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the King of Persia by the British ambassador, was received the answer, Jesus declared Peter blessed on favourably received.
account of his faith; and, in allusion to the signification
of his name, added, “ Thou art Peter, and upon this PERSIS, IIepois, the name of a female Christian, rock I will build my church,” &c. Some writers are of mentioned by the Apostle Paul. (Rom. 16. 12.) opinion these things were spoken to St. Peter alone, for
the purpose of conferring on him privileges and powers PERSON. See Trinity.
not granted to the rest of the Apostles,-a favourite, but PESTILENCE. The pestilence, or plague, 727 most groundless position of the Romanists, who from it daber, (Levit. 26. 25,) is a term generally used in the attempt to justify the monstrous assumptions of supreHebrew Scriptures for all epidemic or contagious dis
macy, both temporal and spiritual, of the Bishop of eases; the writers also everywhere attribute it either to
Rome; but others, with more reason, suppose that the agency of God himself or of that legate or angel
though Jesus directed his discourse to St. Peter, it was whom they denominate a malach; hence the Sep
intended for them all; and that the honours and powers tuagint renders the word 737 daber, or pestilence, in
granted to St. Peter by name were conferred on them all Psalm 91. 6, by daluoviov ueonußpivov, “the demon
equally. For no one will say that Christ's church was of noonday," and Jonathan also renders the same word
built upon St. Peter singly; it was built on the foundain the Chaldee Targum, (Habak. 3. 5,) by the Chaldee
tion of all the Apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himword TX50 malach, angel or messenger. The prophets
self being the chief corner-stone. As little can any one usually connect together, sword, pestilence, and famine,
say that the power of binding and loosing was confined being three of the most grievous inflictions of the to St. Peter, seeing it was declared afterwards to belong Almighty upon a guilty people. (2Sam. 24. 19.) See to all the Apostles. (Matt. 18. 18; John 20. 23.) St. DISEASES; PLAGUE.
Peter likewise made his confession in answer to a ques
tion which Jesus put to all the Apostles, which confesPESTLE, y ali, (Prov. 27. 22,) a pestle. It is sion was certainly made in the name of the whole; and supposed, from the above passage, not that the wheat therefore what Jesus said to him in reply was designed was pounded to meal instead of being ground, but that for the whole without distinction; excepting this, which it was pounded to be separated from the husk. The was peculiar to him, that he was to be the first who, Jews very probably used wheat in the same manner as after the descent of the Holy Ghost, should preach the rice is now used in the East, that is, boiled up in pillaus Gospel to the Jews, and then to the Gentiles; an honour variously prepared, which required that it should, like which was conferred on St. Peter in the expression, “I rice, be previously disengaged from the husk. See will give thee the keys,” &c. MORTAR.
In the evangelical history of this Apostle, the dis
tinguishing features of his character are very signally PETER, Tetpos, one of the twelve Apostles, at pourtrayed, and in a manner that enhances the credifirst called Simon, and afterwards surnamed Knpas, bility of the sacred historians, inasmuch as they have Cephas, or Peter, signifying stone or rock, was the son of blended, without disguise, several traits of his preciJonas or Jonah, and was born at Bethsaida, on the coast pitance and presumption, with the honourable testimony of the sea of Galilee. He had a brother of the name which the narrative of facts affords to the sincerity of of Andrew, who had been a disciple of John the Baptist, his attachment to Christ, and the fervour of his zeal in and was called to the knowledge of the Saviour prior the cause of his blessed Master. His presumption and to himself. Andrew was present when the Baptist self-confidence sufficiently appear in his solemn asseverapointed out Jesus to his disciples, and added, “Be- tions that he would never abandon his Master, (Matt. hold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the 26. 33;) and his weakness in his subsequent denial of world;" and meeting Simon shortly afterwards, said, Christ; for though Peter followed him afar off to the “We have found the Messiah," and then brought him to high-priest's palace, when all the other disciples forsook Jesus. (John 1. 41.) Both Peter and Andrew seem to him and fled, yet he thrice disowned him, each time have followed their trade until Our Lord called them under circumstances of peculiar aggravation. It does to follow him, and promised to make them both“ fishers not appear that Peter followed Christ any further; proof mėn.” (Matt. 4. 18,19; Mark 1. 17; Luke 5. 10.) bably remorse and shame prevented him from attending From this time they became his companions, and when the crucifixion, as we find St. John did. On the day of he completed the number of his Apostles, they were | his resurrection, after appearing to Mary Magdalen and included among them. Peter in particular was some other women, the next person to whom Our Lord honoured with his Master's intimacy, together with showed himself was Peter. On another occasion, (John James and John. With them Peter was present, when ch. 21,) Our Lord afforded him an opportunity of thrice Our Lord restored the daughter of Jairus to life. (Mark professing his love for him, and charged him to feed the 5. 