Sidor som bilder

m Gen. 15. 6.

k Ex. 22. 26, 27.
Ps. 106. 31. 112. 9. Dan. 1.27. Jam. 2. 15-23.
1. 86. 4. Jam. 5. 4.

8 Ver. 18.

11 Thou shalt stand abroad, and the man to whom stranger, nor of the fatherless; nor Ptake the widow's thou dost lend shall bring out the pledge abroad unto raiment to pledge: thee.

18 But sthou shalt remember that thou wast a 12 And if the man be poor, thou shalt not sleep bondman in Egypt, and the LORD thy God redeemed with his pledge:

thee thence: therefore I command thee to do this 13 In kany case thou shalt deliver him the pledge thing. again when the sun goeth down, that he may sleep in 19 When -thou cuttest down thine harvest in thy his own raiment, and bless 'thee: and it shall be mrigh- field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt teousness unto thee before the LORD thy God. not go again to fetch it: it shall be for the stranger,

14 Thou shalt not oppress an hired servant that for the fatherless, and for the widow: that the LORD is poor and needy, whether he be of thy brethren, or thy God may bless thee in all the work of thine of thy strangers that are in thy land within thy gates: hands.

15 At his day thou shalt give him his hire, neither 20 When thou beatest thine olive-tree, thou shalt shall the sun go down upon it; for he is poor and not go over the boughs again: it shall be for the *setteth his heart upon it: lest he cry nagainst thee stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow. unto the Lord, and it be sin unto thee.

21 When thou gatherest the grapes of thy vine16 The fathers "shall not be put to death for the yard, thou shalt not glean it afterward :f it shall be children, neither shall the children be put to death for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow. for the fathers: every man shall be put to death for 22 And thou shalt remember that thou wasta his own sin.

bondman in the land of Egypt; therefore I com17 Thou shalt not pervert the judgment of the mand thee to do this thing. I Job 29. 11-13. 81. 19, 20. 2 Cor. 9. 13, 14.

o 2 Kings 14.5, 6. Jer. 31. 29, 30. Ez. 18. 20. p Prov. 22. 22, 23. Jer. 22. 3. Zech, listeth his soul into it. Ps. 25. 7. 10. Mal. 3. 5. Ex. 22. 22–27.9 c. 16. 12. r Lev. 19. 9. 10. 23. 22. Ps. 41.1.

bough it after thee. 1 after thee. serve other gods, as David complains against Saul, 1 Sam. | those creditors that do not take all the advantage of the law 26. 19.

against them, and to repay their kindness by their prayers III. A memorandum concerning the leprosy, v. 8, 9. 1. The for them, when they are not in a capacity to repay it any laws concerning it must be carefully observed. The laws con other way. “Nay, thou shalt not only have the prayers and cerning it we had, Lev. 13. 14. They are here said to be good wishes of thy poor brother, but it shall be righteousness to commanded to the priests and Levites, and therefore are not ihee before the Lord thy God,” that is, “ It shall be accepted repeated in a discourse to the people; but the people are here and rewarded as an act of mercy to thy brother, and obedience charged, in case of leprosy, to apply themselves io the priest to thy God, and an evidence of thy sincere conformity to the according to the law, and to abide by his judgment, so far as it | law. Though it may be looked upon by men as an act of weakagreed with the law, and the plain matter of fact. The plague ness, to deliver up the securities thou hast for thy debt, yet it of leprosy being usually a particular mark of God's displeasure shall be looked upon by thy God as an act of goodness, which for sin; he in whom the signs of it did appear, ought not to shall in no wise lose its reward." conceal it, or cut out the signs of it, or apply himself to the V.14--22. Here, physician for relief; but he must go to the priest, and follow his I. Masters are commanded to be just to their poor servants, directions. Thus they that feel their consciences under guilt v. 14, 15. 1. They must not oppress them, either by overloadand wrath, must not cover it, or endeavour to shake off their ing them with work, giving them undue and unreasonable convictions, but by repentance, and prayer, and humble con- rebukes, or withholding from them proper maintenance. A fession, take the appointed way to peace and pardon. 2. The servant, though a stranger to the commonwealth of Israel, must particular case of Miriam, who was smitten with leprosy for not be abused, “For thou wast a bondman in the land where quarrelling with Moses, must not be forgotten. It was an ex- thou wast a stranger, v. 18, and thou knowest what a grievous plication of the law concerning the leprosy. Remember that, thing it is to be oppressed by a task-master, and therefore, in and, (1.) “ Take heed of sinning after the similitude of her tenderness to those that are servants and strangers, and in transgression, by despising dominions, and speaking evil of gratitude to that God who set thee at liberty, and seuled thee dignities, lest you thereby bring upon yourselves the same in a country of thy own, Thou shalt not oppress a servant." Let judgment.” (2.) "If any of you be smitten with a leprosy, not masters be iyrants to their servants, for their master is in expect not that the law should be dispensed with, nor think it heaven. See Job 31. 13. 2. They must be faithful and punchard to be shut out of the camp, and so made a spectacle ; tual in paying them their wages. “ At his day thou shalt give there is no remedy; Miriam herself, though a proplietess, and him his hire, not only pay it him in full, without fraud, but pay the sister of Moses, was not exempted, but was forced to submit it in time, without further delay. As soon as he has done his to this severe discipline, when she was under this divine re- day's work, if he desire it, let him have his day's wages," as buke.” Thus David, Hezekiah, Peter, and other great men, those labourers, Matt. 20. 8, when even was come. He that when they had sinned, humbled themselves, and took to them works by day-wages, is supposed to live from hand to mouth, selves the shame and grief; let us not expect to be reconciled and cannot have to-morrow's bread for his family, till he is paid upon easier terms.

