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have been and are, no more than two covenants; that of PATARA, IIatapa, (Acts 21. 1,) was a sea-port works and that of grace. Under the one or the other of town of Lycia, anciently of considerable note, where these compacts, every man must arrange himself.” St. Paul going from Philippi to Jerusalem, found a ship

bound for Phænicia, in which he sailed. The port i

now entirely choked up by the encroaching sands; but PASTIMES. See RECREATIONS; Sports.

extensive ruins mark the former magnificence of the place.

PATHROS, diz PASTOR, 'Y9 roe, from yn roeh, a shepherd.

a district of Egypt, mentioned (Jerem. 12. 10.) Beside this literal sense, the word

by the prophets Jeremiah (14. 1,15,) and Ezekiel

(29. 14; 30. 14,) is supposed to be the same as was afterpastor is employed figuratively in the Scriptures, in

wards called by the Greeks Thebais, and is now known somewhat the same way as it is now used to denote a

as Sais, or Upper Egypt. It had its name from Pathstated minister appointed to watch over and instruct a

rusim, the fifth son of Mizraim, who peopled it. (Gen, congregation.

10. 14.) From Pathros it is said God will recall the In illustration of the passage in Jeremiah, where it is

Jews to their own land, (Isai. 11. 11,) the expression said, “ Many pastors have destroyed my vineyard, they

here denoting the whole of Egypt. have trodden my portion under foot, they have made my pleasant portion a desolate wilderness," Keith PATIENCE is that calm and unruffled temper remarks,“ Besides successive invasions by foreign with which a good man bears the evils of life. We nations, and the systematic spoliation exercised by a des- have set before us in the Scriptures the most powerful potic government, other causes have conspired to per- | motives to excite us to the attainment of this grace. petuate the desolation of Judæa, and to render abortive

(1.) God is a God of patience. (Rom. 15. 5.) (2.) It the substance that is in it. Among these has chiefly to

is enjoined by the Gospel. (Rom. 12. 12.) (3.) The he numbered its being literally trodden under foot by

present state of man renders the practice of it absolutely many pastors. Volney devotes a chapter of fifty pages necessary. (Heb. 10. 36.) (4.) Eminent examples of in length to a description, as he entitles it, ‘Of the pas it are presented for our encouragement. (Job 1. 22; toral, or wandering tribes of Syria,' chiefly of the Heb. 12. 2.) (5.) Lastly, we are to remember that all Bedouin Arabs, by whom especially Judæa is incessantly our trials borne with patience will terminate in triumph. traversed. “The pachalics of Aleppo and Damascus (Rom. 2. 7; James 5. 7,8.) may be computed to contain about thirty thousand wandering Turkmen (Turcomans). All their property consists in cattle. In the same pachalics the number of PATIENCE OF GOD. Thus may be considered the Kurds "exceed twenty thousand tents and huts,' or the Divine long-suffering or forbearance with sinners. an equal number of armed men. "The Kurds are almost The Lord is called the God of patience, not only because everywhere looked upon as robbers. Like the Turkmen, He is the author and object of the grace of patience, but these Kurds are pastors and wanderers. A third wan- | because He is patient or long-suffering in Himself, and dering people in Syria are the Bedouin Arabs. “It towards his creatures. It is not, however, to be con. cften happens that even individuals turn robbers, in sidered as a quality, accident, passion, or affection in order to withdraw themselves from the laws, or from God, as in creatures, but belongs to the very nature and tyranny, unite and form a little camp, which maintain essence of God, and springs from his goodness and themselves by arms, and, increasing, become new hordes mercy. (Rom. 2. 4.) It is said to be exercised towards and new tribes. We may pronounce that in cultivable his chosen people. (Isai. 30. 18; Rom. 3. 23; 2Pet. countries, the wandering life originates in the injustice 3. 9.) The end of his forbearance to the wicked is or want of feeling in the government; and that the that they may be without excuse; to make his power sedentary and the cultivating state is that to which man- and goodness visible. (Gen. 18. 32; 2Pet. 3. 9.) His kind is most naturally inclined.' It is evident that patience is manifested, by giving warnings of judgments agriculture must be very precarious in such a country, before he executes them, (Hosea 6.5; Amos 1. 1; 2Pet. and that under a government like that of the Turks it is 2. 5;) in long delaying his judgments, (Eccles. 8. 11;) safer to lead a wandering life than to choose a settled in often mixing mercy with them. There are many habitation, and rely for subsistence on agriculture. instances of this patience recorded in the Scriptures ; as The Turkman, the Kurds, and the Bedouins have no with the old world, (Gen. 6. 3;) the inhabitants of fixed habitations, but keep perpetually wandering with Sodom, (Gen. 18;) with Pharaoh, (Exod. 5;) with the their tents and herds, in limited districts, of which they people of Israel in the wilderness, (Acts 13. 18;) with look upon themselves as the proprietors. The Arabs the Gentile world, (Acts 17. 30;) with fruitless professpread themselves over the whole frontier of Syria and sors, (Luke 13. 6,9;) with Antichrist. (Rev. 2. 21.) even the plains of Palestine. Thus contrary to their natural inclination, the peasants, often forced to abandon a settled life, and pastoral tribes in great numbers,