37; Luke 8. 51;) when he was transfigured on the flock of Christ with fidelity and tenderness. mount, (Matt. 17. 1; Mark 9. 2; Luke 9. 28,) and After the ascension of Our Saviour, St. Peter took an during his agony in the garden, (Matt. 26. 36-56; Mark active part in the affairs of the Church. During his 14. 32-42;) and on various other occasions Peter re apostolical travels in Judæa, Samaria, and Galilee, he ceived peculiar marks of his Master's confidence. At converted Cornelius, the Roman centurion, the first Genthe time when Peter was called to the apostleship, he tile convert who was admitted into the Church without was married, and seems to have removed in consequence circumcision or any injunction to comply with the from Bethsaida to Capernaum, where his wife's family | Mosaic observances; and on his return to Jerusalem, he resided. It appears also that when Our Lord left Naza- satisfied the Jewish Christians that God had granted reth, and came and dwelt at Capernaum, (Matt. 4. 13,) repentance unto life to the Gentiles as well as to the he took up his occasional residence at Peter's house, Jews. (Acts 11. 18.) Soon after this, being apprewhither the people resorted to him. When Jesus, in hended by Herod Agrippa, (A.D. 44,) who designed to private, asked his disciples, first, what opinion the people put him to death, Peter was miraculously delivered by entertained of him; next what was their own opinion ; an angel. From the time of the Apostolic council, held "Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, at Jerusalem, St. Peter is not mentioned in the Acts of the Son of the living God.” (Matt. 16. 16.) Having the Apostles; but from Galatians 2. 11, it appears that
PETER, SECOND GENERAL EPISTLE OF ST.
after that council, he was with St. Paul at Antioch; and PETER, FIRST GENERAL EPISTLE OF ST. he is likewise mentioned by St. Paul in 1 Corinthians We are indebted to the Apostle Peter for two Epistles 1. 12; 3. 22.
which constitute a valuable part of the inspired writings. It is generally supposed that after St. Peter was at | The First Epistle of St. Peter has always been consi. Antioch with St. Paul, he returned to Jerusalem. What dered as canonical; and in proof of its genuineness we happened to him after that is not told in the Scriptures; may observe, that it is referred to by Clement of Rome, but Eusebius informs us that Origen wrote to this pur Hermes, and Polycarp; that we are assured by Eusebius pose: 'St. Peter is supposed to have preached to the Jews that it was quoted by Papias; and that it is expressly of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Bithynia, Cappa mentioned by Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, docia, and Asia; and at length, coming to Rome, was Origen, and most of the later Fathers. From the crucified with his head downwards. With respect to the inscription of the Epistle, “Peter, an Apostle of Jesus evidence from antiquity, on which the fact of St. Peter's Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontia, having been at Rome rests, Dr. Lardner says, “This opi Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia," it is generally nion is confirmed by the general testimony of antiquity. supposed that the persons here addressed were believing Eusebius relates, on the authority of Clement of Alex Jews, and not believing Gentiles, and that this Epistle andria, and Papias, bishop of Jerusalem, that St. Mark's was addressed to those dispersed Hebrew Christians Gospel was written at the request of St. Peter's hearers afflicted in their dispersion, to whom the Apostles James in Rome ; observing that St. Peter makes mention of St. and Paul had respectively addressed their Epistles. Mark in his first Epistle, which was written at Rome! As St. Peter suffered martyrdom at Rome, A.D.GA itself, and that he (Peter,) signifies this, calling that or 65, and as we have no evidence that he arrived there city figuratively Babylon, in these words: “The church before 63, we may date this Epistle A.D. 64; indeed, which is at Babylon, elected jointly with you, saluteth it appears from the Epistle itself, that it was written you, and so doth Mark, my son. This passage of Euse- during a period of general calamity, when the Hebrew bius is transcribed by Jerome, who adds positively, that Christians were exposed to severe persecutions. The
Peter mentions this Mark in his first Epistle, figura- | design of this Epistle, therefore, is partly to support tively denoting Rome by the name of Babylon; “the them under their afflictions and trials, and also to inchurch which is at Babylon,”' &c. Ecumenius, Bede, and struct them how to behave under persecution. It likeother Fathers, also understand Rome by Babylon. It is wise appears, from the history of that time, that the generally thought that Peter and John gave to Rome the Jews were then uneasy under the Roman yoke, and that name of Babylon figuratively to signify that it would the destruction of their polity was approaching. On this resemble Babylon in its idolatry, and in its opposition to account the Christians are exhorted to honour the and persecution of the Church of God; and that like Emperor (Nero), and the presidents whom he sent into Babylon, it will be utterly destroyed.