for his day's labour. If the wages be withheld, (1.) It will be IV. Some necessary orders given about pledges or pawns grief to the servant, for, poor man, he sets his heart upon it, or, for the security of money lent. They are not forbidden to take as the word is, he lifts up his soul to it, he is earnestly desirous such securities as would save the lender from loss, and oblige of it, as the reward of his work, Job 7. 2, and depends upon the borrower to be honest; but, 1. They must not take the it as the gift of God's providence for the maintenance of his millstone for a pledge, v. 6, for with that they ground the corn family. A compassionate master, though it should be somethat was to be bread for their families; or if it were a public what inconvenient to himself, would not disappoint the expectamill, with it the miller got his livelihood; and so it forbids the tion of a poor servant that is so fond to think of receiving his taking of any thing for a pledge, by the want of which a man wages. But that is not the worst. (2.) It will be guilt to the was in danger of being undone. Consonant to this is the ancient master. “The injured servant will cry against thee to the common law of England, which provides, That no man be dis-Lord; since he has no one else to appeal to, he will lodge his trained of the utensils or instruments of his trade or profession, appeal in the court of heaven, and it will be sin to thee.” Or as the axe of a carpenter, or the books of a scholar, or beasts if he do not complain, the cause will speak for itself, the hire of belonging to the plough, as long as there are other beasts, of the labourers which is kept back by fraud, will itself cry, Jam. which distress may be made. (Coke, 1 Inst. fol. 47.) This 5. 4. It is a greater sin than most people think it is, and will teaches us to consult the comfort and subsistence of others as be found so in the great day, to put hardships upon poor sermuch as our own advantage. That creditor who cares not vants, labourers, and workmen that we employ. "God will do though his debtor and his family starve, nor is at all concerned them right if men do not. what becomes of them, so he may but get his money or secure II. Magistrates and judges are commanded to be just in their it, goes contrary not only to the law of Christ, but even to the law administrations. 1. In those which we call Pleas of the Crown, of Moses too. 2. They must not go into the borrower's house a standing rule is here given, that the fathers shall not be put to to fetch the pledge, but must stand without, and he must bring death for the children, nor the children for the fathers, v. 16. it, v. 10, 11. The borrower (says Solomon) is servant to the the children make themselves obnoxious to the law, let them lender; therefore lest the lender should abuse the advantage he suffer for it, but let not the parents suffer either for them or has against him, and improve it for his own interest, it is pro with them; it is grief enough to them to see their children sufvided that he take not what he pleases, but what the borrower ror: if the parents be guilty, let them die for their own sin; but can best spare. A man's house is his castle, even the poor though God, the sovereign Lord of life, sometimes visits the man's house is so, and is here taken under the protection of the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, especially the sin of law. 3. That a poor man's bed-clothes should never be taken idolatry, and when he deals with nations in their national capafor a pledge, v. 12, 13. This we had before, Ex. 22, 26, 27. If city, yet he does not allow men to do so. Accordingly, we they were taken in the morning, they must be brought back find Amaziah sparing the children, even then when the fathers again at night, which is in effect to say that they must not be were put to death for killing the king, 2 Kings 14.6. It was in taken at all. "Let the poor debtor sleep in his own raiment, an extraordinary case, and no doubt by special direction from and bless thee," that is, pray for thee, and praise God for heaven, that Saul's sons were put to death for his offence, and thy kindness to him. Note, Poor debtors ought to be sensible they died rather as sacrifices ihan as malefactors, 2 Sam. 21. (more sensible than commonly they are) of the goodness of 9, 14. 2. In common pleas between party and party, great



10. 11.

c Matt. 10. 17. Luke 12. e I Cor. 9. 9. 1 Tim. 5. 18. • thresheth. Hos.

18. 2 Cor. 11. 24. d Job 18. 3.


6 And it shall be, that the first-born which she

beareth shall succeed in the name of bis brother Here is, 1. A law to moderate the scourging of malefactors, v. 1-3. II. A law in

favor of the or that treada ove the corn, 4. ll. For the disgracing of him that which is dead, that his name be not put out of Israel. refused to marry his brother's widow, v. 5–10. IV. For the puniatiment of an immodest woman, v. 11, 12. v. For just weights and measures, v. 13-16. VI.

7 And if the man like not to take his brother's For the destroying of Ainalek, v. 17-19.

'wise, then let his brother's wife go up to the gate there be a controversy between men, and they unto the elders, and say, My husband's brother re

come unto judgment, that the judges may judgę fuseth to raise up unto his brother a name in Israel, them; then they shall justify the righteous, and he will not perform the duty of my husband's brother: condemn the wicked.

8 Then the elders of his city shall call him, and 2 And it shall be, if the wicked man be worthy speak unto him: and if he stand to it, and say, I to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie like not to take her; down, and to be beaten before his face, according 9 Then shall his brother's wife come unto him in to his fault, by a certain number.

the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from 3 Forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed: off his foot, and spit in his face, and shall answer lest, if he should exceed, and beat him above these and say, So shall it be done unto that man that will with many stripes, then thy brother should seem vile not build up his brother's house. dunto thee.

10 And his name shall be called in Israel, The 4 Thou «shalt not muzzle the ox when he "tread house of him that hath his shoe loosed. eth out the corn.

