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PALM SUNDAY. The Sunday next before Easter, is called Palm Sunday, in memory of palm branches being strewed on the road by the multitude when Our Saviour made his triumphal entry into Jerusalem six days before his crucifixion. (Matt. 21. 8; Mark 11. 8; Luke 19. 36.) It was anciently a common practice to strew flowers and branches of trees in the way of princes and conquerors; thus Herodotus states that people went before Xerxes, passing over the Hellespont, and strewed the way with myrtles.

St. Matthew, in narrating the triumphal entry of Our Lord, adds the circumstance, “And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way.” Roberts says, “The people of the East have a robe which corresponds to the mantle of an English lady. Its name is salvi, and how often may it be seen spread on the ground where men of rank have to walk. I was not a little surprised soon after my arrival in the East, when going to visit a native gentleman, to find the path through the garden covered with white garments. I hesitated, but was told it was for my respect,' I must walk on them to show I accepted the honour.”

Professor Robinson relates that during the recent rule of Mehemet Ali in Palestine, at the time of the rebellion at Bethlehem in 1834, when some of the inhabitants were already imprisoned and all were in deep distress, Mr. Farren, the English consul at Damascus,

Tie Palm-tree (Phoenix Dact; lifera. was on a visit to Jerusalem, and had rode out with

watered, where likewise the climate is warm and the Mr. Nicolayson, the minister of the English Church at Jerusalem, to Solomon's Pools. On their return, as they

soil sandy, or such as they thrive and delight in. But rose the ascent to enter Bethlehem, hundreds of the

at Jerusalem, Sichem, and other places to the northward, people, male and female, met them, imploring the consul

I rarely saw above two or three of them together; and to interfere in their behalf, and afford them his protec

even these, as their fruit rarely, if ever, comes to matution; and all at once, by a sort of simultaneous move

rity, are of no further service than (like the palm-tree ment, “they spread their garments in the way before

of Deborah,) to shade the retreats of their sheikhs, as the horses. The consul was affected unto tears, but

they might formerly have been sufficient to supply the bad of course no power to interfere."

solemn processions with branches, such as is recorded in John 12. 13. From the present condition and quality,

therefore, of the palm-trees, it is very probable that they PALM-TREE, On tamar; Sept. pouviĚ, (Exod. could never in those quarters be either numerous or 15. 27,) the palm. The palm-tree, of various species, fruitful.” (Shaw.) The opinion, then, that Phenice is is common in many parts of the East and in Africa, and, the same with a country of date-trees, does not appear of a small size, is seen even in Spain and Italy, but is probable. rarely found in Palestine at the present time, though The date palm (Phænix dactylifera) is an evergreen formerly very numerous, as we learn from Scripture, endogenous plant which attains the dimensions of a tree, (Levit. 23.40; Deut. 34. 3; Judges 1. 16; 3. 13; 4. 5;) and flourishes only in warm climates, and, in case and likewise from the ancient coins of the Jews and there is a sufficiency of water, in clayey, sandy, and Romans, which exhibit the palm, a sheaf of wheat, and nitrous soils. It is therefore commonly found most a cluster of grapes, as the symbols of the Jewish nation. | flourishing in valleys and plains. (Exod. 15. 27.) Its

