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poverty of this church as described in this epistle. , PHILADELPHIA. See RABBATH AMMON. Strabo says, “ Philadelphia has no walls that are safe,”

PHILEMON, Dianuar, a wealthy Christian, (alluding to earthquakes). The inhabitants resided

whose slave Onesimus, having fled from him to Rome, mostly in the country, and possessed fertile lands.

was converted by St. Paul. The Apostle sent him back The church of Philadelphia is commended for its

to his master with the admirable letter which now forms faithfulness, and has made to it a gracious promise of

the Epistle to Philemon. Very little is known about Divine protection, which has been signally fulfilled, as

Philemon, but the conjectures of different writers are we learn even from infidel testimony. Gibbon says,

very various. According to Grotius, Philemon was an " Philadelphia appears to have resisted the attacks of the Turks in 1312, with more success than the other

elder of Ephesus; Beausobre and Dr. Doddridge sup.

pose him to have been one of the ministers of the Coloscities. At a distance from the sea, forgotten by the

sian church; and from St. Paul's requesting him (v. 22) emperor, encompassed on all sides by the Turks, her

to provide a lodging for him at Colosse, Michaëlis thinks valiant citizens defended their religion and freedom

that he was a deacon of that church. These opinions about four-score years, and at length capitulated with

appear to have been founded on the inscription of the the proudest of the Ottomans (Bajazet) in 1390. Among

Epistle, where St. Paul calls him a fellow-labourer; but the Greek colonies and churches of Asia, Philadel

this appellation, Drs. Whitby, Lardner, and Macknight phia is still erect:—a column in a scene of ruins !"

have remarked, is of ambiguous signification, being given Whatever may be lost of the spirit of Christianity,

not only to those who were employed in preaching the there is still the form of a Christian Church in this city,

Gospel, but also to such pious individuals, of either sex, which is highly reverenced by the Mohammedans and

as assisted the Apostles in any manner. Philemon was called by them Allah-Shehr,'or the City of God, and is a

most probably a converted Gentile, and from the nineconsiderable town spreading over the slopes of three or

teenth verse of the Epistle, some have thought that he four hills. It contains about 1000 Christians, chiefly

was converted under the ministry of St. Paul; but from Greeks, most of whom speak only the Turkish language.

guage: the Apostle's saying in the fifth verse that he had heard The American missionaries, Fisk and Parsons, when

of Philemon's faith in Christ, (which was his usual they visited the place in 1820, were informed by the

phrase when writing to Christians whom he had never Greek Archbishop Gabriel that there were five churches

seen,) Dr. Benson is of opinion, that during St. Paul's in the town, besides twenty which were either old or

| long stay at Ephesus, some of the Colossians had gone small, and not then in use. He estimated the whole

thither, and heard him preach the Christian doctrine, number of houses at 3000, of which 250 were inhabited

| (Acts 19. 10; 20. 31;) or that the Apostle had sent by Greeks, the rest by Turks. They counted six mina

some of his assistants who had planted the Gospel at rets; and one of the present mosques was pointed out to

Colosse. them as the church in which assembled the primitive Christians of Philadelphia to whom St. John wrote. The remains of heathen antiquity are not numerous. PHILEMON, EPISTLE TO. It appears from Mr. Arundell concurs with other travellers in describing verses 1,10,13 and 23 of this Epistle that St. Paul was the streets as filthy, and the houses remarkably mean; under confinement when he wrote it, and as he expresses but he was much impressed by the beauty of the country his expectation (v. 22) of being speedily released, it is as seen from the hills, and observes, that “the view from probable that it was written during his first imprisonthese elevated situations is magnificent in the extreme; ment at Rome towards the end of A.D. 62, or early in gardens and vineyards lie at the back of the town; and 63; and was sent together with the Epistles to the before it is one of the most extensive and richest plains Ephesians and Colossians, by Tychicus and Onesimus. in Asia." There are no considerable ruins. One of the As early as the time of Jerome some fastidious critics most remarkable is a single column of great antiquity, had shown an inclination to expunge this Epistle from which has evidently appertained to another structure the sacred canon as being a private letter, and conse than the present church.

quently of very little importance to the Christian Church.

1042

PHILEMON, EPISTLE TO—

PHILIP.