11 When men strive together one with another, 5 If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and the wife of the one draweth near for to deliver and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not her husband out of the hand of him that smiteth him, marry without unto a stranger: her husband's/bro- and putteth forth her hand, and taketh him by the ther shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, secrets ; and perform the duty of an husband's brother untó 12 Then thou shalt cut off her hand, thine eye her.

shall not pity her. a c. 19. 17. Ez. 44. 24. 62 Chr. 19. 8. Prov. 17. 15.

tor, nezl kinsman. Gen. 38.8, 9. Roth 1. 12, 13. Mau. 22. 24.

& Gen. 38. 8. h Ruth 4. 10, &c. I or, nert kineman's. care must be taken that none whose cause was just, should fare a warning to others. (2.) That it be done in proportion to the the worse for their weakness, nor for their being destitute of crime, according to his fault, that some crimes might appear, friends, as strangers, fatherless, and widows, v. 17. "" Thou shalt as they are, more heinous than others, the criminal being beaten not pervert their judgment, nor force them to give their very with many stripes, to which, perhaps, there is an allusion, raiment for a pledge, by defrauding them of their right.” Judges Luke 12. 47, 48. (3.) That how great soever the crime was, must be advocates for those that cannot speak for themselves, the number of stripes should never exceed forty, v. 3. Forty and have no friends to speak for them.

save one was the common usage, as appears, 2 Cor. 11. 24. It III. The rich are commanded to be kind and charitable to seems, they always gave Paul as many stripes as ever they the poor. Many ways they are ordered to be so, by the law gave to any malefactor whatsoever. They abated one, either of Moses. The particular instance of charity here prescribed, for fear of having miscounted, (though one of the judges was is, that they should not be greedy in gathering in their com, appointed to number the stripes,) or, because they would never and grapes, and olives, so as to be afraid of leaving any behind go to the utmost rigour, or, because the execution was usually them, but be willing to overlook some, and let the poor have done with a whip of three lashes, so that thirteen stripes (each the gleanings, v. 19–22. 1. “Say not, 'It is all my own, and one being counted for three) made up thirty-nine, but one more why should not I have it! But learn a generous contempt of by that reckoning would have been forty-two. The reason given property in small matters. One sheaf or two forgotten, will for this, is, lest thy brother should seem vile unto thee. He must make thee never the poorer at the year's end, and it will do still be looked upon as a brother, (2 Thes. 3. 15,) and his repusomebody good, if thou have it not." 2. “Say not, 'What Itation as such was preserved by this merciful limitation of his give I will give, and know whom I give it to, why should I punishment. It saves him from seeming vile to his brethren, leave it to be gathered by I know not whom, that will never when God himself by his law takes this care of him. Men thank me?' But trust God's providence with the disposal of must not be treated as dogs ; nor must those seem vile in our thy charity, perhaps that will direct it to the most necessitous." sight, to whom, for aught we know, God may yet give grace, to Or, " Thou mayest reasonably think it will come to the hands make them precious in his sight. of ihe most industrious, that are forward to seek and gather II. A charge to husbandmen not to hinder their cattle from that which this law provides for them." 3. "Say not, 'What | eating when they were working, if meat were within their should the poor do with grapes and olives? It is enough for reach, v. 4. This instance of the beast that trod out the corn, them to have bread and water;' for since they have the same (to which there is an allusion in that of the prophet, Hos. 10. senses that the rich have, why should not they have some little 11,) is put for all similar instances. That which makes this share of the delights of sense » Boaz ordered handfuls of corn law very remarkable above its fellows, (and which countenances to be left on purpose for Ruth, and God blessed him. All that the like application of other such laws,) is, that it is twice is left, is not lost.

quoted in the New Testament, to show that it is the duty of tho

people to give their ministers a comfortable maintenance, 1 Cor. NOTES TO CHAPTER XXV,

9. 9, 10, and i Tim. 5. 17, 18. It teaches us in the letter of it V.1–4. Here is,

to make much of the brute creatures that serve us, and to allow I. A direction to the judges in scourging malefactors, them not only the necessary supports for their life, but the v. 1—3. 1. It is here supposed, that if a man be charged with advantages of their labour; and thus we must learn not only to a crime, the accuser and the accused (Actor and Reus) should be just, but kind, to all that are employed for our good, not only be brought face to face before the judges, that the controversy to maintain but to encourage them, especially those that labour may be determined. 2. If a man were accused of a crime, among us in the word and doctrine, and so are employed for the and the proof fell short, so that the charge could not be made good of our betier part. out against him by the evidence, then he was to be acquitted, V. 5-12. Here is, “ Thou shalt justify the righteous," that is, “him that appears 1. The law settled concerning the marrying of a brother's to the court to be so." If the accusation be proved, then the widow. It appears from the story of Judah's family, that this conviction of the accused is a justification of the accuser, as had been an ancient usage, Gen. 38. 8, for the keeping up of righteous in the prosecution. 3. If the accused were found distinct families. The case put, is a case that often happens, guilty, judgment must be given against him, " Thou shalt con of a man's dying without issue, it may be in the prime of his demn the wicked;" for to justify the wicked is as much an abo-time, soon after his marriage, and while his brethren were yet mination to the Lord, as it is to condemn the righteous, Prov. so young as to be unmarried. Now in this case, 1. The widow 17. 15. 4. If the crime were not made capital by the law, then was not to marry again into any other family, unless all the the criminal must be beaten. A great many precepts we have relations of her husband did refuse her, that the estate she was met with, which have not any particular penalty annexed to endowed with might not be alienated. 2. The husband's brothem, the violation of most of which, according to the constant ther, or next of kin, must marry her, partly out of respect to practice of the Jews, was punished by scourging, from which her, who, having forgotten her own people and her father's no person's rank or quality did exempt him, if he were a delin-house, should have all possible kindness showed her by the quent, but with this proviso, that he should never be upbraided family into which she was married; and partly out of respect with it, nor should it be looked upon as leaving any mark of to the deceased husband, that though he was dead and gone, he infamy or disgrace upon him. The directions here given for might not be forgotten, nor lost out of the genealogies of his the scourging of criminals, are, (1.) That it be done solemnly; tribe ; for the first-born child, which the brother or next kinsnot tumultuously through the streets, but in open court, before man should have by the widow, should be denominated from him the judge's face, and with so much deliberation as that the that was dead, and entered in the genealogy as his child, v. 5,6. stripes might be numbered. The Jews say that while execu- Under that dispensation we have reason to think men had not tion was in doing, the chief justice of the court read with a loud so clear and certain a prospect of living themselves on the other voice, Deut. 28. 58, 59, and 29. 9, and concluded with those side death, as we have now, to whom life and immortality are words, Ps. 78. 38, But he, being full of compassion, forgave brought to light by the Gospel; and therefore they could not but their iniquity. Thus it was made a sort of religious act, and so be the more desirous to live in their posterity, which innocent much the more likely to reform the offender himself, and to be desire was in some measure gratified by this law, an expedient