“ Several parts of the Holy Land, no less than of stem is very straight and very lofty, destitute of limbs Idumæa, that lay contiguous to it, are described by the except very near the top, where it is surmounted with a ancients to abound with date-trees. Judæa, particu- crown of foliage that is always green. The dates GTOW larly, is typified in several coins of Vespasian, by a dis- | on small stems, which germinate at the angles formed by consolate woman sitting under a palm-tree. Upon the the stock of the tree and the branches. Palm-trees Greek coin likewise of his son Titus, struck upon a exhibit what may be termed a sexual distinction, and like occasion, we see a shield suspended upon a palm- in order to any fruits being produced, the seed from tree with a Victory writing upon it. The same tree the flowers of the male palm must be borne at the upon a medal of Domitian is made an emblem of Nea- | proper season to the tree of an opposite character. " polis, formerly Sichem, or Naplosa, as it is now called; | this be not done, or if it happen too early or too late, as it is likewise of Sepphoris, or Saffour, according to | the female palm like the male bears no fruit. Where the present name, the metropolis of Galilee, upon one of the palm-tree is cultivated, the inhabitants do not trust Trajan's. It may be presumed, therefore, that the palm- | to the spontaneous impregnation of the female trees from tree was formerly very much cultivated in the Holy the male blossoms; but at the time, the end of March, Land. There are indeed, several of them at Jericho, when the sheaths that respectively inclose the young where there is the convenience they require of being often clusters of the male flowers and female fruit begin to

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Wadi Seleh. The palm-tree is always represented with its summit pointed, its leaves bent back and spreading over its head, from whence gracefully hang dates as bright as coral; and we never imagine that all this elegance is produced by art, and that nature, less refined, has only attended to its preservation. Before us we saw the palm-tree as it had grown for many a year, forming a rampart of its perishing leaves, and again coming to life, as it were, in the midst of its wreck. Neglected by the Arab of the desert, who considers all attempts at cultivation beneath his dignity, the palm-tree, at times, forms impenetrable forests; more frequently, however, it is found isolated near a fountain, as we see in the engraving. It presents itself to the thirsty traveller like a friendly lighthouse, pointing out to him the spot where water is to be found to quench his thirst, and a charitable shade in which to repose.”

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open, at which time the latter are formed and the first are mealy, they take a sprig or two of the male cluster and introduce it into the sheath of the female, or else they take a whole cluster of the male, and sprinkle its meal or farina over several clusters of the female. Dates become ripe in August, September, and October. Some are eaten in their crude state, the rest are strained through a press of woven osiers, and after the juice is forced out, are reduced into solid masses and preserved. The juice pressed out is the date wine, formerly very celebrated; under which name was also comprehended the beverage which was procured from clusters of dry dates steeped in warm water, and then pressed. The palm-tree is propagated chiefly from young shoots taken from the roots of full-grown trees; which, if well transplanted and taken care of, will yield their fruit in the sixth or seventh year, while those which are raised immediately from the kernel will not bear till about the sixteenth year. Mariti says, that in Syria, when the palm is newly planted, the natives surround its root with ashes and salt to promote its growth and vigour, while they guard it carefully from all gross and putrid matters, which are in the highest degree hurtful to it. The palm arrives at its greatest vigour about thirty years after being transplanted, and continues in full strength

The Wild Palm of the Desert. and beauty for seventy years longer, producing yearly | Palms of all species have a peculiar yet very graceful fifteen or twenty clusters of dates, each of them weighing appearance, and hence they have always been highly fifteen or twenty pounds. After this period it begins esteemed, and employed as a token of rejoicing. The gradually to decline. It requires no other culture than Hebrews, at the Feast of Tabernacles, bore palm-branches to be well watered once in four or five days, and to have in their hands; they also strewed them in the way a few of the lower boughs lopped off when they begin to before kings as they entered on public occasions into droop or wither. These, whose stumps or pellicles, in their cities, (Levit. 23. 40; Macc. 13. 51;) and the being thus gradually left upon the trunk, serve like so Greeks gave a branch of the palm to those who conmany rounds of a ladder, either to fecundate or to lop it, quered in the games. (Comp. Rev. 7. 9.) or to gather the fruit, are quickly supplied by others, The ancients always speak of the palm as a stately which gradually hang down from the crown or top, con- and noble tree. Pliny speaks of the various species of tributing both to the regular and uniform growth of this palms, and of the great repute in which they were held tall and beautiful tree, and to its perpetual and delightful by the Babylonians. He says, that the noblest of them Terdure.