Although, from its brevity, and the private nature of its | all relations and circumstances whatever. Shall an subject, it is but rarely mentioned by the primitive Epistle, so full of useful and excellent instructions, be ecclesiastical writers, yet we know that it was alluded rejected for its brevity? or because the occasion required to, though not cited by name, by Tertullian, and was that it should be written concerning one particular reckoned among St. Paul's Epistles by Caius. It was person? or addressed to a private man? Men would do likewise expressly quoted by Origen, and is pronounced well to examine it carefully, before they reject it, or to be authentic by all the ancient writers cited by Euse- speak of it so slightly." bius; and it has always been inserted in every catalogue | Whether Philemon pardoned for punished Onesimus, of the books of the New Testament.

is a circumstance concerning which we have no informa“ Whoever,” says Dr. Benson, “ will carefully study tion. From the earnestness with which the Apostle it, will discern a great number of the doctrines and pre solicited his pardon, and from the generosity and goodcepts of Christianity expressed or insinuated: for instance, | ness of Philemon's disposition, it is conjectured that he (1.) In a religious view, or upon a spiritual account, all actually pardoned Onesimus and even gave him his Christians are upon a level. Onesimus, the slave, upon freedom in compliance with the Apostle's expectation, becoming a Christian, is the Apostle's dear son and Phi- that he would do more than he had asked. (v. 21.) lemon's brother. (2.) Christianity makes no alteration When Ignatius wrote his Epistle to the Ephesians in man's civil affairs. By Christian baptism a slave did (A.D. 107,) their bishop's name was Onesimus; and this not become a freedman; his temporal estate or condition is thought by some to have been the same person to was still the same; and, though Onesimus was the whom this letter refers: but we are not aware of any Apostle's son and Philemon's brother upon a religious ground on which it rests, beyond the identity of name, account, yet he was obliged to be Philemon's slave for which is not a strong one, even when the name is, as in ever, unless his master voluntarily gave him his freedom. this instance, unusual. Still less weight appears to be (3.) Servants should not be taken or detained from their due to the statement of the Apostolical Constitutions, that own masters without their master's consent. (v. 13,14.) | Onesimus became bishop of Beræa. Dr. Mill has men(4.) We should love and do good unto all men. We tioned a copy of this Epistle, at the conclusion of which should not contemn persons of low estate, nor disdain to it is stated that Onesimus suffered martyrdom at Rome help the meanest slave when it is in our power. The by having his legs broken; to this may be added, that Apostle has here set us an example of benevolence, con Philemon himself has been inserted in the list of the descension, and Christian charity, which it well becomes seventy disciples, and is said to have ultimately become us to follow. He took pains with and converted a bishop of the church at Gaza; but these statements are slave, and in a most affectionate and earnest manner wholly unsupported by evidence. interceded with his master for his pardon. (5.) We should not utterly despair of those who are wicked, but

PHILETUS, Diantos, the name of an opponent should use our best endeavours to reclaim them. Though

of the Apostle Paul, mentioned in 2Timotby 2. 17, as Onesimus had robbed his master and run away from

asserting that the resurrection was already past, one of him, the Apostle attempted his conversion among others,

the errors of the Gnostics. See GNOSTICS. and succeeded therein. (6.) Restitution is due where any injury has been done; unless the injured party freely forgive: accordingly, the Apostle Paul gives a promise, PHILIP, PITITOS, the name of several persons under his own band, for Onesimus's making restitution | mentioned in the New Testament. as a matter of justice, if Philemon insisted upon it.