thy God.


• a stone and stone.

I Ex. 17. 8, &c. m Ps. 36. 1. Prov. 16. 6.

Ex. 23. 19. Num. 18. 13.

nl Sam. 15. 3.

o Ex. 17. 14.

13 Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers *weights, hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round a great and a small.

about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth 14 Thou shalt not have in thine house divers thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt 'measures, a great and a small.

blot "out the remembrance of Amalek from under 15 But thou shalt have a perfect and just weight, heaven; thou shalt not forget it. a perfect and just measure shalt thou have ; that thy days may be lengthened in the land which the

CHAPTER XXVI. Lord thy God giveth thee.

With this chapter Moses concludes the particular statutes which he thought fit to 16 For all *that do such things, and all that do

give Israel in charge at his parting with them ; what follows, is by way of sanc.

uion and ratification. In this chapter, I. Moses gives them a furn of confession, unrighteously, are an abomination unto the LORD to be made by him that offered the basket of his first-fruils, v. 1-11. 11. The

protestation and prayer to be made alter the disposal of the third year's tithe,

1. 12-15. III. He binds on all the precepts he had given them, 1. By the divine 17 Remember what Amalek did unto thee by the authority; "Not!, but the Lord ihy God hath commanded there to do these

statutes," v. 16. 2. By the mutual covenant between God and then, v. 17-19. way, when ye were come forth out of Egypt; 18 How he met thee by the way, and smote 'the

ND it shall be, when thou art come in unto hindmost of thee, even all that were feeble behind the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee thee, when thou wast faint and weary; and he feared for an inheritance, and possessest it, and dwellest #not God.

therein; 19 Therefore it shall be, when "the LORD thy God 2 That thou shalt take of the first of all the fruit

Lan ephah and an ephah. i Lev. 19.35, 36. Prov. II. 1. Ez. 45. 10. Am. 8.5. Mic. 6. 11. k I Thes, 4.6. being found out, that though a man had no child by his wife, unrighteously, are an abomination to the Lord. And miserable yet his name should not be put out of Israel, that is, out of is that man who is abhorred by his Maker. How hateful, parthe pedigree, or which is equivalent, remain there under the ticularly, all the arts of deceit are to God, Solomon several brand of childlessness. The Sadducees put a case to our Sa- times observes, Prov. 11.1.-20. 10, 23, and the apostle tells us, viour upon this law, with a design to perplex the doctrine of the that the Lord is the Avenger of all such as overreach and defraud resurrection by it, Mait. 22. 24, &c. perhaps insinuating that in any matter, 1 Thes. 4. 6. there was no need of maintaining the immortality of the soul, II. A law for the rooting out of Amalek. Here is a just and a future state, since the law had so well provided for the weight, and a just measure; that as Amalek had measured to perpetuating of men's names and families in the world. But, Israel, so it should be measured 10 Amalek again. 3. If the brother, or next of kin, declined to do this good office 1. The mischief Amalek did to Israel, must be here rememto the memory of him that was gone, what must be done in that bered, v. 17, 18. When it was first done, it was ordered to case ? Why, (1.) He shall not be compelled to do il, v. 7. If be recorded, Ex. 17. 14–16, and here, the remembrance of it he like her not, he is at liberty to refuse her, which, some to be preserved, not in personal revenge, for that generation think, was not permitted in this case before this law of Moses. which sutfered by the Amalekites was gone, so that these who Affection is all in all to the comfort of that relation ; that is a now lived, and iheir posterity, could not have any personal thing which cannot be forced, and therefore the relation should resentment of the injury, bui in a zeal for the glory of God, not be forced without it. (2.) Yet he shall be publicly dis- (which was insulted by the Amalekites,) that throne of the Lord graced for not doing it. The widow, as the person most con- against which the hand of Amalek was stretched out. The cerned for the name and honour of the deceased, was to complain carriage of the Amalekites toward Israel is here represented, to the elders of his refusal; if he persist in it, she was to pluck (1.) As very base and disingenuous. They had no occasion off his shoe, and spit in his face, in open couri, (or as the Jewish at all to quarrel with Israel, nor did they give them any notice, by doctors moderate it, spit before his face,) thus to fasten a mark a manifesto, or declaration of war; but took them aí an advanof infamy upon him, which was to remain with his family after tage, when they were just come out of the house of bondage, him, v. 8-10. Note, Those justly suffer in their own reputa- and, for aught that appeared to them, were only going to sacrition who do not do what they oughi, to preserve the name and fice lo God in the wilderness. (2.) As very barbarous and honour of others. He that would not build up his brother's cruel; for they smole them that were feeble, whom they should house, deserved to have this blemish put upon his own, that it have succoured. The greatest cowards are commonly the should be called the house of him that had his shoe loosed, in token most cruel, while those that have the courage of a man, will that he deserved to go barefoot. In the case of Ruth, we find have the compassions of a man. (3.) As very impious and prothis law executed, Ruth 4. 7, but because, upon the refusal of fane; they feared not God. If they had had any reverence for the next kinsman, there was another ready to perform the duty the majesty of the God of Israel, which they saw a token of in of a husband's brother, it was that other that plucked off the the cloud, or any dread of his wrath, which they lately heard shoe, and not the widow ; Boaz and not Ruth.