were styled the royal palms, and he supposes they were so The representations generally given of the palm-tree called from their being set apart for the king's use. The exhibit it in its cultivated state: how greatly its appear- | ancients had an opinion that the palm was immortal; at ance is changed by such cultivation, may be seen by the least if it did die, that it recovered again and obtained a subjoined extract and illustration, both copied from second life by renewal. Hence the fable of the bird M. Laborde's work on Arabia Petrea.

called the Phænix is thought to have reference to this " What appeared to me most worthy of notice was a tree. Its unfading verdure rendered it a suitable palm-tree in its natural state, which we found above emblem of immortality; thus the blessed in heaven are

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PALM-TREE

PAPER REEDS.

represented in the Apocalypse as standing before the PANNAG, 2D pannag. (Ezek. 27. 17.) This throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes word, which occurs in the list of the articles with which and with palms in their hands.

the Jews furnished the Tyrians, has not been satisfactorily Its beauty also has caused it to be used in the Scrip- explained. Gesenius says that it refers to a kind of tures as a symbol of a tall and graceful person, (Cantic. pastry, while others suppose the name to imply some 7.7,8;) and its flourishing growth typifies the prosperity kind of balsam; others have thought it to be the name of a religious upright man: “The righteous shall flourish of a place, and perhaps the original of Phænicia; and like the palm-tree.” (Psalm 92. 12.)

others, again, suppose it to be the plant which DioscoThe doum palm (Cucifera Thebaica,) takes its coommn

boira takes its coommn | rides and Pliny have described by the name of pancr. name from the isle of Doum in the Nile, where it is abun- from which a composition was made serviceable in many dant, whilst its Latin name comes from Thebes, where diseases, whence panacea became the name of a univer. it also abounds. It grows in Upper Egypt, in Arabia, | sal medicine. The Syriac renders it by a word which and even as near as the Sinai peninsula; but it is much signifies millet, resembling panic, which view Bishop doubted whether any specimens of this tree are to be Newcome adopts from the similarity of its sound to met with in Palestine. The doum palm differs in many pannag. The question seems to admit of no satisfactory respects from the phenix: instead of one trunk without solution. branches, the doum throws up two trunks at the same

PANT AFTER THE DUST. This obscure exprestime, from each of which spring two branches; and the

sion occurs in Amos 2. 7, where, in denouncing the sing

si terminal branches are crowned with bundles of from

of Judah, the prophet says, “ That pant after the dust twenty to thirty palm leaves, from six to nine feet in

of the earth on the head of the poor, and turn aside the length. The tree flowers in April, and the fruit is not

way of the meek.” Roberts, in explanation, offers the unlike that of the date palm.

following remarks :-“ Who were those that thus oppressed the poor, who sold them for a pair of shoes, and

panted after the dust of the earth? They were the PALMER-WORM. The word Dia gazam, signi- judges and the princes of the people. The Tamul transfies a kind of locust; (Joel 1. 4; 2. 25; Amos 4. 9;) lation has it, “To the injury of the poor they eagerly but is rendered by the Septuagint kajian, and in the took the dust of the earth;' literally, they gnawed the Vulgate cruca, a caterpillar; the Chaldee and Syriac earth as a dog does a bone. 'Dust of the earth.' What versions express it by the young yet unfledged locust, does this mean? I believe it alludes to the lands of the bruchus, which seems to agree best with the passage in poor, of which they had been deprived by the judges and Joel, where the gazam causes the beginning of the | princes. Nothing is more common in Eastern language devastation. See Locust.

than for a man to call his fields and gardens his man;

that is, his dust, his earth. PALMYRA. See TADMOR.