I I . The son of Herod the Great by his wife Cleopatra, (7.) We should be grateful to our benefactors. This who, in the division of his father's kingdom, was made St. Paul touches upon very gently, (v. 19,) where he tetrarch of Batanæa, Trachonitis, and Ituræa. (Luke 3. 1.) intimates to Philemon that he owed unto him himself He enlarged and embellished the city of Paneas, to which also; and therefore in point of gratitude, he was obliged he gave his own name, and likewise called it Cæsarea, to grant his request. (8.) We should forgive the peni | in honour of the Emperor Tiberius. (Matt. 16. 13.) See tent, and be heartily reconciled to them. (9.) The CÆSAREA. Apostle's example teaches us to do all we can to make I I. Philip Herod, called by Josephus simply up quarrels and differences and reconcile those who are | 'Hpwdns, was another son of Herod the Great. He was at variance. (10.) A wise man chooses sometimes to the first husband of Herodias, (Matt. 14. 3; Mark 6. 7; address in a soft and obliging manner, even in cases Luke 3. 19,) who was taken from him by his brother where there is authority to command. (11.) The Herod Antipas. Having been disinherited by his father, bishops and pastors of the Christian Church, and all he lived a private life. teachers of religion, have here the most glorious example I III. One of the Apostles of Our Lord, a native set before them, to induce them to have a most tender of Bethsaida. (Matt. 10. 3; Mark 3. 18; Luke 6. 14; regard to the souls of men of all ranks and conditions; John 1. 44-47.) He was with the rest of the Apostles and to endeavour to convert a slave, as well as the rich and disciples who assembled for prayer in an upper room and great and honourable of the earth. He who dis- at Jerusalem, after the ascension of Our Lord. (Acts dained not to teach a slave, a fugitive, and a thief, but | 1. 13,14.) Of the subsequent history of this Apostie preached the doctrine of salvation to him, and took nothing certain is known. He is said to bave preached pains with him, till he had restored him to his master, the Gospel in Scythia and Phrygia, and to have be an honest and worthy man; how disinterested must he interred at Hierapolis, in Phrygia Pacatiana, wher have been! or whose salvation and happiness would he suffered martyrdom. not endeavour to promote? Would to God there was IV. Philip ń evayyeliotys, was one of the seren the same spirit in all the teachers of Christianity, at all primitive deacons of the church at Jerusalem. (4. times and in all places! (12.) Here is a most glorious | 6. 5.) He preached the Gospel at Samaria, where proof of the good effects of Christianity, where it is performed many miracles, and converted many to ma rightly understood and sincerely embraced. It trans- | faith of Christ. Afterwards he received a Divine cours forms a worthless slave and thief into a pious, virtuous, mand to go towards the south, to the road leading room amiable, and useful man; makes him not only happier Gaza to Jerusalem; here he met an officer of Cane and better in himself, but a better servant, and better in queen of Ethiopia, whom he likewise converted

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Christian faith. (Acts 8. 5-38.) After baptizing the not consider himself as entitled to receive supplies from Ethiopian, Philip remained some time at Azotus; and them; being a prisoner, he could not work as formerly; “passing through, he preached in all the cities until he and it was his rule never to receive anything from the came to Cesarea," where he appears to have fixed his churches where factions had been raised up against him. residence. He had four daughters, who, like Agabus, It appears that the church at Philippi was the only one according to circumstances, received the gift of prophecy. from whom he received any assistance, and that he con(Acts 8. 40; 21. 8,9.)

ferred this honour upon them because they loved him

exceedingly, had preserved the Christian doctrine in PHILIPPI, OMITTOI, a city of Proconsular

purity, and had always conducted themselves as sincere Macedonia, situated eastward of Amphipolis, within the

Christians. It is worthy of remark, that the Epistle to limits of ancient Thrace. (Acts 16. 12; Philip. 1. 1.)

the church at Philippi is the only one of all St. Paul's Its original name was Datos, but it was afterwards called

letters to the churches, in which not one censure is Crenidas, from its many fountains; but having been

having been expressed or implied against any of its members. taken and fortified by Philip of Macedon, he named it after himself, Philippi. Julius Cæsar planted a colony in it, which was afterwards enlarged by Augustus, and

PHILISTINES, Dinuko Pilishtim, (Gen. 21. 34,) hence its inhabitants were considered as freemen of or D"Ow79 Sept. Pullotlelji, a people said to be Rome. The place was visited by St. Paul, who made a the descendants of Mizraim, the second son of Ham, convert of Lydia, and being next cast into prison con- and who, migrating from Caphtor (perhaps the northverted also the gaoler and his household. (Acts 16.) eastern part of Egypt,) very early, settled in a small strip The members of the church at Philippi were forward to

of territory along the sea-shore, in the south-west of supply the Apostle's wants, even after he had left them. Canaan, having expelled the Avites, who had before More than once they supplied his necessity at Thessa possessed it. (Deut. 2. 23; Amos 9. 7; Jerem. 47. 4.) lonica, and they sent him a supply by the hand of Epa- | In the time of Joshua we find their country divided into phroditus when he was a prisoner at Rome. One of five lordships or principalities, namely, Gaza, Askelon, his Epistles is addressed to them.

