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THE NEW BRITISH AND FOREIGN TEMPERANCE
THE Committee of the above Society give notice that they have come to a resolution to offer a Premium of One Hundred Sovereigns, for the best Essay on the benefits of Total Abstinence from all Intoxicating Drinks:
1.-The Essay must be written in a Christian spirit, and with a design to benefit the bodies, circumstances, and souls of men. 2. The proposed Essay will contain the origin, progress, and conse quences of the customs of drinking, and drunkenness, both from sacred and profane history.
3. It will comprise the medical opinions of the faculty, ancient and modern; with the sentiments of magistrates, judges, and the most eminent literary, scientific, and theological writers.
4.-It will produce Scripture testimony that, although the use of wine is not prohibited, except in certain cases, and under certain circumstances, Total Abstinence from all intoxicating drinks is encouraged.
5. It will contain statistical accounts of the evil effects of drinking-customs or the habits, wealth, and religious feelings of the community, emoracing the experience of other nations on these topics.
6. It will contain details of committals, punishments, and miseries arising from drunkenness.
7.-It will present the amount of loss of property, time, and intellect to the British Nation by their use.
8.-It will show how the various religious societies for the renovation of the world are impeded by the drinking habits of the population.
9. It will present in an inviting manner the vast blessings which result to families, masters, mistresses, servants, fathers, mothers, and children, and to some of the most degraded individuals, from the total disuse of intoxicating drinks.
10. It will also show the advantages that will accrue to trade, commerce, and the shipping interest; to the arts and sciences; and the immense moral benefits it will confer on the nation and the world.
The Candidates for the Prize will have the goodness to forward their MSS. in an envelope, containing their nanies and address, to Mr. J. Meredith, No. 3, Durham Place, Lambeth Road Lefore 25th of December, 1838.
ADJUDICATORS.-The Rev. The dore Drury, M. A., Rector of Keighley, Rev. J. H. Hinton, M. A., and J. E. Howard, Esq.
Nearly twenty Essays were forwarded for inspection. The one now pub lished, received the award of the Adjudicators.
TO THE AMERICAN EDITION.
In presenting the following work to the American public, but few remarks are necessary. The occasion which called it forth, and the distinguished mark of approbation it received from the British and Foreign Temperance Society, are already known to the reader. It therefore needs no commendation of our own. Nor are we called upon to introduce the subject by any long prefatory notice. The work is so complete in itself, that there is little room for addition, perhaps none for improvement. We have taken the liberty, however, of subjoining some brief notes, and a few pages of additional matter in the Appendix, which, it was thought would render the work more valuable to the American reader. The fear of being tedious, and swelling the book to an inconvenient size, has induced us to leave out several articles which we had prepared. As it is, we trust it will be found the most complete and satisfactory publication on the subject of which it treats, yet given to the public in any language. That it may do much good, and be a successful instrument in the hands of Providence, in advancing the Temperance reform, is the sincere prayer of the
New York, Aug. 16th, 1840
In the present day, the appetite for strong drink is not only deeply rooted, but widely spread. It extends its baneful influence to persons of all ranks and conditions. It presents a most serious obstacle to the diffusion of education. It is a deadly enemy to friendly intercourse and social relations. It is no less injurious in its effects on religious welfare. Need we wonder then, that public attention is drawn to this subject.
Intemperance, whether we view it in relation to the moral, intellectual, social, or religious condition of man, is of deep and paramount importance. On no subject, perhaps, does so much ignorance prevail. The nature and effects of inebriating liquors are little understood. The flood-gates of in temperance, being once opened, the stream of sensual indulgence, has, from age to age, been suffered to roll on, until with its accumulated energies, it threatens to inundate the world with wretchedness and wo. The opera tions of Temperance Societies, fortunately for mankind, have in some degree, contributed to do away with this lamentable delusion.
Temperance Societies were established in the sixteenth century. The first association of this kind, of which we have any account, was instituted by Sigismond de Dietrichstein, under the auspices of St. Christopher, A. D. 1517. Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse, formed, A. D. 1600, a similar associa tion, under the name of "The Order of Temperance." The rules of this society, however, were somewhat lax and indefinite. A knight, for example, was allowed at each meal, (twice a-day,) to drink seven bocaux, or glasses of wine. A third institution of this kind was established and patronized by the Count Palatine, Frederick the Fifth. These associations were not only limited in their usefulness, but transitory in their existence.