“That man has gnawed

away my dust, or sand.' 'Oh! the fellow! by degrees PALSY, Tapalutikos. (Matt. 4. 24.) The palsy he has taken away all that poor man's earth. The of the New Testament is a disease of very wide import, as cruel wretch ! he is ever trying to take away the dust of has been elsewhere shown. (See DISEASES.) Hence Our | the poor.' In consequence of there not being fences in Saviour is recorded to have cured several paralytics; | the East, landowners often encroach on each other's (Matt. 4. 24; 8. 6; 9. 2; Mark 2. 3,4; Luke 5. 18;) | possessions.” the man mentioned in John 5. 5, which had an infir- | PAPER REEDS, nidy aroth, (Isai. 19. 7:) Sept. mity thirty-eight years, was a paralytic. According to

ording to to axu to XNwpov.
o avi

This word may signify generally modern authorities, palsy is a disorder which deprives the the green river plants, of a reedy or rush-like form, limbs of sensation, or motion, or both. When one entire

which grow on the banks of streams and swampy places, side of the body is affected, it is called hemiplegia; if

but it is usually restricted to one particular plant, the one half of the body, the upper or lower, it is called

Cyperus papyrus. This plant, from which was made paraplegia; if confined to a single limb or set of mus- | the paper for which the Egyptians were not less famed cles, it is simply called paralysis. It is only in the than for the delicate texture of their linen, mostly grew slighter degrees of palsy in which medical aid can hope in marshy land, or in shallow brooks, and ponds formed to afford much relief, as in general there is little prospect

| by the inundation of the Nile, in Lower Egypt, where of a cure. Imbecility of mind usually attends it, nor is

| much pains were bestowed on its cultivation. When this to be wondered at, since in all cases its immediate

the outer skin or bark is taken off, there are several films cause is a compression on the brain.

or inner pellicles, one within another; these, when sepaPAMPHYLIA, IIaudulia, (Acts 2. 10; 15. 38,)

rated from the stalk, were laid on a table, carefully a province of Asia Minor, having to the south the Pam

| matched and flatted together, and moistened with the phylian sea mentioned Acts 27. 5, Cilicia to the east,

water of the Nile, which, dissolving the glutinous juces Pisidia to the north, and Lycia to the west. Attalia and

of the plant, caused them to adhere closely together. Perga, visited by St. Paul, were its principal cities.

They were afterwards pressed, and then dried in the sun, (Acts 13. 13.) A number of Jews who resided in this

and thus were prepared sheets or leaves for writing upon province, heard Peter on the day of Pentecost; and

in characters marked by a coloured liquid passing througar perhaps first carried the Gospel thither. (Acts 2. 10.)

a hollow reed. The best papyrus was used by the Afterwards Paul and Barnabas preached here.

priests, and on this the sacred documents of Egypt were

written. Many ancient books were written on papyrus, PAN. The word 70 ser, translated “pan,” in and those of the New Testament among the rest. Ato Exodus 27. 3, signifies generally a caldron, boiler, or later period, however, these sacred writings are found ou pot. In Psalm 60. 10, it is rendered in our version | skins. This was preferred for durability; and īs wash-pot," but in Exodus 16. 3, the “flesh-pot,” or decayed copies of the New Testament belonging to lintas cooking utensil of the Egyptians. or the Egyptians. The form of these

The form of these ries were early transferred to parchment. Finally boilers or pots is shown on the Egyptian monuments, | paper, the name of which is derived from the app where the various processes of cookery are represented. reed; but the materials of which it was fabricated were See CALDRON.

cotton and linen.

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Papyri are frequently found in the mummy-cases of decide more accurately on the merits of particular persons of wealth and distinction. Numerous specimens examples. may be seen in the British Museum, and we may expect 1 “It is the first excellence of a parable to turn upon that ere long many of them may be deciphered. See an image well known and applicable to the subject, the ARK OF BULRUSHES.

meaning of which is clear and definite; for this circumPAPHOS, IIabos, the metropolis of the island of

stance will give it perspicuity, which is essential to every

species of allegory. If the parables of the sacred proCyprus, (Acts 13. 6,13,) was the residence of the Roman

phets are examined by this rule, they will not be found proconsul at the time of the Apostle Paul's visit. It was celebrated for the impure worship paid to Venus, the

deficient. They are in general founded upon such tutelar deity of the island. Here Elymas the sorcerer

imagery as is frequently used and similarly applied by was struck blind, and St. Paul here converted Sergius

way of metaphor and comparison in the Hebrew poetry. the proconsul. While the Venetians were possessed of