the provinces, and to avoid all grounds of being sus“From the total silence of ecclesiastical history, it is pected of sedition or other crimes that would affect not probable that Peter ever visited Babylon in Chal the peace and welfare of society. And, finally, as their dæa; and Babylon in Egypt was too small and insignifi character and conduct were liable to be aspersed and cant to be the subject of consideration. The Jews, to misrepresented by their enemies, they are exhorted to whom the first Epistle was written, were fond of mysti- | lead a holy life, that they might stop the mouths of their cal appellations, especially in their captivities; Edom enemies, put their calumniators to shame, and win orer was a frequent title for their heathen oppressors; and others to their religion by their holy and Christian as Babylon was the principal scene of their first cap conversation. tivity, it was highly probable that Rome, the principal scene of their second, and which so strongly resembled PETER, SECOND GENERAL EPISTLE OF ST. the former in her abominations, her idolatries, and per- The authority of the Second Epistle of Peter as for secutions of the saints,' should be denominated by the some time disputed, as we learn from Origen, Eusebius, same title. And this argument is corroborated by the and Jerome; but since the fourth century it has been similar usage of the Apocalypse, where the mystical | universally received except by the Syriac Christians. lis application is unquestionable. (Rev. 14. 8; 16. 19; resemblance to the Epistle of Jude will be hardly urged 18. 2, &c.) It is highly probable, indeed, that John as an argument against it; for there can be no doubt, borrowed it from Peter; or rather that both derived it that the Second Epistle of Peter was, in respect to that by inspiration from the prophecy of Isaiah (21. 9.)" | of Jude, the original and not the copy. Besides, it 15 Dr. Lardner concludes his inquiry by observing, “This extremely difficult even for a man of the greatest talents is the general, uncontradicted, disinterested testimony of to forge a writing in the name of another, without some ancient writers in the several parts of the world, Greeks, times inserting what the pretended author either would Latins, Syrians. As Our Lord's prediction concerning not or could not have said, and to support the impos the death of Peter is recorded in one of the four Gos ture in so complete a manner as not to militate, in a pels, it is very likely that Christians would observe the single instance, either against his character, or again accomplishment of it, which must have been in some the age in which he lived. Now, in the Second Episu place. And about this place there is no difference of Peter, though it has been a subject of examination among Christian writers of ancient times. Never any full seventeen hundred years, nothing has hitherto be other place was named besides Rome; nor did any other discovered which is unsuitable, either to the Aposur city ever glory in the martyrdom of St. Peter. I giory in the martyrdom of St. Peter. It is not
It is not to the Apostolic age. We have no reason their for our honour, nor for our interest, either as Christians believe that the Second Epistle of Peter is spur or Protestants, to deny the truth of events, ascertained especially as it is difficult to comprehend what
early and well-attested tradition. If any make an | could have induced a Christian, whether ortibus ill use of such facts, we are not accountable for it. We heretic, to attempt the fabrication of such an Episte de are not, from a dread of such abuses, to overthrow the then ascribe it to St. Peter. credit of all history, the consequences of which would It is evident from ch. 1. 14. that St. Peter was near be fatal."