PATMOS, IIatuos, is a small island in the Ægean without fixed habitations, divide the country, as it

Sea, not far from Miletus, and about forty miles westwere, by mutual consent, and apportion it in limited

ward of Ephesus, whither the Apostle and Evangelist districts among themselves by an assumed right of pro

John was banished, A.D. 94; and where he had the perty; and the Arabs, subdivided also into different

revelation which he has recorded in the Apocalypse. tribes, spread over the plains of Palestine, wandering

On the authority of Tertullian it is usually stated, that perpetually' as if on purpose to tread it down. What

this banishment took place after the Apostle had been could be more unlikely or unnatural in such a land, yet miraculously delivered, unhurt, from a vessel of faming what more strikingly and strictly true? or how else

Polca l oil into which he had been cast. could the effect of the vision have been seen. Many

The island is now called Patino, and is about twentypastors have destroyed my vineyard ; they have trodden five or thirty miles in circumference, but consists who my portion under foot.'”

of a huge conical rock, which appears to be of volcanie origin, thinly covered by a barren soil. The population is estimated at about four thousand, who wic

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all Greeks. Patmos is said by a modern traveller to , and the patriarch of Alexandria had some prerogatives possess an excellent harbour, and the town being situ- which no other patriarch but himself enjoyed; such as ated on the loftiest part of the island, makes a pretty the right of consecrating and approving of every single appearance on entering. “The houses being con- bishop under his jurisdiction. structed of a white freestone have a peculiarly neat At present the Greek church is governed by four aspect. It has been calculated that the town has an patriarchs, namely, those of Constantinople, Jerusalem, elevation of nearly five hundred feet above the level of Antioch, and Alexandria. The three last are equal and the sea. In its centre is a large convent dedicated to independent, but they acknowledge the superiority of the St. John the Evangelist. We saw, in walking to the other, and his authority in so far that nothing important summit of the hill, the grotto in which St. John is said can be undertaken in the regulation of spiritual affairs, to have composed his Revelation. The convent has a without his consent. The patriarch of Constantinople, resident bishop, with a considerable number of monks, is elected by plurality of votes, by the metropolitan and and is a college for the education of young men of the neighbouring bishops, and presented to the Sultan for Greek persuasion. In those parts of the island which institution. The patriarch of Antioch has two rivals, the inhabitants are able to cultivate, we saw several who assume the same title and dignity; the one as the small fields or patches of corn, banked up with stones to head of the Syrian Jacobite church, the other as the prevent the soil from being washed away by the rains. Maronite patriarch, or head of the Syrian Catholics. It appeared, however, to be capable of producing but an The patriarch of Alexandria, who resides generally at inconsiderable quantity of grain. The inhabitants pro- Cairo, has likewise his Coptic rival; and the few who cure sheep and cattle from the neighbouring islands. are subject to him are chiefly found in the villages or The town contains about two hundred houses.” The capital of Lower Egypt. The patriarchs of Antioch and ruins of its acropolis, or citadel, were discovered in 1817. Jerusalem reside chiefly at Constantinople, and possess There are here numerous small churches, many of which but very slender and precarious revenues. are opened only on the anniversary festival of the saints | The Armenian church has likewise its patriarchs; and to whom they are dedicated.

the claims of the Pope, extravagant as they have been, may be said to have had their origin in the bishop of

Rome being early acknowledged as the only patriarch PATRIARCH, natpiapxns. This word signifies of the Latin church, he having succeeded in forcing the the father and founder of a family or tribe, such as bishops of Lyons and Toledo to abandon their claims to Abraham. (Heb. 7. 4.) It is applied chiefly to those the patriarchal dignity. fathers of the Hebrew nation who lived before Moses, and who were both priests and princes. See GOVERN