Examples of this kind occur in the parable of the deceit

ful vineyard, (Isai. 5. 1-7;) and of the useless vine, Cyprus, the place, under the name of Baffo, was the see

(Ezek. 15. ; 19. 10-14;) for under this imagery the unof an archbishop, and a port of some importance, but twenty-five or thirty miserable huts are all that now

grateful people of God are more than once described. remain of this once distinguished city.

(Ezek. 19. 1-9.) Moreover, the image must not only be

apt and familiar, but it must also be elegant and beautiPAPYRUS. See PAPER REEDS.

ful in itself; since it is the purpose of a poetical parable not only to explain more perfectly some proposition, but

frequently to give it some animation and splendour. As PARABLE, rapaßoan. A parable is an illustra the imagery from natural objects is, in this respect, supetion, or allegorical instruction, founded on something rior to all others, the parables of the sacred poets consist real or apparent in nature or history, from which a moral chiefly of this kind of imagery. It is also essential to is drawn, by comparing it with some other thing in which the elegance of a parable that the imagery should not the persons addressed are more immediately concerned. only be apt and beautiful, but that all its parts and The Hebrews call it wo mashal, and the Proverbs of appendages should be perspicuous and pertinent. Of all Solomon are thus termed Mashalim, parables or proverbs. these excellencies there cannot be more perfect examples The word parable, however, is variously used in the than the parables that have been just specified ; to which Scriptures to denote a proverb or short saying, (Luke we may add the well-known parable of Nathan, (2Sam. 4. 23;) a famous or received saying, (1 Sam. 10. 12; Ezek. 12. 1-4,) as well as that of Jotham, (Judges 9. 7-15,) 18. 2;) a thing gravely spoken, and comprehending im- which appears to be the most ancient extant, and portant matters in a few words, (Job 27.1; Psalm 49. 4; | approaches somewhat nearer to the poetical form. It is 78. 2;) a thing darkly or figuratively expressed, (Ezek. also the criterion of a parable that it be consistent 20. 49; Matt. 15. 15;) a visible type or emblem, repre throughout, and that the literal be never confounded senting something different from and beyond itself, with the figurative sense; and in this respect it mate(Heb. 9. 9;) a special instruction, (Luke 14. 7;) and a rially differs from that species of allegory called the consimilitude or comparison. (Matt. 24. 32; Mark 3. 23.) tinued metaphor. (Isai. 5. 1-7.)”

