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treating the inhabitants with the utmost severity. But the consideration of the time which must necessarily be employed before so strongly fortified a city could be taken, and Scipio's fear lest a successor might be appointed him whilst he should be employed in the siege, made him incline to clemency.

A peace concluded between the Carthaginians and the Romans. The end of the second Punic war. 9 The conditions of the peace dictated by Scipio to the Carthaginians were, “ That the Carthaginians should continue free, and preserve their laws, their territories, and the cities they possessed in Africa before the war : that they should deliver up to the Romans all deserters, slaves, and captives belonging to them ; all their ships, except ten triremes ; all their tame elephants, and that they should not train up any more for war : that they should not make war out of Africa, nor even in that country, without first obtaining leave for that

purpose from the Roman people : should restore to Masinissa all they had dispossessed either him or his ancestors of; should furnish money and corn to the Roman auxiliaries till their ambassadors should be returned from Rome : should pay to the Romans ten thousand Euboic talents of silver in fifty annual payments, and give an

9 Polyb. l. xv. p. 704–707. Liv. I. xxx. n. 36-44. · Ten thousand Attic talents make thirty millions French money, Ten thousand Euboic talents make something more than twenty eight millions, thirty three thousand livres : because according to Budaeus, the Euboic talent is equivalent but to fifiy six minae and something more, whereas the Attic talent is worth sixty minae.

Or otherwise thus calculated in English money : According to Budaeus, the Euboic talent is

56 Minae 56 Minae, reduced to English money .

1751. Consequently 10,000 Euboic talents make . 1,750,0001. So that the Carthaginians paid annually : 35,0001.-5.155,555.

This calculation is as near the truth as it can well be brought ; the Euboic talent being something more than 56 minae.

hundred hostages, who should be nominated by Scipio. And in order that they might have time to send to Rome, it was agreed to grant them a truce, upon condition that they should restore the ships taken during the former, without which they were not to expect either a truce or peace.

When the deputies were returned to Carthage, they laid before the senate the conditions dictated by Scipio. But they appeared so intolerable to Gisgo, that rising up, he made a speech, in order to dissuade his citizens from accepting a peace on such shameful terms. Hannibal, provoked at the calmness with which such an orator was heard, took Gisgo by the arm, and dragged him from his seat. A behaviour so outrageous, and so remote from the manners of a free city like Car. thage, raised an universal murmur. Hannibal himself was vexed when he reflected on what he had done, and immediately made an apology for it.

“ As I left,” says he, “your city at nine years of age, and did not return to it till after thirty six years absence, I had full leisure to learn the arts of war, and flatter myself that I have made some improvement in them. As for your laws and customs, it is no wonder I am ignorant of them, and I therefore desire you to instruct me in them.” He then expatiated on the necessity they were under of concluding a peace. He added, that they ought to thank the gods for having prompted the Romans to grant them a peace even on these conditions. He discovered to them the great importance of their uniting in opinion ; and of not giving an opportunity, by their divisions, for the people to take an affair of this nature under their cognizance. The whole city came over to this opinion, and accordingly

the peace was accepted. The senate made Scipio satisfaction with regard to the ships demanded by him ; and, after obtaining a truce for three months, they sent ambassadors to Rome.

These Carthaginians, who were all venerable for their years and dignity, were admitted immediately to audience. Asdrubal, surnamed Hoedus, who was still an irreconcilable enemy to Hannibal and his faction, spoke first; and after having excused, to the best of his power, the people of Carthage, by imputing the rupture to the ambition of some particular persons, he added, that had the Carthaginians listened to his counsels, and those of Hanno, they would have been able to grant the Romans the peace for which they now were obliged to sue. “But,”' continued he, “wisdom and prosperity are very rarely found together. The Romans are invincible, because they never suffer themselves to be blinded by good fortune. And it would be surprising should they act otherwise. Success dazzles those only to whom it is new and unua sual; whereas the Romans are so much accustomed to conquer, that they are almost insensible to the charms of victory; and it may be said for their glory. that they have extended their empire, in some measurë, more by the humanity they have shown to the conquered, than by the conquest itself.” The other ambassadors spoke with a more plaintive tone of voice, and represented the calamitous staté to which Car.

• Raro simul hominibus bonam fortunam bonamque mentem dari. Populum Romanum eo invictum esse, quod in secundis rebus sapere et consulere meminerit. Et hercle mirandum fuisse si aliter facerent. Es insolentia, quibus nova bona fortuna sit, impotentes lætitia insanire : populo Romano usitata ac prope obsoleta ex victoria gaudia esse : ac plus pene parcendo yictis, quam vincendo, imperium auxisse. Liv.d. XXX. n. 42.

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thage was going to be reduced, and the grandeur and power from which it had fallen.

The senate and people being equally inclined to peace, sent full powers to Scipio to conclude it, left the conditions to that general, and permitted him to march back his army after the treaty should be concluded.

The ambassadors desired leave to enter the city, to redeem some of their prisoners, and they found about two hundred whom they desired to ransom : but the senate sent them to Scipio, with orders that they should be restored without any pecuniary consideration, in case a peace should be concluded.

The Carthaginians, on the return of their ambassadors, concluded a peace with Scipio, on the terms he himself had prescribed. They then delivered up to him more than five hundred ships, all which he burnt in sight of Carthage : a lamentable sight to the inhabitants of that illfated city! He struck off the heads of the allies of the Latin name, and hanged all the citizens who were surrendered up to him as deserters.

When the time for the payment of the first tax imposed by the treaty was expired, as the funds of the government were exhausted by this long and expensive war, the difficulty which would be found to levy so great a sum threw the senate into a melancholy silence, and many could not refrain even from tears. It is said, that Hannibal, laughing, was reproached by Asdrubal Haedus, for thus insulting his country in its affliction, which he had brought upon it.

" Were it possible,” says Hannibal," for my heart to be seen, and that as clearly as my countenance, you would then find that this laughter, which offends so much, flows


not from an intemperate joy, but from a mind almost distracted with the public calamities. But is this laughter more unseasonable than your unbecoming tears? Then, then ought you to have wept, when your arms were ingloriously taken from you, your ships burnt, and you were forbid to engage any foreign wars.

This was the mortal blow which laid us prostrate. We are sensible of the public calamity, so far only as we have a personal concern in it: and the loss of our money gives us the most poignant sorrow. Hence it was, that when our city was made the spoil of the victor; when it was left disarmed and defenceless, amidst so many powerful nations of Africa, who had at that time taken the field, not a groan, not a sigh was heard : but now when you are called upon for a polltax, you bewail and lament as if all were lost. Alas ! I only wish that the subject of this day's fear does not soon appear to you the least of your mis. fortunes.”

Scipio, after all things were concluded, embarked in order to return to Italy. He arrived at Rome, through crowds of people, whom curiosity had drawn together to behold his march. The most magnificent triumph that Rome had ever seen was decreed him, and the sur. name of Africanus was bestowed upon this great man, an honour till then unknown; no person before him having assumed the name of a vanquished nation.

Such was the conclusion of the second Punic war, after having lasted seventeen years.

* A. M. 3804. A. Carth. 646. A. Rom. 548. Ant. J. C. 200.

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