purpose their mothers placed, on the bough of a high tree, the piece of bread designed for their children's breakfast, who were not allowed a morsel till they had brought it down with their slings. From this practice these islands were called Baleares and Gymnasiæ by the Greeks; because the inhabitants used to exercise themselves so early in slinging stones.'

Conquests of the Carthaginians in Spain. Before I enter on the relation of these conquests, I believe it will be proper to give my readers some idea of Spain.

iLiquescit excussa glans funda, et attritu aeris, velut igne, distillat, i.e. The ball, when thrown from the sling, dissolves ; and by the friction of the air, rims as if it was melted by fire. Senec. Nat. Quæst. I. ii. c. 57.

& Strab. I. iii. p. 167. 1 Bochart derives the name of these islands from two Phenician words, baal jare, or master of the art of slinging. This strengthens the authority of Strabo, viz. that the inhabitants learnt their art from the Phenicians, who were once their masters. Σφενδονται αρεσοι λεγονται-εξοτα Φοινικες εάτεςχον τας γης*ς. . And this is still more probable, when we consider that both the Hebrews and Phenicians excelled in this art. The Balea. rian slings would annoy an enemy either near at hand, or at a distance, Every slinger carried three of them in war; one hung from the neck, a second from the waist, and a third was carried in the hand. TO this give me leave to add two more observations, foreign indeed to the present purpose, but relating to these islands, which I hope will not be unentertaining to the reader. The first is, that these islands were once so infested with rabbits, that the inhabitants of them applied to Rome, either for aid against them, or otherwise desired new habitations, εκβαλλεσθαι γαρ υποτων ζωων τετων, those creatures having ejected them out of their old ones. Vide Strab. Plin. I. viii. c. 55. The second observation is, that these islanders were not only expert slingers, but like wise excellent swimmers ; which they are to this day, by the testimony of our countryman Biddulphi, who, in his travels, informs us, that being becalmed near these islands, a woman swam to him out of one of them, with a basket of fruit to sell.

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of that age.

Spain is divided into three parts, Boetica, Lusi. tania, Taraconia.

Boetica, so called from the river Boetis," was the southern division of it, and comprehended the present kingdom of Granada, Andalusia, part of New Castile, and Estremadura. Cadiz, called by the ancients Gades and Gadira, is a town situated in a small island of the same name, on the western coast of Andalusia, about nine leagues from Gibraltar. It is well known that Hercules, extending his conquests to this place, halted, from a supposition that he was come to the extremity of the world. He here erected two pillars, as monuments of his victories, pursuant to the custom

The place has always retained the name, though time has quite destroyed these pillars. Authors are divided in opinion with regard to the place where these pillars were erected, p Boetica was the most fruitful, the wealthiest, and most populous part of Spain. It contained two hundred cities, and was inhabited by the Turdetani, or Turduli. On the banks of the Boetis stood three large cities; Castulo, towards the source ; Corduba, lower down, the native place of Lucan and the two Senecas ; lastly, Hispalis. ?

Lusitania is bounded on the west by the ocean, on the north by the river Durius,' and on the south by the river Anas. Between these two rivers is the Tagus. Lusitania was what is now called Portugal, with

part of Old and New Castile.

m Cluver. 1. ii. c. 2.
? Strab. I. iii. p. 139–142.
VOL. I.

48

Guadalquivir.

9 Seville.

• Strab. 1. iii. p. 171. : Duero. • Guadianta

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