“Parable,” according to Bishop Lowth, “is that kind Herder observes, “ What the historians of European of allegory which consists of a continued narration of a nations propose in aphorisms, the Orientals clothe in the fictitious or accommodated event, applied to the illustra dress of fiction or fable. The tyrant who took from tion of some important truth. By the Greeks allegories them their freedom of speech must at least leave them were called aivai, or apologues, and by the Romans their fables, their proverbs, their wild and romantic tales. fabulæ, or fables; and the writings of the Phrygian sage, These not only commended themselves to the minds of or those composed in imitation of him, have acquired the the common people, but sometimes ventured, in humble greatest celebrity. Nor did Our Saviour himself disdain guise, to approach the ear of the monarch. Thus to adopt the same method of instruction; of whose para Nathan related to David a little story of the one ewebles it is doubtful whether they excel most in wisdom | lamb of the poor man. Thus, too, Isaiah sung to his and utility, or in sweetness, elegance, and perspicuity. well-beloved, the people, a fabulous song of another As the appellation of parable has been applied to his beloved, the sentiment of which is simply that the fordiscourses of this kind, the term is now restricted from mer is an unfruitful and unprofitable vineyard, which its former extensive signification to a more confined the latter, the lord of the vineyard, threatens with imme. sense. This species of composition occurs very fre- diate destruction. The prophets paint symbols upon the quently in the prophetic poetry, and particularly in that wall, or themselves become symbols, living fables, and of Ezekiel. The use of parables is of very great anti when curiosity prompted the inquiry, What is this? quity. In the early ages of the world, when the art of What does this witless figure mean? the prophet exreasoning was little known, and the minds of men were | plained its pregnant import.” not accustomed to nice and curious speculations, we find The parables of Our blessed Lord far excel the most that the most ancient mode of instruction was by parable celebrated fables of antiquity in clearness and perspiand fable. It has been well remarked by a talented cuity, which made them remarkably fit for the instrucwriter, that ‘Little reaches the understanding of the mass tion of the ignorant and prejudiced, for whom they were but through the medium of the senses. Their minds are originally designed. Our Saviour's images and allusions not fitted for the reception of abstract truth. Dry argu are not only taken from nature, but especially from those mentative instruction, therefore, is not proportioned to objects and occurrences which are most familiar to our their capacity; the faculty by which a right conclusion observation and experience. It requires no laborious is drawn, is in them the most defective; they rather feel search, no stretch of imagination, to discover his meanstrongly than judge accurately; and their feelings are ing. Such of his parables indeed as predicted the nature awakened by the impression made on their senses.?” and progress of the Gospel dispensation, and the oppo

In order to our forming a more certain judgment upon sition it would meet with from the folly of mankind, this subject, Bishop Lowth has briefly explained some of were purposely left to be explained by the events to the primary qualities of the poetic parables; so that, which they refer, and with which they so exactly correby considering the general nature of them, we may spond, that their meaning soon became plain and obvi

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ous to all. It is, moreover, particularly worthy of obser- | Septuagint napadeloos, and in our version “forest." vation, that the moral instructions conveyed by the and “ orchard." It denotes a park, inclosure, or garden. parables of the Gospel are of the most important nature, particularly one belonging to the king, and from the and essential to cur duty and best interests. They do beauty and desirableness of such places, the word in its not serve merely to amuse the imagination, but to Greek form is, in the New Testament, used to denote enlighten the understanding, and to purify the heart. the state of the souls of the faithful between death and They aim at no less an object than the happiness of the resurrection; where, like Adam in Eden, they are mankind in a future and eternal state. The doctrines admitted to immediate communion with God, or to a of the soul's immortality, and a future judgment, are the participation of the tree of life which is in the midst of groundwork of Our Lord's parables; and to illustrate the Paradise of God. (Luke 23. 43; Rev. 2. 7.) To and confirm these fundamenial principles is their main denote the same state, the Jews sometimes used the and leading design. They all terminate in this point, phrase “ Abraham's bosom," a metaphor borrowed from and describe the awful scenes of eternity, and the inte the manner in which they reclined at meals. (Luke resting consequences of that trial, in a language which 16. 22.) Of this blessed state the Apostle Paul had a though simple and unadorned, is yet amazingly striking foretaste. (2Cor. 12. 2,4.) He states that he was caught and impressive.

up to the third heaven, that he might contemplate that The parables of Our Lord were likewise admirably scene of supreme felicity which awaits the just after the adapted to the time when, the place in which, and the resurrection. Origen says, “ If Paul saw such unutterpersons to whom, they were delivered; while they were able things, even though afterwards to descend from the also fitted for the general instruction of mankind in all third heaven, how many more, and how much greater ages. Dr. Lightfoot and others have shown that Jesus shall we know, when, having followed Jesus, and taken often borrowed proverbs and phrases from the Jews. up his cross, we shall be admitted into the blessed state But an inspired teacher would hardly propose whole above, never more to quit it.” parables that were in common use for his own; nor There is a distinction, it seems to be made between does it appear that any one used the parables of Christ Paradise and Heaven. The enjoyment of Paradise is before his time; for those which are alleged out of the confined to the intermediate state; that of heaven is Talmudical or other Jewish writers, were all penned some | necessarily deferred till the creation of the new heaven ages after his birth. For example, the parable of the and new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness. householder and the labourers, which is extant in the Jerusalem Gemara, was written an age and a half at