of the power of over Pharaoh, they durst not have made this II. A law for the punishing of an immodest woman, v. 11, 12. assauli upon Israel. Well, here was the ground of the quarrel: The woman that by the foregoing law was to complain against and it shows how God takes what is done against his peoplo her husband's brother for not marrying her, and to spit in his as done against himself; and that he will particularly reckon face before the elders, needed a good measure of assurance; with those that discourage and hinder young beginners in relibut lest the confidence which that law supported, should grow gion, that (as Satan's agents) set upon the weak and feeble, to an excess unbecoming the sex, here is a very severe but just either to divert them, or to disquiet them and offend his little law to punish impudence and immodesty. 1. The instance of ones. it is confessedly scandalous to the highest degree. A woman 2. This mischief must in due time be revenged, v. 19. When could not do it, unless she were perfectly lost to all virtue and their wars were finished, by which they were to seuile their honour. 2. The occasion is such as might in part excuse it; kingdom, and enlarge their coast, then they must make war it was to help her husband out of the hands of one that was too upon Amalek, v. 19, not merely to chase them, but to consume hard for him. Now if the doing of it in a passion, and with them, to blot out the remembrance of Amalek. It was an instance such a good intention, was to be so severely punished, much of God's patience that he deferred the vengeance so long, which more when it was done wantonly and in lust. 3. The punish- should have led the Amalekites to repentance; yet an instance ment was, that her hand should be cut off; and the magistrates of fearful retribution, that the posterity of Amalek, so long after, must not pretend to be more merciful than God, Thine eye shall were destroyed for the mischief done by their ancestors to the not pity her. Perhaps our Saviour alludes to this law, when he Israel of God. That all the world might see, and say, that he commands us to cut off the right hand that offends us, or is an who toucheth them, toucheth the apple of his eye. It was near occasion of sin to us; better put the greatest hardships that can four hundred years after this, that Saul was ordered to put this be upon the body, than ruin the soul for ever. Modesty is the sentence in execution, 1 Sam. 15. and was rejected of God hedge of chastity, and therefore ought to be very carefully pre- because he did not do it effectually, but spared some of that served and kept up by both sexes.

devoted nation, in contempt not only of the particular orders V. 13--19. Here is,

he received from Samuel, but of this general command here 1. A law against deceitful weights and measures ; they must given by Moses, which he could not be ignorant of. David not only not use them, but they must not have them ; not have afterward made some destruction of them; and the Simeonites, them in the bag, not have them in the house, v. 13, 14, for if they in Hezekiah's time, smote the rest that remained, 1 Chr. 4. 43; had them, they would be strongly tempted to use them. They for when God judges, he will overcome. must not have a great weight and measure to buy by, and a small one to sell by, for that was to cheat both ways, when either was bad enough; as we read of those that made the ephah small, in V. 1-11. Here is, in which they measured the corn they sold, and the shekel great, I. A good work ordered to be done, and that is, the preby which they weighed the money they received for it, Am. 8.5. senting of a basket of their first-fruits to God every year, But thou shall have a perfect and just weight, v. 15. That which v. 1, 2. Beside he sheaf of first-fruits, which was offered for the is the rule of justice, must itself be just: if ihat be otherwise, it whole land, on the morrow after the passover, Lev. 23. 10, is a constant cheat. This had been taken care of before, Lev. every man was to bring for himself a basket of first-fruits at the 19. 35, 36. This law is enforced with two very good reasons. feast of pentecost, when the harvest was ended, which is there1. That justice and equity will bring down upon us the blessing fore called the feast of first-fruits, Ex. 34. 22, and is said to be of God. The way to have our days lengthened, and to pros- kept with a tribule of free-will offering, Deut. 16. 10. But the per, is to be just and fair in all our dealings; honesty is the best Jews say, " The first-fruits, if not brought then, might be policy. 2. That fraud and injustice will expose us to the curse, brought any time after, between that and winter." When a of God, v. 16. Not only unrighteousness itself, but all that do man went into the field or vineyard, at the time when the fruits


Hos. 12. 12.

c Gen. 13. 12.

d Gen. 46. 1-6.

k Ex. 3. 8. I Prov. 3. 9. I Cor. 10. 31.

of the earth, which thou shalt bring of thy land that 8 And the LORD brought us forth 'out of Egypt the Lord thy God giveth thee, and shall put it in with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, a basket, and shalt go unto the place which the and with great terribleness, and with signs, and LORD thy God shall choose to place his name there. with wonders;

3 And thou shalt go unto the priest that shall be 9 And he hath brought us into this place, and in those days, and say unto him, I profess this day hath given us this land, even a land that floweth unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto the *with milk and honey. country which the Lord sware unto our fathers for 10 And now, behold, I have brought the firstto give us.

fruits of the land, which thou, O LORD, hast given 4 And the priest shall take the basket out of thine me. And thou shalt set it before the LORD thy hand, and set it down before the altar of the LORD God, and worship before the LORD thy God : thy God.