PATROBAS, IIatpoßas, the name of a Christian MENT OF THE HEBREWS.

who dwelt at Rome, and who is included in the salutaThe term patriarch is now a title of high dignity in tiener

ntions of the Apostle. (Rom. 16. 14.) some Christian churches of the East. The title first obtained among the Jews, in reference to the presidents of the Sanhedrin, which exercised a general authority PAUL, ITavros, the great Apostle of the Gentiles, over the Jews of Syria and Persia after the destruction called Saul before his conversion, was a Hebrew of of Jerusalem. The patriarchate of Tiberias, for the the Hebrews, and a descendant of the patriarch Abra. Western Jews, subsisted till the year 415; that of Baby- ham, of the tribe of Benjamin, (Philip. 3. 5,) and a native lon, for the Eastern Jews, till 1038. When the title of Tarsus, then the chief city of Cilicia. (Acts 9. 11.) was introduced into the Christian Church, the power of By birth he was a citizen of Rome, (Acts 22. 28,) a pripatriarchs was not the same in all, but differed according vilege which had been conferred on many of the inhato the customs of countries, or the pleasure of kings and bitants of Tarsus, they having warmly embraced the councils. Thus the patriarch of Constantinople grew to cause of one of the contending parties during the civil be a patriarch over the patriarchs of Ephesus and Cæsa-wars of the later years of the Roman commonwealth. rea, and was called the æcumenical and universal patriarch; His father was a Pharisee, and he himself was educated

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in the most rigid principles of that sect. (Acts 23. 6; | unvisited, so far as we know, by the other Apostles. 26. 5.) His sister's son, and other relatives, early em | Though emphatically styled the Great Apostle of the braced the Gospel, and were Christians before his con- | Gentiles, he began his ministry in almost every city by version. (Acts 23. 16-22; Rom. 16. 7,11,21.) Paul preaching in the synagogue of the Jews; and though he was early educated in Greek literature, and probably at / owed by far the greater part of his persecutions to the Tarsus, that place being celebrated for its schools of opposition and malice of his own people, whose resentlearning and eloquence, and his proficiency is shown by ment he particularly incurred by maintaining that the quotations made in his more advanced years from several Gentiles were to be admitted to an indiscriminate partiGreek poets. Thus in Acts 17. 28, he cites a verse cipation in the benefits of the new dispensation, yet it from Aratus; in 1 Corinthians 15. 33, he quotes another rarely happened in any place that some of the Jews did from Menander; and in Titus l. 12, a verse from Epi- not yield to his arguments, and embrace the Gospel. menides. From Tarsus Saul removed to Jerusalem, The exertions of St. Paul in the cause of Christianity where he studied the law and Jewish traditions under were not confined to personal instruction. He watched Gamaliel. (Acts 22.3; 26.5; Galat. 1. 14.) He appears with paternal care over the churches which he had to have been a person of great natural abilities, quick founded, and was always ready to strengthen the faith apprehension, strong passions, and firm resolution. He and regulate the conduct of his converts by such direcwas also blameless in his life, and strictly faithful to the tions and advice as their circumstances might require; dictates of his conscience, according to the knowledge he also wrote fourteen epistles to individuals or churches, which he possessed; this is evident from his appeals to which are now extant and form a part of our canon. the Jews, and from the undissembled satisfaction he These letters furnish ample evidence of the soundness and expresses on a serious comparison and review of his sobriety of his judgment. His morality is everywhere former and latter conduct. (Acts 23. 1; 26. 4,5; Philip. calm, pure, and rational, adapted to the condition, the 3. 6; 1 Tim. 1. 13.)

activity, and the business of social life, and of its various He completed his education by being taught the art relations; free from the over-scrupulousness and austeof tent-making, in accordance with the practice of the rities of superstition, and from what was more perhaps Jews, with whom it was customary to teach youth of to be apprehended, the abstractions of quietism, and the every grade some mechanical employment, by which, in soarings or extravagancies of fanaticism. His judgment case of necessity, they might maintain themselves with concerning a hesitating conscience, his opinion of the out being burdensome to others.