his death when he wrote this Epistle, and that,
the Hebrew Christians. Dr. Lardner thinks it not command of Demetrius, the Nabatheans had previous unlikely that soon after the Apostle had sent away | intelligence; and prepared themselves for an attack, by Silvanus with his first letter to the Christians in Pontus, driving their flocks into the deserts, and placing their Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia Minor, and Bithynia, some wealth under the protection of a strong garrison in persons came from those countries to Rome, (whither Petra; to which, according to Diodorus, there was but there was a frequent and general resort from all parts,) a single approach, and that made by hand. In this who brought him information concerning the state of way, they succeeded in baffling the whole design of religion among them. These accounts induced him to Demetrius. write a second time, most probably at the beginning of “Adrian appears to have granted privileges to Petra, A.D. 65, in order to strengthen in the faith, the Chris- which led the inhabitants to give his name to the city tians among whom he had laboured.
upon coins. Several of these are still extant. In the The design of the Apostle is to establish the Hebrew fourth century Petra is several times mentioned by Christians in the truth and profession of the Gospel; to Eusebius and Jerome; and in the Greek ecclesiastical caution them against false teachers, whose tenets and Notitiæ of the fifth and sixth centuries, it appears as the practices the writer largely describes; and to warn them metropolitan see of the Third Palestine. Of its bishops, to disregard those profane scoffers, who made or should Germanus was present at the Council of Seleucia in make a mock of Christ's coming to judgment; which A.D. 359; and Theodosius, at that of Jerusalem in A.D. having asserted and described, he exhorts them to 536. prepare for that event by a holy and unblameable “But from that time onwards Petra suddenly vanconversation.
ishes from the pages of history. In the two Latin
Notitiæ, referring in part to the centuries after the PETHOR, Jind the name of a place in Mesopo
Mohammedan conquest and before the Crusades, the
name of Petra is no longer found, and the metropolitan tamia, on the Euphrates, the native country of Balaam, to which Balak sent for him to come and curse Israel.
see had been transferred to Rabbah. Whether Petra (Numb. 22. 5; 23. 7; Deut. 23. 5.) It is supposed to
perished through the ruthless rage of the fanatic conhave been near Tiphsah, on the Euphrates, but this is
querors, or whether it had already been destroyed in
some incursion of the hordes of the desert, is utterly altogether uncertain.
unknown. The silence of all the Arabian writers as to
the very existence of Petra, would seem to favour the PETRA, Gr. o lletpa, in Hebrew yhd Sela, the latter supposition; for had the city still retained its ancient capital of Arabia Petræa. Having in the article importance, we could hardly expect that they should Edom given copious extracts from modern travellers pass it over without some notice in their accounts of the respecting this wonderful city, we shall here limit our country and its conquest. As it is, this sudden and selves to a few historical particulars, for which we are total disappearance of the very name and trace of a city indebted to the recent and valuable work of Professor so renowned, is one of the most singular circumstances Robinson, entitled Biblical Researches in Palestine. of its history. The Crusaders found Petra at Kerak,
“The celebrated capital of this region in ancient times, just as they also found Beersheba at Beit Jibrin; thus was called from its remarkable position, The Rock; in introducing a confusion as to Petra, which is not wholly Hebrew, Sela, in Greek, Petra. In the Old Testament | removed even to the present day. It was not until the we find it recorded of King Amaziah, that ‘he slew of reports collected by Seetzen respecting the wonderful reEdom, in the Valley of Salt, ten thousand, and took Sela by mains in Wady Mûsa, had been verified by the personal war, and called the name of it Joktheel unto this day.', discovery and examination of them by Burckhardt, that (2Kings 14. 7.) The prophet Isaiah also exhorts Moab the latter traveller first ventured to assume their identity to send the lamb to the ruler of the land from Sela with the site of the ancient capital of Arabia Petræa. This to [through] the wilderness unto the mount of the identity, is now, I believe, admitted by most scholars, daughter of Zion;' alluding, apparently to the tribute in who have paid due attention to the subject; though still sheep formerly paid to Israel. (Isai. 16. 