11 And thou shalt rejoice min every good thing 5 And thou shalt speak, and say before the LORD which the LORD thy God hath given unto thee, and thy God, A "Syrian ready to perish 'was my father; unto thine house, thou, and the Levite, and the and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there stranger that is among you. with a few, and became there a nation, great, 12 When thou hast 'made an end of tithing all mighty, and populous ;

the tithes of thine increase the third year, which is 6 And the Egyptians Sevil-entreated us, and af the year Pof tithing, and hast given it unto the flieted us, and laid upon us hard bondage : Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow,

7 And when we cried unto the Lord God of our that they may eat within thy ates, and be filled; fathers, the Lord heard sour voice, and looked on 13 Then thou shalt say before the Lord thy God, our affliction, and our labour, and our oppression: I have brought away the hallowed things out of e c. 7.7. Ex.l.11-14.

m c. 12. 7, 12. 16. 11, I Cor. 9. II. & Ex. 2. 3, 4. h Ex. 12. 37, 51. 13. 3, 16. i c. 4. 34,

o Lev. 27. 30. Num. 18. 24. p e. 14. 28, 29. were ripening, he was to mark that which he observed most bringing them out of Egypt, v. 7, 8. It is spoken of here forward, and to lay it by for first-fruits, wheat, barley, grapes, as an act of pity, he looked on our affliction ; and an act of figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates, some of each sort must power, he brought us forth with a mighty hand.

This was a be put in the same basket, with leaves between them, and pre- great salvation, fit to be remembered upon all occasions, and sented to God in the place which he should choose. Now from particularly upon this: they need not grudge to bring a basket this law we may learn, 1. To acknowledge God as the Giver of firsl-fruits to God, for to him they owed it, that they were of all those good things which are the support and comfort of our not now bringing in the tale of bricks to their cruel task-masters. natural life, and therefore to serve and honour him with them. (2.). In settling them in Canaan, v. 9, He huth given us this 2. To deny ourselves. What is first ripe we are most fond of; land. Observe, He must not only give thanks for his own lot, those that are nice and curious, expect to be served with each but for the land in general, which was given to Israel; not fruit as its first coming in; my soul desired the first ripe fruits, only for this year's profits, but for the ground itself which proMic. 7. 1. When therefore God appointed them to lay those duced them, which God had graciously granted to his ancestors by for him, he taught them to prefer the glorifying of his name and entailed upon his posterity. Note, The comfort we have before the gratifying of their own appetites and desires. 3. in our particular enjoyments, should lead us to be thankful for To give to God the first and best we have, as those that believe our share in public peace and plenty ; and with presént mercies him to be the first and best of beings. They that consecrate we should bless God for the former mercies we remember, and the days of their youth, and the prime of their time, to the the further mercies we expect and hope for : service and honour of God, bring him their first-fruits, and with 4. He must offer to God his basket of first-fruits, v. 10. 1 such offerings he is well pleased. I remember the kindness of have brought the firsl-fruits of the land, (like a peppercorn,) thy youth.

as a quit-rent for the land which thou hast given me. Note, II. Good words put into their mouths to be said in the doing Whatever we give to God, it is but of his own that we give of this good work, as an explication of the meaning of this cere-him, 1 Chr. 29. 14. And it becomes us, who receive so much mony, that it might be a reasonable service. The offerer must from him, 10 study what we shall render to him. The basket begin his acknowledgment before he delivered his basket to the he set before God; and the priests, as God's receivers, had the priest, and then must go on with it, when the priest had set first-fruits, as perquisites of their place and fees for attending, down the basket before the altar, as a present to God their Num. 18. 12. great Landlord, v. 3, 4.

Lastly, The offerer is here appointed, when he has finished 1. He must begin with a receipt in full for the good land the service, 1. To give glory to God, Thou shall worship the which God had given them, v. 3, I profess that I am come now Lord thy God. His first-fruits were not accepted without at last, after forty years' wandering, unto the country which the further acts of adoration. An humble, reverent, thankful heart, Lord sware to give us. This was most proper to be said when is that which God looks at and requires, and without that, all they came first into Canaan; probably, when they had been we can put in a basket will not avail. If a man would give long settled there, they varied from this form. Note, When all the substance of his house to be excused from this, or in lieu God has made good his promises to us, he expects that we of it, it would utterly be contemned. 2. To take the comfort of should own it, to the honour of his faithfulness; this is like it to himself and family, v. 11, Thou shalt rejoice in every good giving up the bond, as Solomon does, 1 Kings 8. 56, There has thing. It is the will of God that we should be cheerful, not not failed one word of all his good promise. And our creature only in our attendance upon his holy ordinances, but in our comforts are then doubly sweet, when we see them flowing from enjoyments of the gifts of his providence. Whatever good the fountain of the promise.