Ashdod, Gath and Ekron, giving sometimes also, as it Philippi is historically renowned for two great battles | appears, the title of king to their respective rulers ; fought in its vicinity; the first between Cæsar and

Achish, in the time of David, being termed king of Gath. Pompey, and the other between Antony and Augustus (1Sam. 21. 10.) The time of their coming to Palestine on the one side, against Brutus and Cassius on the other. is unknown; but they had been long in Canaan when But to the Christian it has the more important distinc- | Abraham came thither. They were the most formidable tion of being the first town on the continent of Europe

enemies, perhaps, whom the children of Israel had to in which the Gospel was preached. The place is now

encounter; and of the inveteracy of their enmity against called Filibah, and some ruins of the ancient town are

the latter we have abundant evidence in the sacred still in existence.

writings. Though they were subdued by David, and With reference to the expression, “The chief city of kept in subjection by some succeeding monarchs, yet that part of Macedonia,” Mr. Horne observes, “ This pas. they afterwards became so considerable, that from them sage, which has greatly exercised the ingenuity of critics, the Holy Land was called by the Greeks Palestine, may more correctly be thus rendered: Philippi, a city | which appellation it still retains. of the first part of Macedonia, or of Macedonia Prima: For about one hundred and fifty years after the time This is an instance of minute accuracy, which shows that of David they continued subject to the Jews, but seem the author of the Acts of the Apostles actually lived and frequently to have revolted, though unable to shake off wrote at that time. The province of Macedonia, it is the yoke. They formed a part in the combination well known, had undergone various changes, and had

against Jehoshaphat, (Psalna 83. 7,) and though then been divided into various portions, and particularly four, defeated, in the reign of Jehoram they again rose, nor, while under the Roman government. There are extant

though harassed by the Syrians under Hazael, were they many medals of the first province, or Macedonia Prima,

reduced by the Jews till the reign of Uzziah. (2Kings mostly of silver, with the inscription MAKE4ONNN

12. 17; 2Chron. 26. 6.) In the days of Ahaz they LIPNTHE, or, the first part of Macedonia; which con

again revolted, invaded the west country of Judah, and firm the accuracy of St. Luke, and at the same time show

took Beth-shemesh, Ajalon, Gaderoth, Shocho, and his attention to the minutest particulars."

Gimzo, and sold the Jews to the Tyrians for slaves. (2Chron. 28. 18; Isaiah 9. 12.) Hezekiah, however,

reduced them to the lowest extremity: he took all their PHILIPPIANS, EPISTLE TO THE. From St. country to Gaza, and by sword and famine vast multiPaul's own words, it appears that this Epistle was written tudes of them were destroyed. (2Kings 18. 8; Isaiah while he was a prisoner at Rome; and from the expecta- | 24. 29,31.) They next suffered from the same enemies tion which he discovers, of being soon released and as the Jews. Esarhaddon, successor to Sennacherib, restored to them, as well as from the intimation con- | besieged Ashdod, and took it by the arms of his general tained in this letter, that he had been a considerable | Thashtan, or Tartan; and Psammeticus, king of Egypt, time at Rome, it is probable that he wrote it towards took the same city after a siege of twenty-nine years, the close of his first imprisonment, at the end of A.D. according to Herodotus. During the siege of Tyre, which 62, or perhaps at the commencement of 63. The held out thirteen years, Nebuchadnezzar employed part genuineness of this Epistle has never been questioned. of his army to subdue the Ammonites, the Moabites, the

The more immediate occasion of writing the Epistle to Egyptians, and other nations bordering on the Jews; when Philippians was the return of Epaphroditus, one of their there is great probability that the Philistines were unable pastors, by whom St. Paul sent it, as a grateful acknow- to withstand him, and were reduced to his obedience, ledgment of their kindness in sending him supplies of as well as the other people of Syria, Phænicia, and Palesmoney. From the manner in which the Apostle ex- tine. They afterwards fell under the dominion of the presses himself on this occasion, it appears that he was Persians; then under that of Alexander the Great, who in great want of necessaries before the contributions destroyed the city of Gaza. The Asmonæans took by arrived; for as he had not converted the Romans, he did degrees several cities from the country of the Philistines;

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Alexander Jannæus reduced it entirely, and forced the the eunuch, namely, the southern road leading from inhabitants to submit to the Jewish religion.