moral indifferency of certain actions, yet of the prudence For some time after the appearance of Christianity in and even the duty of compliance, where non-compliance the world, Saul was a bitter enemy and a furious perse would produce evil effects upon the minds of the persons cutor of all who professed that faith; and when the who observed it, are all in proof of the calm and discriproto-martyr Stephen was stoned, Saul was not only minating character of his mind; and the universal applifound consenting to his death, but even held the clothes cability of his precepts affords strong presumption of his of the witnesses whilst they stoned him. After this Divine inspiration. event, (A.D. 34,) he took a still more active part in the Lord Lyttelton makes the following admirable remarks persecution of the Christians, not only at Jerusalem, but with respect to the preference ascribed by St. Paul to also throughout Judæa, but his career was miraculously rectitude of principle above every other religious gift: arrested, (Acts 9,) and henceforward he is seen as the | “Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, unwearied and undaunted advocate of all he had before and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass or abhorred, and “traversing sea and land to make a pro- a tinkling cymbal,” &c., (1Cor. 13. 1-3:) “Did ever selyte.” His history, which occupies almost exclusively enthusiast prefer that universal benevolence, meant by the much greater number of the chapters of the Acts of charity here, (which, we may add, is attainable by every the Apostles, ends with the release of the Apostle from man,) to faith and to miracles, to those religious opihis two years' imprisonment at Rome, (A.D. 63;) and nions which he had embraced, and to those supernatural no ancient author has left us any particulars of the graces and gifts which he imagined he had acquired, remaining part of his life. It seems probable, that im nay, even the merit of martyrdom? Is it not the genius mediately after he recovered his liberty, he went to of enthusiasm to set moral virtues infinitely below the Jerusalem; and that afterwards he travelled through merit of faith; and of all moral virtues to value that Asia Minor, Crete, Macedonia, and Greece, confirming least, which is most particularly enforced by St. Paul, a his converts, and regulating the affairs of the different spirit of candour, moderation, and peace? Certainly, churches which he had planted in those countries. neither the temper nor the opinions of a man subject to Whether at this time he also preached the Gospel in fanatic delusions are to be found in this passage. His Spain, as some have supposed, is very uncertain. It letters, indeed, everywhere discover great zeal and was, however, the unanimous tradition of the ancient earnestness in the cause in which he was engaged; that church, that St. Paul returned to Rome, that he under- | is to say, he was convinced of the truth of what be went a second imprisonment there, and at last was put taught; he was deeply impressed, but not more so than to death on occasion of a dreadful fire which happened the occasion merited, with a sense of its importance. at Rome in the time of Nero. It was generally believed, This produces a corresponding animation and solicitude though perhaps erroneously, that the emperor himself in the exercise of his ministry. But would not these conwas the author of that fire: but to remove the odium siderations, supposing them to have been well founded from himself, he chose to attribute it to the Christians; have holden the same place, and produced the same and to give some colour to that unjust imputation, he effect in a mind the strongest and the most sedate? persecuted them with the utmost cruelty. In this per Here, then, we have a man of liberal attainments, and secution, St. Peter and St. Paul are said to have suffered in other respects of sound judgment, who had addicted martyrdom, probably A.D. 65, and, if we may credit his life to the service of the Gospel. We see him in the Sulpitius Severus, a writer in the fifth century, the former prosecution of his purpose travelling from country to was crucified, the latter beheaded.

country, enduring every species of hardship, encountering St. Paul was the principal instrument under Provi every extremity of danger, assaulted by the populace, dence of spreading the Gospel among the Gentiles; his punished by the magistrates, scourged, beaten, stoned, labours having embraced a vast extent of country, | left for dead; expecting wherever he came, a renewal of

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the same treatment, and the same danger; yet, when “The Epistles of St. Paul would of themselves be a driven from one city, preaching in the next; spending sufficient proof of the truth of Christianity:" and Chahis whole time in the employment; sacrificing to it his teaubriand says, “ The more one reads the Epistles, pleasures, his ease, his safety; persisting in this course especially those by St. Paul, the more one is astonished. to old age, unaltered by the experience of perverse ne s We can hardly say what is that man, who, in a kind of ingratitude, prejudice, desertion; unsubdued by an x iey ordinary prose speaks familiarly so many sublime words, want, labour, persecutions; unwearied by long confine- gives such profound views of the human heart, explains ment, undismayed by the prospect of death. Such was the nature of the Supreme Being, and predicts the St. Paul and such were the proofs of apostleship found future.” him."