thing God gives us, it is his will that we should make the most 2. He must remember and own the mean original of that comfortable use we can of it, yet still tracing the streams to the nation, which he was a member of; how great soever they Fountain of all comfort and consolation. were now, and he himself with them, their beginning was very V. 12-15. Concerning the disposal of their tithe the third small, which ought thus to be kept in mind throughout all the year, we had the law before, ch. 14. 28, 29. The second tithe ages of their church by this public confession, that they might which, the other two years, was to be spent in extraordinaries not be proud of their privileges and advantages, but might for at the feasts, was to be spent, the third year, at home, in enever be thankful to that God whose grace chose them when tertaining the poor. Now because this was done from under they were so low, and raised them so high. Two things they the eye of the priests, and a great confidence was put in the must own for this purpose. (1.) The meanness of their common people's honesty, that they would dispose of it according to the ancestor. A Syrian ready to perish was my father, v. 5. Jacob law, to the Levite, the stranger, and the fatherless, v. 12, it is is here, called an Aramite, or Syrian, because he lived twenty therefore required, that when at the next feast after, they apyears in Padan-Aram; his wives were of that country, and his peared before the Lord, they should there testify (as it were) children were all born there, except Benjamin; and perhaps the upon oath, in a religious manner, that they had fully adminise confessor means not Jacob himself, but that son of Jacob who tered, and been true to their trust. was the father of his tribe. However it be, both father and sons I. 'They must make a solemn protestation to that purport were more than once ready to perish, by Laban's severity, v. 13, 14. 1. That no hallowed things were hoarded up. "I Esau's cruelty, and the famine in the land; which last was the have brought them away mul of mine house, nothing now remains occasion of their going down into Egypt. Laban the Syrian there but my own pari.” 2. That the poor, and particularly sought to destroy my father, so the Chaldee ; had almost de poor ministers, poor strangers, and poor widows, had had their stroyed him, so the Arabic. (2.) The miserable condition of part according to the commandment. It is fit that God, who their nation in its infancy. "They sojourned in Egypt as by his providence gives us al! we have, should by his law direct strangers, they served there as slaves, v. 6, and that a great the using of it; and though we are not now under such partia while: as their father was called a Syrian, they might be cular appropriations of our revenue as they then were, yet, in called Egyptians ; so that their possession of Canaan being so general, we are commanded to give alms of such things as we long discontinued, they could not pretend any tenant-right to it. have; and then, and not otherwise, all things are clean to us, A poor, despised, oppressed people they were in Egypt, and Then we may take the comfort of our enjoyments, when God therefore, though now rich and great, had no reason to be proud, has thus had his dues out of them. This is a commandment of secure, or forgetful of God.

which must not be transgressed, no not with an excuse of its 3. He must thankfully acknowledge God's great goodness, being forgotten, v. 13. 3. That none of this tihe had been not only to himself in particular, but to Israel in general. (1.) In misapplied to any common use, niuch less to any ill use. This Vol. 1.-59

( 465 )

Ps. 119. 141.
+ Ps. 28. 9. 51. 18.

& Lev. 7.

1 Heb.

6. Rom. 16. 26.

b Josh, 8. 32.

6. 13-18. c. 11.8.

mine house, and also have given them unto the Le

CHAPTER XXVII. vite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to

Moses having very largely and fully set before the people their duty, both to God the widow, according to all thy commandments and one another, in general and in particular instances; having showed them

plainly what is good, and what the law requires of them; and having in the close which thou hast commanded me: I have not trans

of the foregoing Chapter laid them under the obligauon both of the commaud and

the covenant, he cuines in this chapter to prescribe outward means, I. For the gressed sthy commandments, neither have I forgot

helping of their memories, that they might not forget the law as a strange thing. ten "them :

They must write all the words of this law upon stones, v. 1-10. 11. For the

moving of their affections, that they might not be indifferent to the law as a light 14 I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, thing. When they were come into Cauaan, the blessings and curses which were neither have I taken away aught thereof for any the sanctions of the law were to be solemnly pronounced in the hearing of all

Israel, who were to say Amen to them, v. 11-26. And if such a solemnity as this unclean use, nor given aught thereof for the dead: would not make a deep impression upon them, and affect them with the great but I have hearkened to the voice of the LORD my

things of God's law, nothing would.

ND with commanded me.

the 15 Look 'down from thy holy habitation, from which I command you this day. heaven, and bless 'thy people Israel, and the land 2 And it shall be on the day awhen ye_shall which thou hast given us, as thou swarest "unto our pass over Jordan unto the land which the LORD fathers, a land that floweth with milk and honey. ihy God giveth thee, that thou shalt set thee up

16 This -day the Lord thy God hath commanded great stones, and plaster them with plaster: thee to do these statutes and judgments : thou shalt 3 And thou shalt write upon them all the words therefore keep and do them with all thine heart, and of this law, when thou art passed over, that thou with all thy soul.

mayest go in unto the land which the LORD thy 17 Thou hast avouched ythe Lord this day to be God giveth thee, a land that floweth with milk and ahy God, and to walk in his ways, and to keep his honey; as the Lord God of thy fathers hath prostatutes, and his commandments, and his judg- mised thee. ments, and to hearken unto his voice:

4 Therefore it shall be, when ye be gone over Jor18 And the LORD hath avouched thee this day dan, that ye shall set up these stones, which I comto be his peculiar people, as he hath promised thee, mand you this day, in mount Ebal, and thou shalt and that thou shouldest keep all his commandments: plaster them with plaster.

19 And to make thee high dabove all nations 5 And there shalt thou build an altar unto the which he hath made, in praise, and in name, and in Lord thy God, an altar of stones: thou shalt not honour; and that thou mayest be an holy people lift up any iron tool upon them. unto the LORD thy God, as he hath spoken.

6 Thou shalt build the altar of the LORD thy q Ps. 18. 21-21. 26. I, 6. Acta 24. 16. 1 John 3. 22.

8. 5. ? Ps. 147. 19, 20. ac. 14. 2. 28. 9. Ex. 19. 5, 6. Tit. 2. 14. c Ps. 119. 26. 21. 1, 11. Hos. 9. 1. 18. 63. 15. u Is. 66. 1.

