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NOTES AND QUERIES:

A

Medium of Entercommunication

FOR

LITERARY MEN, GENERAL READERS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."-CAPTAIN Cuttle.

EIGHTH SERIES.-VOLUME SEVENTH.

JANUARY-JUNE 1895.

LONDON:

PUBLISHED AT THE

OFFICE, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE, EC.

BY JOHN C. FRANCIS.

LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
DAVIS

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1

LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1895.

took place. It is believed that the family left
Whitchurch about 150 years before they settled in
Huntingdonshire.

CONTENT 8.-N° 158.

After the capture of Chepstow Castle, where

NOTES:-Cromwell in Wales, 1-Lincoln's Inn Fields, 2-
Benyowszky, 4-Thanksgiving for Birth of Charles II.-

Inscription-A Page of Occult Philosophy, 5-Tennyson Martin, one of the men who signed the deed of
execution of the king, was confined for twenty
Job-"Scone"-Prittlewell, Essex-Saturday
years after the Restoration, the Parliamentary
forces pushed on to Cardiff, which was captured
through the traitorous conduct of a Royalist. This
man was hanged by Cromwell, who rightly said
that if he was false to one side he would be false
to the other. Sheriff Carne, whose descendants

Wanted-"The Bull-Roarer "-Gradwell-Pronunciation
of Place-names-Letter Brands worn by Criminals, 7
Dryasdust: Smellfungus-Reade Tom Brown's School
Days'-Mighells-Ten Thousand a Year,' 8-Worst Edi-

murdered Shakspeare, in 1730? 9.
REPLIES:-Whetstone Park, 9-Relics of Charles I.-
"Jingo," 10-Waterloo-" Sea-blue bird of March," 12-
"Butt"-Plaice-Sense of Hearing in the Blind-"A
mutual friend"-"House-place "-Living-room, 13-
Blunders of a Big-Wig'-Spa, 14-Sir Martin Wright-
Geology-Robert Pollok-Major Fairfax — - Meaning of
Quotation-German Poetry-City Church Registers, 15
Parish Registers-Ship Names-Unfinished Books, 16-feated with great loss. The little river Ely" ran
Ancestry of Agatha-Pistols-Tattersall-Edinburgh City
Guilds-Picture of Charles I., 17-"Mending or Ending'
-Daily Orator-Dukes of Brittany-Silver Flagon-

tion of Shakspeare-Parker-"Bos locutus est"-Who still reside at St. Donat's Castle, in Glamorgan-
shire, was in command for the king. Col. Horton
was then sent on ahead with 8,000 men to clear
the road for Cromwell, and fought a battle
at St. Fagan's, where the present Lord Windsor
has a castle situated in the midst of lovely
scenery. The Royalists, who numbered three
times as many as Col. Horton's command, were de-

"

red with blood," according to tradition, and 600
women in Glamorganshire were made widows.
This battle took place on May 8, 1648, a few
months before the execution of the king.

Knickerbockers-Authors Wanted, 18.

8th 8. VII. JAN. 5, '95.)

NOTES AND QUERIES.

and
Review,' 6.

QUERIES-H. B. Willis-Copley Fielding's Carlisle
Castle -Mitchelgemot "Playing the Wag"-Address

NOTES ON BOOKS:-Smith's 'Cyclopædia of Names'
'Le Monde Moderne'-'The Antiquary'-Magazines—
'Cassell's Publications.

Notices to Correspondents.

Hotes.

CROMWELL IN WALES.

The character of Cromwell has been viewed from different standpoints, according to the bias of the writer. The Welsh historian, Carnhuanawc, said that if Charles I. had not held the absurd doctrine of the divine right of kings he would not have sacrificed his life, and if Oliver Cromwell had not held such narrow views of the pleasures of the people he might have founded a dynasty. Cromwell was a great soldier, but a poor statesman, as he was intolerant and bigoted, and did not allow fair play to any other sect than his own.

The object of the present article is to illustrate his career in Wales, a portion of history which has been somewhat neglected. It is generally believed that Cromwell descended from a Welsh stock, and that his ancestors lived at Whitchurch, about three miles from Cardiff. Col. Cromwell, his cousin, upon the eve of the execution of the king, went to Oliver, in order to try to dissuade him from carrying out the dread sentence. He said, "You know that we had to change our name from Williams to Cromwell in consequence of the disgrace brought upon us by our ancestor; and if you agree to take the life of the king we shall have to change our name again." The Protector and his -cousin sat up nearly all night discussing the point; but the Protector was obdurate, and the execution

Cromwell rested for a time at Fonmon Castle, the seat of Col. Jones, his brother-in-law, who did some cruel work in Ireland, at Drogheda and Limerick, and whose descendants still reside in the castle. There is a portrait of the Protector in the dining-room to this day, and every male member of the family takes the name of Oliver; but they are no longer Puritans, but staunch members of Church and State.

The Roundheads then pushed on to Carmarthen, captured the castle, and proceeded to Tenby. Carmarthen Castle, or what remains of it, is used at present as a prison, having been altered in accordance with the ideas of the philanthropist John Howard. The town of Tenby was taken by assault, and then Cromwell marched to Pembroke, where he found "the hardest nut to crack," as he remarked, in the whole campaign.

Pembroke Castle stands on a creek of the famous Milford Haven, a sheet of water which could harbour all the ships of the British navy. The defeated troops from Chepstow, Cardiff, Carmarthen, and Tenby rallied there, led by General Laugharne and Colonels Powell and Poyer; and as there was an abundance of corn stored there, with mills to grind it, and an unintermittent supply to water from the Hogan or Wogan, a cave beneath the castle, the garrison determined to hold out for any length of time. Cromwell, however, sent a night expedition to cut off their water, and his cannon destroyed the mills, so that the men began to rebel against the authority of their officers, and threatened to throw them over the walls of the castle. Hunger and thirst at last did their work, and the officers resolved to capitulate. Cromwell then decided to make

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