1.) At this the voice of doubt is occasionally heard, and the site of time, therefore, Sela would seem to have been in the the same, or at least of a second Petra, is sometimes possession of the Moabites; or at least, they pastured held to have been at Kerak. The arguments for the their flocks as far south as to that region, much in the identity in question are of a threefold nature, and all lie manner of the adjacent tribes at the present day. within a small compass. First, The character of the These are the only certain notices of this city found site, as given by Strabo and Pliny-an area in a valley in Scripture; and the last of them cannot be later than surrounded by precipitous rocks, with a stream running about 700 B.C. About four centuries afterwards the through it, and a single approach 'made by hand,' as city was known to the Greeks as Petra; it had passed mentioned by Diodorus, corresponds entirely to Wady into the hands of the Nabatheans, and had become a Mûsa as already described. At the same time this place of trade. The two expeditions sent against it by description is wholly inapplicable to Kerak, which is a Antigonus before 301 B.C., the first commanded by fortress and city situated on the top of a high and steep Athenæus, and the second by his own son Demetrius, hill. Again, the ancient specifications as to the distance changed their habits from that of being essentially of Petra from both the Dead Sea and the Elanitic Gulf, nomadic and led them to engage in commerce. In this all point to Wady Mûsa. Passing over the merely casual way, during the following centuries, they grew up into and indefinite estimates of Strabo and Pliny, we find in the kingdom of Arabia Petræa, occupying very nearly Diodorus Siculus that Demetrius on his return from the same territory which was comprised within the limits Petra, marched three hundred stadia, and encamped of ancient Edom. In the first expedition, Athenæus near the Dead Sea. This distance is equal to about took the city by surprise while the men were absent at a fifteen hours with camels; and if reckoned northwards neighbouring mart or fair; and carried off a large booty from Wady Mûsa along the ancient road, extends to of silver and merchandise. But the Nabatheans quickly nearly opposite the south end of the sea. After all, this pursued him to the number of eight thousand men, and is doubtless also a mere estimate, and is if anything too falling upon his camp by night, destroyed the greater | small; but at any rate, it could never apply to Kerak. part of his army. Of the second expedition under the More exactly is the position of Petra laid down in the
Peutinger Tables. The distance is there marked from powerful Phrê (Pharaoh), the all-splendid Son of the Ailah along the ancient road to Petra, by the stations Sun.' This adaption of the name of the Sun as a regal Ad Dianam, Præsidium, Houra, and Zadagatha, at title was probably owing to the idea that, as the Sun ninety-nine Roman miles in all, equivalent to about was the chief of the heavenly bodies, he was a fit emblem seventy-eight and two-thirds geographical miles. The of the king, who was the ruler of all on earth; and it is actual direct distance between Akabah and Wady Mûsa one of the many instances of analogies which occur in on a straight line, is about sixty-four geographical miles. | the religious systein of the Egyptians. The importance And when we take into account the windings of the way | attached to this deity may be readily inferred from the and the steepness of the mountains, the comparison is here fact of every Pharaoh having the title “Son of the Sun' sufficiently exact. On the route, too, the name and site preceding his phonetic name, and the first name of of Zadagatha (Zodacatha) still exist at Uskadah, about which their prenomens was composed being that of the six hours south of Wady Mûsa. Further, the same Sun. In many, too, the phonetic nomen commenced Tables, although somewhat confused on the north of with the name of Re, as the Remeses and others; and Petra, yet give the distance between it and Rabbah | the expressions, living for ever, like the Sun,' 'the as at least over seventy-two Roman miles; which cor- splendid Phrê,' are common on all obelisks and dediresponds well enough with Wady Mûsa, but is fatal to catory inscriptions." the idea of finding Petra in Kerak. Lastly, Josephus, Having in the article Egypt, as likewise under their and also Eusebius and Jerome, testify expressly, that phonetic names, as APRIES, Nrcho, &c., given brief Mount Hor where Aaron died, was in the vicinity of skteches of the principal sovereigns termed Pharaoh in