Ps. 148. 14. e 1 Pet. 2.9. a Josh. 4.1, &c. y Ex. 24. 7. 2 Cbr. 34. 31. ls. 41. 5. Zech. 13. 9. 2 Cor. c Josh. 8. 30–33. c. 11. 29. seems to refer to the tithe of the other two years, which was to 1. That we may perform our part of the covenant, and answer be eaten by the owners themselves ; they must profess, (1.) the intentions of that, v. 17, " Thou hast avouched and solemnly That they had not eaten of it in their mourning, when, by their owned and confessed the Lord Jehovah to be thy God, thy mourning for the dead, they were commonly unclean; or they Prince and Ruler. As he is so by an incontestable right, so had not eaten of it grudgingly, as those that all their days eat he is by thine own consent." They did this implicitly by their in darkness. (2.) Thai they had not sacrilegiously alienated attendance on his word, had done it expressly, Ex. 24. and it to any common use, for it was not their own. And lastly, were now to do it again before they parted, ch. 29. 1. Now

That they had not given it for the dead, for the honour of their this obliges us, in fidelity to our word, as well as in duty to our dead gods, or in hope of making it beneficial to their dead Sovereign, to keep his stalutes and his commandments.

We friends. Now the obliging of them to make this solemn pro- really forswear ourselves, and perfidiously violate the most testation at the three years' end, would be an obligation upon sacred engagements, if, when we have taken the Lord to be our them to deal faithfully, knowing that they must be called upon God, we do not make conscience of obeying his commands. thus to purge themselves. It is our wisdom to keep conscience 2. That God's part of the covenant also may be made good, clear at all times, that when we come to give up our account, and the intentions of that answered, v. 18, 19, The Lord has we may lift up our face without spot. The Jews say that this avouched, not only taken, but publicly owned thee to be his protestation of their integrity was to be made with a low voice, Segullah, his peculiar people, as he has promised thee, that is, because it looked like a self-commendation; but that the fore- according to the true intent and meaning of the promise. Now going confession of God's goodness was to be made with a loud their obedience was not only the condition of this favour, and voice to his glory. Ho that durst not make this protestation, of the continuance of it, (if they were not obedient, God would must bring his trespass-offering, Lev, 5. 15.

disown them, and cast them off,) but it was also the principal II. To this solemn protestation they must add a solemn design of this favour. "He has avouched thee on purpose, prayer, v. 15, not particularly for themselves, but for God's that thou shouldest keep his commandments, that thou mightest people Israel; for in the common peace and prosperity every have both the best directions, and the best encouragements in particular person prospers and has peace. We must learn religion.” Thus we are elected to obedience, 1 Pet. 1.2, chosen from hence to be public spirited in prayer, and to wrestle with that we should be holy, Eph. 1. 4, purified a peculiar people, God for blessings, for the land and nation, our English Israel, that we might not only do good works, but be zealous in them, and for the universal church, which we are directed to have an Tit. 2. 14. eye to in our prayers, as the Israel of God, Gal. 6. 16. In this Two things God is here said to design in avouching them to prayer we are taught, 1. To look up to God as in a holy habi- be his peculiar people, v. 19. To make them high, and in order iation, and from thence to infer that holiness becomes his house, to that, to make them holy ; for holiness is true bonour, and the and that he will be sanctified in those that are about him. 2. To only way to everlasting honour. (1.) To them high above depend upon the favour of God, and his gracious cognizance, all nations. The greatest honour we are capable of in this as sufficient to make us and our people happy. 3. To reckon world, is, to be taken into covenant with God, and to live in it wonderful condescension in God to cast an eye even upon so his service. High in praise; for God would accept them, that great and honourable a body as Israel was. It is looking down. is true praise, Rom. 2. 29. Their friends would admire them, 4. To be earnest with God for a blessing upon his people Is- Ps. 48. 2. Their enemies would envy them, Zeph. 3. 19, 20. rael, and upon the land which he has given us. For how should High in name, which some think denotes the continuance and the earth yield its increase, or, if it does, what comfort can we perpetuity of that praise, a name that shall not be cul off. And take in it, unless therewith God, even our own Gol, gives us High in honour, that is, in all the advantages of wealth and his blessing? Ps. 67. 6.

power, which would make them great above their neighbours. V. 16–19. Two things Moses here urges to enforce all See Jer. 13. 11. (2.). That they might be a holy people, sepathese precepts.

rated for God, devoted to him, and employed continually in his I. That they were the commands of God, v. 16. They were service. This God aimed at in taking them to be his people ; not the dictates of his own wisdom, nor were they enacted by so that if they did not keep his commandments, they received any authority of his own, but infinite wisdom framed them, all this grace in vain. and the power of the King of kings made them binding to them. The Lord thy God commands ther, therefore thou art bound in duly and gratitude to obey him, and it is at thy V. 1-10. Here is, peril if thou disobey. They are his laws, therefore thou shalt I. A general charge to the people to keep God's commanddo them, for to that end were they given thee: do them and not ments; for in vain did they know them, unless they would do dispute them, do them and not draw back from them; do them them. This is pressed upon them, 1. With all authority. not carelessly and hypocritically, but with thy heart and soul, Moses with the elders of Israel, the rulers of each tribe, v. 1 ; thy whole heart, and thy whole soul."

and again, v. 9, Moses and the priests the Levites; so that the II. That their

covenant with God obliged them to keep these charge is given by Moses who was king in Jeshurun, and by commands. He insists not only upon God's sovereignty over their lords, both spiritual and temporal, in concurrence with them, but his propriety in them, and the relation wherein they him. Lest they should think that it was Moses only, an old stood to him. The covenant is mutual, and it binds to obe- and dying man, that made such ado about religion, or the priests dience both ways.

and Levites only, whose trade it was to atiend religion, and


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