The appalling extent of intemperance, in the early part of the nineteenth century, throughout a large portion of the globe, and particularly in England and in America, first led to the establishment of modern Temperance Societies. Hitherto, all attempts at reform, had been looked upon as impracti cable. In America, this melancholy state of morals was regarded by wise and reflecting persons, with equal-alarm and despair. The social habits of life-the solemn ceremonies of death-even the sacred offices of religion, were almost universally contaminated with this all-pervading and demorali zing vice.
The "American Temperance Society" was instituted in 1826. It owes its origin to the writings and labours of the Rev. Dr. Lyman Beecher, and others, whose zeal in the cause of morals and humanity, will render them conspicuous in the annals of philanthropy and patriotism. This institution, through the blessing of God, has materially contributed, by its salutary operations, to save that country from impending ruin.
In the year 1829, Temperance Societies were first established in our own country. These were eventually concentrated under one general denomination. The American and British societies were constituted on the same
* "The highly instructed and intelligent men, through a series of generations shall have directly within their view an enormous nuisance and iniquity, and yet shall very rarely think of it, and never be made restless by its annoyance; and so its odiousness shall never be decidedly apprehended till some individual or two, as by the acquisition of a new moral sense, receive a sudden intuition of its nature, a disclosure of its most interior essence and malignity-the essence and malignity of that very thing which has been offering its quality to view, without the least reserve, and in the most flagrant signs, to millions of observers."-Foster on the Evils of Popular Ignorance.
principle-a mutual agreement to abstain altogether from the use of distilled liquors, and te discountenance the causes and practices of intemperance. In England, however, and to a limited extent also in America, the consumption of ardent spirits did not constitute the most powerful source of intemperance. Hence, the ultimate formation of Temperance Societies, based oL the principle of total abstinence from all intoxicating liquors.* This was seen to be the only practicable and efficacious means of eradicating the evil of intemperance. The operations of these societies in America, have been eminently attended with success. In Great Britain, and Ireland also, these operations have had a salutary and beneficial effect.†
The institution of Temperance Societies demands our serious considera tion, not only as a means of self-preservation, but also from its paramount importance, as a measure calculated to ensure the safety of our families, and the welfare and happiness of future generations. Sensual temptations, in connexion with the pernicious and enslaving usages of intemperance, so prevalent in this country, reduce thousands to the verge of eternal ruin. The poet remarks :—
The mode by which Temperance Societies produce their salutary opera. tions, is simple and efficient.
1. The principal object which Temperance Societies have in view, is to diffuse information on the subject of intoxicating liquors, and to disabuse the public mind concerning the false estimate they have formed in regard to the beneficial properties which they are supposed to possess, as well as to col. lect information relative to the evils of intemperance, and to present it to the world as an inducement to the adoption of remedial measures.
2. The constitution of these societies is simple. It consists merely of a social union of such persons as are disposed to promote the fundamental principles of the association. This measure, in fact, includes not only a profession of approval, but it also involves an obligation of co-operation.
3. To effect this result, a document, in the form of an acknowledgment or engagement is drawn up, called a "Pledge," which all persons who desire to unite with the society, are called upon to subscribe. This act is understood to constitute an open profession of approval of, and determination to adhere to, the principles upon which the institution is founded.
The fundamental principles of Temperance Societies are included in the great laws of Christian charity and self-preservation. They are, indeed, the offspring and a noble exemplification of that first principle of Chris tianity so beautifully described and admirably illustrated by St. Paul, under the name of ayann, 1 Cor. xiii. the true meaning of which word is benevo
*Speculations not unfrequently appear in the public prints in reference to a phrase, by which a large portion of these societies, in various parts of the kingdom is denominatedTee-total. It is a provincial expression, and of Lancashire origin. It means entire, thorough abstinence, in contradistinction to the half-and-half, or as it is termed in popular language, moderation scheme. If an individual-slave to some sin-intemperance, for example, resolves to abandon it altogether, he not uncommonly makes use of double words in order to clench the matter, or to give increased force to his resolution-I wil give it up TEE-Totally. It is in fact a repetition of the same sentiment-a resolve upon resolve a final, and, in intention at least, unalterable decision. Hence the phrase teetotal, as applied to Temperance Societies.
I own myself a friend to the laying down of (strict) rules, and rigidly abiding by them. Indefinite resolutions of abstemiousness are apt to yield to extraordinary occasions; and extraordinary occasions to occur perpetually. Whereas, the stricter the rule is, the more tenacious we grow of it; and many a man will abstain rather than break his rule who would not easily be brought to exercise the same mortification from higher motives Not to mention, that when our rule is once known, we are provided with an answer t every importunity.-Paley's Moral Philosophy, Book iv. chap ii.