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great forms of Antichrist, which the Introductory Chapter offered to his consideration, in the following sketch of the nature and effects of the Mahometan scourge of the East; more especially if he will compare the description of this power, with that which has tyrannized over the West, for the same purposes of trial and punishment, and with the animated picture of Jacobinism in this Author's address to the Emperor of Russia, which I shall beg leave to fubjoin in a note, though it more properly belongs to the subject of the following Chapter m.

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m“ You are called on, Sire, to crush with the irresistible weight of your armies the enemies of religion, morality, and social order. Peace with them will be more dangerous than war. Their doctrines will have freer course; and their doctrines have done more than their armies. They have subverted the order, and confounded even the names of things. Virtues have the appellations of vices, and vices the appellations of virtues. Can Russia, in all its extended provinces, when every foreign contract will be poison : when every breath, except from the frozen ocean, will be full of miasma, escape the contagion ? None will escape but the elder brethren of Jacobinism, the Turks, whose equally monstrous, though less dangerous tyranny, has for so many centuries insulted mankind, trodden under foot the laws of nations, and blasphemed Christianity; who, unprovoked, attacked, conquered, and slaughtered nations without number, murdered their lovereigns, and spilt every drop of royal blood,

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“ No despotism was ever more profoundly politic than that, which wielding at once the temporal and spiritual sword, converted fanaticism itself into an instrument of fovereignty, and united in one person the voice and the arm of the Divinity. In Turkey the judicial and facerdotal characters are the same. The

massacred their priests at the altar, extirpated nobility, plundered the opulent, and bound the wretched remains of the people in fetters of perpetual and hereditary slavery. They alone, till the reign of Jacobinism had made property a crime, the violation of property a legal resource of government, and the lives and possessions of men the right of tyranny; they alone had hitherto confounded the hereditary ranks among mankind; had depressed genius, learning, and the Christian religion, and governed their barbarous empire by slaves and atlaslins. Like the Jacobins, they taught Christian children to fight against their fathers, and their fathers' God; they too hold it lawful to murder prisoners in cold blood; they too pofless a claim to every country in the universe, and a sacred right to subject all people to their laws; they too hold all other sovereigns as usurpers, and dethroning them as the highest merit. But still the Turks have a religion; and though it permits them numberless enormities to their own fect, and all enormities to others, they acknowledge a God, and many moral duties. Not the contagion of their doctrines was to be feared, but their cruel sword, which once threatened the conquest of the universe, and the extinction of all virtue, dignity, and science in the world: yet was not this first monster so tremendous, in the infolence of his power, as an enemy, as is this second monster, in the infolence of his succefies, as a brother.” Eton, p. 457

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chief engine of this hierarchy is the fetva of the Mufti, a fort of manifesto, which, like the bulls of the Roman Pontijf, originating in ecclesiastical power, has been applied to the most important political purposes. In other countries particular reigns, or epochas, have been marked with actions disgraceful to the human species ; but here is a system of wickedness and abomination, transferred from the origin of the nation to its posterity to this very day, confirmed by their religion, and approved by those who call themselves the Priests of God"

“ It is scarcely credible how far the littlenefs of pride is carried by the Porte, in all their transactions with the Christian Princes. To support their faith, and to extend their empire, are the only law of nations which they acknowledge.

Their treaties amount only to a temporary remission of that implacable enmity, with which their religion inspires them against every thing not Maho

They consider the most folemn treaties in the light of a truce, which they are at liberty to break, whenever they can more effectually serve the cause of Mahomet.

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In this they are much affifted by the nature of the Arabic language, which they mix with the Turkish in their public acts, and which, by the various application of its terms, literal and metaphorical, enables them to give whatever interpretation they please to the contract. When they have conquered, they put to death all ages, rank, and sex, except such as they make slaves, who are annually obliged to ranfom their lives. It has frequently been debated at the Porte, to cut off all the Christians in the empire, who will not embrace Mahometanism ; but avarice has in this instance triumphed over cruelty. Every species of misery and humiliation attends the Christians, who remain firm to their religion, and every honour and advantage is held out to those who abandon ito."

“ The effects produced by this monstrous government in the provinces are shocking to behold. We seek in vain for a population fufficient to compose those numerous kingdoms and states, which flourished when the Turks usurped their dominion : we find the country literally a desert; we find vast villages uninhabited, and of many hundreds no traces remain. 'The empire in its flourishing state was a vast camp

Eton, p. 106.

remain.

“ The Fleet goes annually to collect the tribute from Greece and the islands in the Archipelago. It is then that the miserable Greeks P most feel the weight of the iron fceptre that governs them, and all the insults and oppression of the vile satraps of the Tyrant. When a ship of the feet arrives in a port, all the people who can, fly to the mountains, or into the country. Others shut themselves up in their houses, without daring to stir out. Every one in the roads and even in the streets are plundered by the foldiers and failors of the ships; and if they are not cut and wounded with a pistol ball, they esteem themselves happy. The captains and officers raise contributions for themselves, and thus the poor Greeks

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another tax to the fleet,

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p Mr. Eton affirms that the character of the Greeks is much fuperior to what it is usually represented by French writers, in knowledge, ability, spirit, and manly courage. They bear the Turkish yoke with great impatience, and have long been anxious for 'allistance to enable them to frike it off. See his account of their negotiations with the late Empress of Russia, chap. ix. The manifesto of the Greek Patriarch, after the French invaded the Morea, is in some degree a confirmation of this opinion.

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