“ All the writings of St. Paul,” says a modern divine, “bespeak him to have been a man of a most exalted genius,


2 0 martsepheth. (2Kings 16.17.) and the strongest abilities. His composition is peculiarlý / In the account of the sacrilege of Ahab, we read that nervous and animated. He possessed a fervid conception,

he removed the brazen oxen upon which the base in the a quick apprehension, and an immensely ample and liberal

Temple rested, and substituted a stone pavement. The heart. Inheriting from nature distinguished powers, he

lower stories of Eastern houses and palaces, in later days, carried the culture and improvement of them to the

were usually paved with marble, (Esth. 1. 6,) but in the most exalted height to which human learning could

time of Moses marble was not used for pavements. push them. He was an excellent scholar, an acute

The “paved work of a sapphire stone” mentioned in reasoner, a great orator, a most instructive and spirited

Exodus 24. 10, is therefore supposed to refer to the writer. Longinus, a person of the finest taste and

splendid floors known in Egypt, which were formed of justest discernment in criticism and polite literature, par

erature painted tiles or bricks. Champollion and Rosellini have classes the Apostle Paul among the most celebrated

ehrated I given specimens of these ornamented floors, and frag

818 orators of Greece. His speeches in the Acts of the

ments of such may be seen in the British Museum. Apostles are worthy of the Roman Senate. They breathe a generous fire and fervour, are animated with a divine spirit of liberty and truth, abound with instances of as fine address as any of the most celebrated orations of Demosthenes or Cicero can boast; and his answers, when at the bar, to the questions proposed to him by the court, have a politeness and a greatness which nothing in antiquity hardly ever equalled. A person possessed of natural abilities so signal, of literary acquisitions so extensive, of an activity and spirit so enterprising, and of an integrity and probity so inviolate, the wisdom of God judged a fit instrument to employ in displaying the banners and spreading the triumphs of Christianity among mankind. A negligent greatness, if we may so express it, appears in his writings. Full of the dignity of his subject, a torrent of sacred eloquence bursts forth and bears down everything before it with irresistible rapidity. He stays not to arrange and harmonise his words and periods, but rushes on, as his vast ideas transport him, borne away by the sublimity of his theme. Hence his frequent and prolix digressions, though at the same time his all comprehensive mind never loses sight of his subject; but he returns from these excursions, resumes and pursues it with an ardour and strength of reasoning that astonishes and convinces. It was the opinion of Epiphanius that the alleged complication of St. Pauls discourses was only in appearance, and we may venture to add, that if any of them should remain after all obscure and intricate, yet some lesson of practical wisdom will be the reward of examination, some position of piety, some aphorism of virtue, easy from its brevity, intelligible from its clearness, and valuable from its weight. No person ever yet repented consulting the pages of St. Paul. They are, as has been justly stated, 'a golden mine, in which the diligent workman the deeper he digs, the more he will discover; the further he examines, the more he will find.'” Testimonies of the high esteem in which the elo

Specimens of Egyptian Pavements. In the British Museum. quence of St. Paul has been in all ages held might be easily produced, were it necessary to prove what no one | This taste still prevails in the East. Le Bruyn tells us, capable of judging on the matter would attempt to that the mosque at Jerusalem is almost all covered over deny; still a few brief words, all to the same effect, from with green and blue bricks, which are glazed, so that men separated from each other by ages, and in whom when the sun shines the eye is perfectly dazzled; and little else in common can be detected, may not be mis Dr. Russell likewise mentions that a portion of the placed. St. Augustine remarks, “No orator has ever | pavement of some of the houses in Syria is composed of surpassed St. Paul in eloquence, nor equalled him as an mosaic work. See HOUSE. Apostle in depth and luminousness.” Bossuet observes, The “ pavement” mentioned in John 19. 13, is called

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in Greek XoootpWtov, in Syro-Chaldaic, gabbatha; it | by the ancients the bird of Media or Persia, in which was no doubt a tesselated pavement of mosaic work in the land of Cush or Cuth was situated. Aristophanes front of the palace of Pilate. The passage might read, calls the peacock the bird of Persia; Suidas, the bird of “He led Jesús out of the prætorium, whither the Jews Media; and Clemens Pedagogus, the bird of India. might not enter, and took his seat upon the public tri- | Diodorus obseryes, that Babylonia produces a very great bunal (Boua,) which stood upon a tesselated pavement." | number of peacocks marked with colours of every kind. Some writers suppose the similar pavement in the In the opinion of Bochart, India is the native country Temple to be meant; but this must be incorrect, as a of the bird, but it is mentioned as a native of Persia Roman magistrate could not hold judicial proceedings and Media, because it was first imported from India in the Temple. See GABBATHA.

into these countries, from whence it passed into Judea,

Egypt, and Greece, and gradually found its way to | PAVILION, OD sukkah. (1Kings 20. 12,16.) |

other parts of the globe. That the Hebrew word here translated “ pavilion," pro

The distinguishing character of this singular and eleperly refers to huts, or tabernacles, made of boughs cant bird, one of the largest and certainly the most hand. interlaced together, or those slight temporary defences some of the Gallinæ, or poultry kind, is its train, which from the heat which are formed by the setting up the

rises just above the tail, and, when erected, forms a fan boughs of trees, is evident from Nehemiah 8. 16, and

n Nehemiah 8. 16, and

of the mo

of the most resplendent hues; the two middle feathers Jonah 4. 5. It is still a common practice for people in the East to erect such temporary shelters, and to sit under them during the heat of the day. See BOOTH; TABERNACLE.