Petra; and to this day, the mountain which both tradi- the Old Testament, we shall here limit ourselves to a tion and the circumstances of the case mark as the same, few particulars connected with the kingly office, which still rears its lonely head above the vale of Wady Mûsa. may serve to throw light upon some parts of the Old In all the district of Kerak there is no single mountain Testament history. which could in itself be regarded as Mount Hor; and “ The dedication of the whole or part of a temple," even if there were, its position in that region would be observes Sir John Gardner Wilkinson, “ was one of the wholly incompatible with the recorded journeyings of most remarkable solemnities at which it was the prince's the Israelites. These considerations appear to me to part to preside. And if the actual celebration of the demonstrate the identity of Petra with Wady Mûsa; rites practised on the occasion, the laying of the founda. and also to show as conclusively, that it could not have tion-stone, or other ceremonies connected with it, are been situated at Kerak. But how or when the name of not represented on the monuments, the importance Petra was dropped, or in what age that of Wady Mûsa attached to it is shown by the conspicuous manner in was adopted, we have no means of ascertaining. The which it is recorded in the sculptures, the ostentation Crusaders found the latter in current use, and speak here with which it is announced in the dedicatory inscriptions only of the 'Vallis Moysi.' They also speak of a building of the monuments themselves, and the answer returned on the neighbouring mountain, consecrated to Aaron; by the god in whose honour it was erected. Another but they appear to have discovered nowhere any trace striking ceremony was the transport of the dedicatory of a Christian population. Then came other centuries offerings made by the king to the gods, which were carof oblivion; and the name of Wady Mîsa was not ried in great pomp to their respective temples. The again heard of, until the reports of Seetzen in 1807. king and all the priests attended the procession clad in During his excursion from Hebron to the hill Ma- | their robes of ceremony; and the flag-staffs attached to durah, his Arab guide of the Haweitat described the the propylea of the vestibules were decked as on other place, exclaiming, “Ah! how I weep, when I behold the grand festivals with banners. ruins of Wady Mûsa!' The subsequent visits of Burck- “The coronation of a king was a peculiarly imposing hardt, Irby and Mangles, Laborde and others, have put ceremony. It was one of the principal subjects reprè. the world in possession of most of the details; yet I sented in the court of the temples; and some idea may apprehend that the historical and antiquarian interest of be formed of the pomp displayed on the occasion, even the place is by no means exhausted. The scholar who from the limited scale on which the monuments are should go thither learned in the lore of Grecian and capable of describing it. One of the principal solemniEgyptian arts and architecture, would be able, I doubt ties connected with the coronation was the anointing of not, still to reap a rich harvest of new facts illustrative the king, and his receiving the emblems of majesty from of the taste, the antiquities, and the general history of the gods. The sculptures represent the deities themthis remarkable people.” See Edom; JOKTHEEL. selves officiating on this as on other similar occasions, in
order to convey to the Egyptian people, who beheld
these records, a more exalted notion of the special PHARAOH, a common appellation of the ancient favours bestowed on their monarch. We however, who kings of Egypt as given in the Scriptures. Sir John at this distant period are less interested in the direct Gardner Wilkinson informs us, that the Hebrew word intercourse between the Pharaohs and the gods, may be
Tynd Phrah, or Pharaoh, is no other than the Mem- satisfied with a more simple interpretation of such subphitic name of the Sun, Phrê pronounced Phra, which jects, and conclude that it was the priests who performed is still retained in the Coptic Pirê. The hawk and the ceremony, and bestowed upon the prince the title of globe, emblems of the sun, are placed over the banners 'the anointed of the gods. With the Egyptians, as on the figures of the kings in the sculptures to denote with the Jews, (Exod. 28. 41,) the investiture to any - this title, and Ammon and other deities are often seen | sacred office, as that of king or priest, was confirmed by presenting the sign of life or power to the monarch this external sign; and as the Jewish lawgiver menunder this emblem.
