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" To do something to instruct, but more to undeceive, the timidand admiring student;-
to excite him to place more confidence in his own strength, and less in the infallibility of
great names;-to help him to emancipate bis judgment from the shackles of authority ;-to
teach him to distinguish between shewy language and sound sense; to warn him not to pay
himself with words; to shew him that what inay tickle the car or dazzle the imagination, will
not always inform the judgment;-to dispose him rather to fast' on ignorance than to feed
himself with crror."

Fragment on Government.





Printed for the Editor, by George Smallfield.



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Memoir of the late Dr. Cogan. THOMAS COĞAN, of whom a own fanily, of this period of his life.

portrait faces the present volume, From some of his manuscript sermons was born at Rowell, in Northampton- it appears, that he was in Holland, in shire, in 1756, of a respectable Dis- 1759, officiating as a preacher: it is senting family, who had been long conjectured, that he was assistant to seated in that place. His father was the Rev. Benjamin Sowden, minister an apothecary of considerable reputa- of the English Church, on the Dutch tion, who possessed a great fondness establishment, at Rotterdam. for metaphysical studies, and em.'

We next trace him by his papers to ployed his leisure in publishing in · Southampton, where he seems to have several pamphlets the result of his exercised his ministry in the years inquiries. The subject of this me- 1762 and 1763. ' The high tone of moir was placed under the care of opinions, held by the congregation, Mr., afterwards Dr. Aikin, who kept did not accord with his own state of a flourishing school at Kibworth, in mind.' On original sin and some Leicestershire;* and the pupil always other points, he was more than susspoke of the tutor with affectionate pected of heresy. The consequence respect, and expressed regret that he was, bis withdrawment. had not longer enjoyed his valuable

He returned to Holland, with the instructions. He was accustomed to prospect of being junior: minister speak with peculiar pleasure of 'the in one of the English churches estafamiliar theological lectures which the blished in that country, and for a preceptor was in the habit of deliver- considerable period filled this situaing to his scholars ou the Sunday tion with high credit; but for reasons evening; declaring, that he always which cannot at this distance of time looked forward to them with delight; be fully ascertained, he at length de. and, though educated in the strictest termined to quit the profession of diCalvinism, owed to them his first re- vinity for that of medicine. He was ligious impressions.

subject to pulmonary complaints, At fourteen years of age he' left which might aların bim for the con school, and passed the two succeeding sequences of continuing to exert years under his father's roof. His himself as a public speaker. He had, views were now turned towards the always, besides, a strong inclination Christian ministry, and he entered the to the medical profession, and whilst Dissenting Academy, at Mile End, of he was minister at Southampton had which Dr. Conder was the Divinity walked the hospitals in London. The Tutor; but being dissatisfied with the change was certainly not owing to conduct of the institution, he, with one any dereliction of faith or decay of or two others, removed to the acade- religious feeling. my at Hoxton.

Before he commenced his new Little is now known, even in his studies he paid a short visit to En

gland, where, after delivering a few

sermons with no small reputation, he • An interesting memoir of Dr. Aikin, dropt the character of a preacher. from the pen of Mr. Turner, was inserted Returning to Holland, he entered in our VIIIth volume, pp. 161–172. himself of the University of Leyden,


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then the most celebrated school of sition. The practicability of resuscimedicine in Europe. Having com- tation was denied. He ascertained its pleted his course, he delivered for his practicability, by advertising to redegree, a Thesis “On the Influence of ward persons, who, between Westthe Passions in causing and healing minster and Lordon bridges, should, Diseases." This inaugural disserta. within a certain time after the ac. tion may be considered as the first cident, rescue drowned persons from draught of his work on the Passions. the water, and bring them ashore to

Having graduated, he began to places appointed for their reception, practise as a physician in Holland; where meads might be used for their led, probably, to the choice of this recovery, and give immediate notice country for his residence by his having to bim. Many lives were thus saved obtained in marriage the daughter of by himself and other inedical men; an opulent merchaut, of the name of which would otherwise have been Groen, of Amsterdam, with whom he lost. For twelve months he paid received a considerable fortune. He the rewards in these cases; which resided successively at Amsterdam, amounted to a cousiderable sum. Dr. Leyden and Rotterdam. His growing Cogan remonstrated with him on the reputation induced bim to try his injury which his private fortune would profession in his own country, and he sustain from a perseverance in these accordingly came to London and took expenscs; he therefore conseuted to up bis abode in Paternoster-Row. He share them with the public. They devoted himself chiefly to midwifery, accordingly agreed to unite their in which he had, for some years, an strength, and each of them to bring extensive practice. The severe duties sixteen friends to a meeting at the of his profession, and the confinement Chapter Coffee-house, with the exof the metropolis brought on a liver press intention of establishing a Hu. complaint; and in the year 1780, he mane Society in London: this was resigned his connexion to Dr. John happily accomplished in the summer Sims, who is still a practitioner in high of 1774. The object of this Society repute.

was then, like that at Amsterdam, Wbile he was a physician in Lon- confined to the recovery of persons don, Dr. Cogan had the satisfaction who were apparently dead from and honour of being instrumental in drowning. the establishment of the Royal Humaue “ For the first six years Dr. Cogan Society. The idea of such an institu- prepared the Reports of the Society tion was first conceived in Holland, from year to year; nor was Dr. Hawes where accideuts by water are frequent, less attentive in aiding the designs and In the year 1767, was formed at Am- promoting the views of this Institusterdam, a society, which offered pre- tion." miums to such as should save the life The Royal Humane Society has, of a citizen in danger of perishing by sivce this period, grown to a pitch of water: it also proposed to publish the usefulness and prosperity which its methods of treatment, and to give an wise and benevolent projectors could account of the cases of recovery. The liave scarcely hoped.t Whilst he first publication of these memoirs ex- lived, Dr. Cogan took a lively interest cited great and universal interest, and in its proceedings, and, when oppor. in 1773, Dr. Cogan translated them tunity permitted, failed not to attend into English, “ in order to convince the annual meetings, where he of all the British public of the practicabi. others must have been gratified by lity, in many instances, of recovering the procession of the persons restored persons who were apparently dead, to life by the Society's methods. By from drowning. No sooner were they translated, than they engaged the humane aud benevolent mind of Dr.

Annual Report of the Royal Humane Hawes. His very soul was absorbed

Society, 1818, pp. 2–4.

t li is stated in the Monthly Magazine, with the animating hope of saving the XIV. p. 136, that in the period of ten years, lives of his fellow-creatures: but, in that is from 1774 to 1784, about thiee making the attempt, he had to en- thousand persons had been rescued by the counter both with ridicule and oppo. Society's mouus from premature death.

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