PE, pe, is the seventeenth letter of the IIebrew alphabet, and as a numeral, equivalent to 80. The name is probably derived from 1 peh, mouth. This letter, according to the general rule given by Jewish grammarians, is to be pronounced like ph, but in some cases where it is marked with a dagesh lene, like p.

PEACE, is that state in which persons are exposed to no sort of violence to interrupt their tranquillity. (1.) Social peace, is mutual agreement one with another, whereby we forbear injuring one another. (Psalm 34.14.) (2.) Spiritual peace, is deliverance from sin by which

The Peacock. we were at enmity with God, (Rom. 5. 1,) the result of which is peace in the conscience. (Heb. 10. 22.) This

are sometimes four feet and a half long, the others grapeace is the gift of God through Jesus Christ, (Thess.

dually diminishing on each side ; the shafts white, and 3. 16;) it is a blessing of great importance, (Psalm

furnished from their origin nearly to the end with parted 119. 165;) it is denominated perfect, (Isai. 26.3.) inex

filaments of varying colours ending in a flat vane, which pressible, (Phil. 4. 7,) permanent, (Job 34. 29,) eternal.

is decorated with what is called the eye. The real tail (Isai. 57. 2; Heb. 4. 9.)

consists of short, stiff, brown feathers, which serve as a Peace is a word employed in Scripture, to signify

support to the train. When pleased or delighted, the generally, quiet and tranquillity, public or private, peacock erects his train, and displays all his beauties; including every kind and degree of prosperity and hap

every movement is full of dignity; his head and neck piness; as to “go in peace; to “die in peace;" “ God

bend nobly back; his pace is slow and solemn, and he give you peace;" “Peace be within this house;" “Pray frequently turns slowly and gracefully round, as if to for the peace of Jerusalem.” St. Paul in the intro

catch the sunbeams in every direction, and produce new duction of his Epistles, generally wishes grace and peace

colours of richness and beauty, accompanied at the same to the faithful, to whom he writes; and “God give you

time with a hollow murmuring voice. The cry of the peace!" is still one of the most common forms of Oriental

peacock, at other times, is often repeated, and very dissalutation.

agreeable. The plumes are shed every year, and while

moulting them, the bird retires from view. The peahen PEACE-OFFERINGS. See SACRIFICE.

is somewhat less than the male bird. She lays five or six eggs of a whitish colour; for this purpose she chooses

some secret spot, where she can conceal them from the PEACOCK. In the account of the voyages of male, who is apt to break them ; she sits from twentySolomon's fleet we read, “The king had at sea a navy | five to thirty days, according to the temperature of the of Tharshish with the navy of Hiram; once in three years came the navy of Tharshish, bringing gold and | Roberts observes, “ Peacocks are exceedingly numersilver, ivory and apes, and "Un tukkiim, (1 Kings ous in the East; and it gives a kind of enchantment to 10. 22,) 'or "min (2Chron. 9. 21,) according to some a morning scene to see flocks of them together, spreadversions “pheasants,” which are abundant in Arabia ing their beautiful plumage in the rays of the sun. Felix; but according to the Targum, the Hebrew inter They proudly stalk along, and then run with great speed, preters, the Syriac, Arabic, Vulgate, and our version, the particularly if they get sight of a serpent; and the replast were "peacocks,” which seems the most probable; tile must wind along in his best style, or he will soon the elegant shape, the majestic mien, and the splendid | become the prey of the lordly bird. A husband someplumage of the peacock rendering it a present not unbe times says to his wife, ‘Come hither, my beautiful peafitting a king. The origin of the Hebrew name is unknown; Bochart imagines it is an exotic term, and changing it by inversion into Sand Cuthiim, he traces it

PEAR, PRICKLY. See Thorn. to a Cushite root, intended to denote the native country of the peacock. On this principle the peacock is called




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