Eleutheropolis to Gaza through the desert, or region The land of the Philistines bordered on the west and without villages, as is the case at the present day. A south-west of Judæa. It was a narrow slip of territory Christian church appears early to have been planted at about forty miles long, and, except at the south part, Gaza; its bishop, Silvanus, is mentioned by Eusebius as rarely above fifteen miles broad. The country to the a martyr under Diocletian about A.D. 285; and among north of Gaza is very fertile; and long after the Chris- the names of other bishops enumerated, not less than tian era it possessed a very numerous population, and | six are found in the subscriptions of councils, as late as strongly fortified cities, Gaza being the most important. to that of Jerusalem in A.D. 536. Yet the city still Professor Robinson supplies us with the following par- retained, in a great degree, its devotion to idolatry; and ticulars of this principal city of the Philistines. “Gaza in the beginning of the fifth century, not less than eight is among the earliest of the Canaanitish cities mentioned public temples dedicated to the worship of the heathen in the Old Testament; and became afterwards celebrated gods, still existed there. Among these the most celeas one of the five cities of the five lords of the Philis | brated was a temple of Marnion, the Cretan Jupiter. tines. Joshua extended his conquests to Gaza, but did By the influence of Eudoxia, wife of the Emperor Arcanot vanquish this remarkable people ; and although the dius, the bishop, Porphyrius, was invested with authotribe of Judah, to whose lot it fell, subdued the city, yet | rity to demolish these temples; and was furnished with they appear to have held it but a short time; and the | means to erect a Christian church, which was dedilords of the Philistines soon not only regained possession cated in A.D. 406, and named after the empress. This of their own territory, but also increased in strength, may probably have been the great church now conand at length extended their jurisdiction in turn over verted into a mosque. Eusebius and Jerome speak the Israelites. After forty years of oppression, Samson of Gaza in their day as an important city. About appeared as the champion and avenger of his people; the end of the sixth century, or the beginning of the and Gaza became renowned as the scene of his later deeds | seventh, Gaza was visited by Antoninus Martyr, who and of his fall. Here, too, he drew down upon himself describes it as 'splendid and delicious; and its inhaand the assembled multitude, the temple of Dagon; so bitants as 'noble, liberal, and friendly to strangers.' that 'the dead which he slew at his death, were more Such was Christian Gaza. In A.D. 634, it fell into the than they which he slew in his life.' (Judges ch. 16.) | hands of the generals of Abu Bekr, the first MohamAfter continual wars under the Judges, and with Saul medan khalif, after a decisive battle with the Roman and David, the Philistines appear to have been subdued armies; but the khalif died before the tidings of the by the latter, and Gaza became the border of Solomon's victory could reach him. From this time we hear little kingdom on this side. Yet they gave trouble to the more of Gaza, except as the birth-place of the founder following Jewish kings; and Hezekiah at length smote of a Mohammedan sect, until the time of the Crusades. them unto the borders of Gaza.