PARAN, 1870 (Numb. 10. 12; Deut. 1. 19.) least after the destructien of the Temple. It is more probable, therefore, that it was written in imitation of

The desert of Paran, which the children of Israel Christ, than borrowed from any ancient tradition. The

entered after leaving Mount Sinai, and where thirtysame may be said of many others, as Matthew 18. 17,

eight of their forty years' wandering were spent, in the out of the book of Musar; and of another parable like

latter of these passages designated a “great and terrible that (Matt. 25. 1,) of the ten virgins. If Jesus had

wilderness," extended from Mount Sinai on the south, to borrowed whole parables or discourses, it would scarcely

the southern border of the land of Canaan; having the have been remarked so often that he spoke as one who

desert of Shur with its subdivisions, the deserts of

Etham and Sin, on the west, and the eastern branch of had authority, and not as the Scribes; nor would the

the Red Sea, the desert of Zin and Mount Seir on the extraordinary wisdom of his instructions have so much astonished his auditors, and the Scribes and Pharisees

east. Mr. Carne represents the desert of Paran as being would have been glad to have exposed him by proclaim

“in many parts intersected by numerous ravines and

glens, and broken by lofty barriers. Among these, the ing to the people that he was indebted to the Rabbis for what gained him the reputation of superior sagacity.

noble mountain of Paran with its enormous precipices, Dr. Gray observes, “ It is a singular excellency in the

is only a long day's journey distant, and always in sight Gospel parables that though they were for the most part

from the neighbourhood: it is capable of ascent only occasional, and wisely adapted by Our Saviour to the

on the farthest side, and that not without difficulty.

Around its base are flat plains of sand, well adapted characters and circumstances of the persons to whom they were originally addressed, yet they contain most

to large encampments.” Burckhardt represents this wholesome instructions and admonitions for all ages of

desert, which he entered from that of Zin, or valley of

El-Araba, about the parallel of Suez, as a dreary expanse the world, and for every future period of the Church. In short, all the parables of Christ are beautiful; the |

of calcareous soil covered with black flints. truest delineation of human manners, embellished with PARAPHRASES. See TARGUMS. all those graces which an unaffected simplicity of diction is able to bestow, graces beyond the reach of the most

PARASCHIOTH, a division of the Law into porelaborate artifice of composition. But two out of the

tions answering to the Lessons of our Church. (See number shine among the rest with unrivalled splendour;

BIBLE.) The Jews began the course of reading these and we may safely challenge the genius of antiquity to

paraschioth in their synagogues the first Sabbath after the produce from all its stores of elegance and beauty, such

Feast of Tabernacles; or rather, indeed, on the Sabbathspecimens of pathetic unlaboured description, as the

day before that, for when they finished the last course of parables of the prodigal son and the good Samaritan.”

reading, they also made a beginning of the new course, in order, as the Rabbins say, that the devil might not

accuse them to God of being weary of reading his Law. PARACLETE, Tapakantos. (John 14. 16,26; 15. 26; 16. 7.) This word signifies generally a con

PARCHMENTS, ueußpavas (2Tim. 4. 13.) soler, a comforter; but is by the Evangelist applied to

The Apostle Paul in this passage directs Timothy to the Holy Spirit as bestowing spiritual aid and consola

bring with him to Rome, whither he charges him to tion. See Holy Ghost.

repair speedily, certain things, “but especially the parch

ments;" what these parchments were to which so much PARADISE, 0770 paridis. The word paridis importance seems to be attached, can only at this time occurs in Nehemiah 2. 8; Solomon's Song 4. 13; Eccle- be matter of mere conjecture. Parchment, said to have siastes 2. 5; and in these passages it is rendered in the been invented as a substitute for the papyrus of Egypt,

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