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NOTES AND QUERIES:
Medium of Entercommunication
LITERARY MEN, GENERAL READERS, ETC.
"When found, make a note of."-CAPTAIN Cuttle.
EIGHTH SERIES.-VOLUME SEVENTH.
PUBLISHED AT THE
OFFICE, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE, EC.
BY JOHN C. FRANCIS.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1895.
took place. It is believed that the family left
CONTENT 8.-N° 158.
After the capture of Chepstow Castle, where
NOTES:-Cromwell in Wales, 1-Lincoln's Inn Fields, 2-
Inscription-A Page of Occult Philosophy, 5-Tennyson Martin, one of the men who signed the deed of
Wanted-"The Bull-Roarer "-Gradwell-Pronunciation
murdered Shakspeare, in 1730? 9.
tion of Shakspeare-Parker-"Bos locutus est"-Who still reside at St. Donat's Castle, in Glamorgan-
red with blood," according to tradition, and 600
Knickerbockers-Authors Wanted, 18.
8th 8. VII. JAN. 5, '95.)
NOTES AND QUERIES.
QUERIES-H. B. Willis-Copley Fielding's Carlisle
NOTES ON BOOKS:-Smith's 'Cyclopædia of Names'
Notices to Correspondents.
CROMWELL IN WALES.
The character of Cromwell has been viewed from different standpoints, according to the bias of the writer. The Welsh historian, Carnhuanawc, said that if Charles I. had not held the absurd doctrine of the divine right of kings he would not have sacrificed his life, and if Oliver Cromwell had not held such narrow views of the pleasures of the people he might have founded a dynasty. Cromwell was a great soldier, but a poor statesman, as he was intolerant and bigoted, and did not allow fair play to any other sect than his own.
The object of the present article is to illustrate his career in Wales, a portion of history which has been somewhat neglected. It is generally believed that Cromwell descended from a Welsh stock, and that his ancestors lived at Whitchurch, about three miles from Cardiff. Col. Cromwell, his cousin, upon the eve of the execution of the king, went to Oliver, in order to try to dissuade him from carrying out the dread sentence. He said, "You know that we had to change our name from Williams to Cromwell in consequence of the disgrace brought upon us by our ancestor; and if you agree to take the life of the king we shall have to change our name again." The Protector and his -cousin sat up nearly all night discussing the point; but the Protector was obdurate, and the execution
Cromwell rested for a time at Fonmon Castle, the seat of Col. Jones, his brother-in-law, who did some cruel work in Ireland, at Drogheda and Limerick, and whose descendants still reside in the castle. There is a portrait of the Protector in the dining-room to this day, and every male member of the family takes the name of Oliver; but they are no longer Puritans, but staunch members of Church and State.
The Roundheads then pushed on to Carmarthen, captured the castle, and proceeded to Tenby. Carmarthen Castle, or what remains of it, is used at present as a prison, having been altered in accordance with the ideas of the philanthropist John Howard. The town of Tenby was taken by assault, and then Cromwell marched to Pembroke, where he found "the hardest nut to crack," as he remarked, in the whole campaign.
Pembroke Castle stands on a creek of the famous Milford Haven, a sheet of water which could harbour all the ships of the British navy. The defeated troops from Chepstow, Cardiff, Carmarthen, and Tenby rallied there, led by General Laugharne and Colonels Powell and Poyer; and as there was an abundance of corn stored there, with mills to grind it, and an unintermittent supply to water from the Hogan or Wogan, a cave beneath the castle, the garrison determined to hold out for any length of time. Cromwell, however, sent a night expedition to cut off their water, and his cannon destroyed the mills, so that the men began to rebel against the authority of their officers, and threatened to throw them over the walls of the castle. Hunger and thirst at last did their work, and the officers resolved to capitulate. Cromwell then decided to make