In A.D. 796 it was laid waste during a civil war among “ The situation of Gaza in the great route of the mili- | the Arab tribes. During the many wars between the tary expeditions which the monarchs of Egypt and | Mohammedan rulers of Egypt and Syria, which prethose of Syria and the East, afterwards undertook against ceded the Crusades, Gaza appears to have suffered the dominions of each other, necessarily exposed it to greatly, if indeed it had recovered from the former blow. the calamities of war, and to frequent change of masters. | The Crusaders found it deserted, and its ruins spread out To the Egyptians, Gaza 'the strong' was the key of over the hill and the adjacent plain, like the city of the Palestine and Syria; and no conqueror could well pass present day. Here in A.D. 1152 they erected a fortress, by until this city had submitted to his power. Thus one occupying a portion of the hill, in order to cut off the of the Pharaohs (probably Necho) subdued it in the | approach to Askelon from the south; the defence of this time of Jeremiah; and Cambyses, during his expedition castle was intrusted to the Knights Templars. The to Egypt, is reported to have deposited here his treasures. | dwellings of the city became again inhabited; but in Gaza opposed itself for five months to the progress of A.D. 1170, the place was sacked by the troops of Alexander the Great ; but was finally taken by storm, Saladin, who, however, did not get possession of the its brave defenders slaughtered at their posts, their wives citadel. Yet, after the fatal battle of Hattin in A.D. and children sold as slaves, and the city repeopled with 1187, and the surrender of Askelon to Saladin, Gaza inhabitants drawn from the surrounding country. | also passed into his hands. It appears also to have During the wars of the Maccabees, Gaza continued to opened its gates to Richard for a short time; but it must be a place of strength; it was fortified by the Syrian soon have reverted to the Mohammedans. It is afterBacchides, its suburbs burned by Jonathan, and the city wards mentioned in the history of the Crusades, only as itself captured by Simon. Alexander Jannæus at length the scene of two battles lost by the Franks in A.D. destroyed Gaza about 96 B.C., after a siege of a year; 1239 and 1244." but it was again rebuilt with other cities by the Roman | “All vestiges of the ancient walls and ancient strength general Gabinius. Augustus gave it to Herod ; and of Gaza have disappeared, and nothing remains to mark after his death it was assigned to Syria. About A.D. its former extent, except the bounds of the hill itself on 65, during the government of the procurator Gessius which it stood. Even the traces of its former existence, Florus, Gaza, with other cities, were again laid in ruins its vestiges of antiquity, are very rare; consisting of by the rebellious Jews. Yet this destruction was pro- occasional columns of marble or gray granite, scattered bably partial, and could have been but temporary; for in the streets and gardens, or used as thresholds at the there exist coins of Gaza struck in honour of Titus, gates and doors of houses, or laid upon the front of Adrian, and the following emperors; which show at watering troughs. One fine Corinthian capital of white least that the city was still a place of importance, very marble lies inverted in the middle of a street running soon after the destruction of Jerusalem.

from north to south along the eastern foot of the hill. “From these details it seems to follow that the The population of Gaza has usually been rated as much expression in the Book of the Acts, which might at first | too low, as that of Jerusalem has been overstated. Traappear to imply that Gaza was then desert,' is more vellers have given different judgments, usually from two probably to be referred to the particular road from Jeru- | thousand to five thousand souls. The number of inhasalem to Gaza, on which the Evangelist was to find bitants has probably increased of late years. From

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information given us by both Christians and Mussul- | the name of Philologus, in consequence of his having mans, it appears that the city now contains nearly four been instructed in literature and the sciences. thousand taxable Mohammedans, and one hundred

PHILOSOPHERS. See EPICUREANS; Stoics. Christians. This indicates a population of not less than fifteen, or perhaps sixteen thousand souls, and makes PHINEHAS, DNI') the son of Eleazar, and Gaza larger than Jerusalem; a fact which is also con- grandson of Aaron, was the third high-priest of the firmed by its greater extent of crowded dwellings. Jews. He is greatly commended for his zeal in vindiThere were said to be fifty-seven resident Christian cating the glory of God, when the Midianites had sent families; but their number is increased by transient their daughters into the camp of Israel to tempt the sojourners."

Hebrews to idolatry and sin. (Numb. 25. 7.) For his “ No human probability," says Keith, “could have conduct upon this occasion, God promised that the priestexisted in the time of the prophets, or at a much more hood should be given to his posterity by a perpetual recent date, of the eventual desolation of Philistia. But covenant; this condition being included (as interpreters it has belied, for many ages, every promise which the fer- observe), that his children should continue faithful and tility of its soil, and the excellence both of its climate and obedient. The time of his death is not known. situation, gave for many preceding centuries of its perma

PHLEGON, Orerywv, a Christian at Rome, mennency as a rich and well-cultivated region. The voice of

tioned by St. Paul in his Epistle to the Romans. (ch. prophecy, which was not silent respecting it, proclaimed

umea | 16. 14.) Nothing cert: .in is known of him, though in the fate that awaited it, in terms as contradictory at the

| the Greek church he is esteemed a saint, and is said to time, to every natural suggestion, as they are descriptive

| bave been bishop of Marathon, near Athens. of what Philistia now actually is: 'I will stretch out my hand upon the Philistines, and destroy the remnant of the sea-coasts. (Ezek. 25. 16; Jerem. 47. 5.) PHRYGIA, punyia, a province of Asia Minor. * Thus saith the Lord, For three transgressions of Gaza, It had Cappadocia on the east, and Galatia on the and for four, I will not turn away the punishment north-east; Mysia, Lydia, and Caria, on the west, Lycathereof. I will send a fire upon the wall of Gaza, onia, Pisidia, and Lycia on the south; and Bithynia which shall devour the palaces thereof. And I will cut on the north. Its boundaries differed greatly in dif. off the inhabitants from Ashdod, and him that holdeth ferent ages, but it was in general divided into Phrygia the sceptre from Ashkelon; and I will turn my hand