tions (Exod. 29. 5,7,) the ceremony of pouring oil upon “It is singular that the Greeks never mention the the head of the high-priest after he had put on 2015 title Phrê (or Pharaoh as we term it); and I can only entire dress, with the mitre and crown, the Egyptians account for this by supposing that they translated it represent the anointing of their priests and kings after wherever it occurred, as is the case in Heurapion's | they were attired in their full robes, with the cap and translation of the Obelisk, where in the third column, | crown upon their head. Some of the sculptures intro instead of the powerful Apollo,' we ought to read the duce a priest pouring oil over the monarch, in the pre
sence of Thoth, Hor-Hat, Ombte, or Nilus; which may temples was the blessing bestowed by the gods on the te considered a representation of the ceremony before king at the moment of his assuming the reins of governthe statues of these gods. The functionary who offi- ment. They laid their hands upon him, and presenting ciated was the high priest of the king. He was clad in him with the symbol of life, they promised that his a leopard-skin, and was the same who attended on all reign should be long and glorious, and that he should cccasions which required him to assist, or assume the enjoy tranquillity, with certain victory over his enemies. duties of the monarch in the temple. This leopard-skin If about to undertake an expedition against foreign dress was worn by the high-priest on all the most nations, they gave him the falchion of victory, to secure important solemnities, and the king himself adopted it the defeat of the people whose country he was about to when engaged in the same duties.
invade, saying, "Take this weapon, and smite with it “The deities Ombte and Horus are represented placing the heads of the impure Gentiles. To show the special the crown of the two countries [Upper and Lower Egypt] favour he enjoyed from heaven, the gods were even upon the head of the king, saying, “Put this cap upon represented admitting him into their company, and comyour head, like your father Amon Re,' and the palm muning with him, and sometimes Thoth, with other branches they hold in their hands allude to the long deities, taking him by the hand, led him into the preseries of years they grant him to rule over his country. sence of the great Triad, or of the presiding Divinity of The emblems of dominion and majesty, the crook and the temple. He was welcomed with suitable expresflagellum of Osiris have been already given him, and the sions of approbation; and on this, as on other occasions, asp-formed fillet is bound upon his head. Another the sacred tau, or sign of life, was presented to him, a mode of investing the sovereign with the diadem is symbol which, with the sceptre of Purity, was usually figured on the apex of some obelisks, and on other placed in the hands of the gods. These two were monuments where the god in whose honour they were deemed the greatest gifts bestowed by the Deity on raised puts the crown upon his head as he kneels before man.” him, with the announcement that he 'grants him domi | The Pharaohs, as is well known, officiated occasionally nion over the whole world.' Goddesses, in like manner, as priests as well as princes, and a figure of one of these placed upon the heads of queens the peculiar insignia monarchs (Remeses VI.) in his sacerdotal robes has been they wore; which were two long feathers with the globe already given, (see A ARON ;) the following engraving and horns of Athor; and they presented them their exhibits another of them (Remeses III.) returning in peculiar sceptre. Another ceremony represented in the triumph from a warlike expedition.
Triumphal Procession of King Remcses the Third. “The triumph of the king was a grand solemnity. tions, uttering earnest thanksgivings to the gods, the Flattering to the national pride of the Egyptians, it protectors of Egypt, and praying them for ever to conawakened those feelings of enthusiasm which the cele- tinue the same marks of favour to their monarch and bration of victory naturally inspires, and led them to their nation. commemorate it with the greatest pomp. When the “Arrived at the capital, they went immediately to the victorious monarch, returning to Egypt after a glorious temple, where they returned thanks to the gods, and campaign, approached the cities which lay on his way, performed the customary sacrifices on this important from the confines of the country to the capital, the occasion. The whole army attended, and the order of inhabitants flocked to meet him, and with welcome accla- march continued the same as on entering the city. A mations greeted his arrival and the success of his arms. corps of Egyptians, consisting of chariots and infantry, The priests and chief people of each place advanced led the van in close column, followed by the allies of the with garlands and bouquets of flowers; the principal different nations who had shared the dangers of the field person present addressed him in an appropriate speech; and the honour of victory. In the centre marched the and as the troops defiled through the streets, or passed body guards, the king's sons, the military scribes, the without the walls, the people followed with acclama- royal arm-bearers, and the staff corps, in the midst of