Major and Phrygia Minor, the latter to the north of against Ekron ; and the remnant of the Philistines shall

the former. Its chief cities mentioned in Scripture, perish, saith the Lord God.' (Amos 1. 6,7,8; Zeph. (Col. 2. 1.) are Laodicea. Hierapolis, and Colosse. 2. 4-6; Zech. 9. 5.)

St. Luke seems to speak of Phrygia Major in Acts 2. 10, « The land of the Philistines partakes of the general

because he joins it with Pamphylia below it; in Acts desolation common to it with Judæa and other neigh- 16. 6, he means Phrygia Minor. Like the other counbouring states. But its aspect presents some existing tries of Asia Minor, which were distinguished as propeculiarities which travellers fail not to particularize, vinces under the Roman empire, Phrygia is first and which, in reference both to the state of the country, | historically known as a kingdom, which ultimately and the fate of its different cities, the prophets fail not to became a province of the Lydian monarchy, and contidiscriminate as justly as if their description had been nued such until Crosus, king of Lydia, was conquered drawn both with all the accuracy which ocular observa- | by Cyrus of Persia, who added the Lydian kingdom to tion, and all the certainty which authenticated history | his empire. After that, Phrygia like all the rest of the could give. Volney, (though like one who in ancient country became successively subject to the Greeks, the times was instrumental to the fulfilment of a special pre- | Romans, and the Turks, and the latter still hold it in diction, he meant not so, neither did his heart think possession. Phrygia was in ancient times greatly celeso.") from the manner in which he generalizes his obser- brated for its fertility; the soil being particularly favourvations, and marks the peculiar features of the different able for the production of all kinds of grain. It was districts of Syria, with greater acuteness and perspicuity I likewise well stocked with cattle in consequence of its than any other traveller whatever, is the ever-ready pur- large plains and rich pastures, but under the Moslem Teror of evidence in all the cases which come within yoke, the greater part of the country remains unculthe range of his topographical description of the wide tivated. It was for the most part a level country, field of prophecy; while at the same time, from his covered with a deep and rich soil and watered by numerknown open and zealous hostility to the Christian cause, lous small rivers. One extensive portion of the country. his testimony is alike decisive and unquestionable; and however, called Burnt Phrygia, was of a volcanic chathe vindication of the truth of the Scriptural predic- racter, and afforded bitumen and other combustibles. tions may safely be committed to this redoubted cham- | The Phrygians were anciently reputed to have been the pion of infidelity. “The ruins of white marble, some

inventors of augury, and other kinds of divination, and times found at Gaza, prove that it was formerly the were esteemed more superstitious than the other Asiatic abode of luxury and opulence. It has shared in the nations. In all these parts of Asia Minor, even to general destruction; and notwithstanding its proud Bithynia and the Euxine Sea, the Jews were anciently title of the capital of Palestine, it is now no more than very numerous; the Gospel was preached very early a defenceless village. The sea-coast, by which it was among them by St. Paul, (Acts 16. 6; 18. 23,) and a formerly washed, is every day removing farther from the church settled, which for many ages made a considerable deserted ruins of Ashkelon. Amidst the various succes appearance, but is now in a decayed state. sive ruins, those of Edzoud (Ashdod), so powerful under the Philistines, are now remarkable for their scorpions."

PHUT, M12 the name of an African people, sup

posed to have been the descendants of Phut, the third PHILOLOGUS, Biroroyos, a Christian at Rome, son of Ham. (Gen. 10. 6.) According to the Septuagint whom St. Paul salutes in his Epistle to the Romans, and Vulgate versions, they were the Libyans, (Jerem. (16. 15.) M. Coquerel thinks that he was probably a 46. 9; Ezek. 27. 10; 38.5; Nahum 3.9;) but Josephus slave who had been restored to liberty, and who received says, they were the inhabitants of Mauritania, where

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