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literal int and lettually bind in all

was a river called Phut. The prophets often speak of figure from this frame, is first thoroughly soaked in of Phut, usually in connexion with Egypt. In the time water, to make it pliable and capable of receiving any of Jeremiah the country was subject to Necho, king of form. It is thus fitted to the frame or last, so as to be Egypt; and Nahum (3. 9,) reckons its people among thrust in between every upright piece of board, to the the allies of No Ammon.

bottom, and this also must be exactly covered with it; PHYGELLUS, Durellos, a Christian of Asia,

when it is thus made in every part, as smooth and as close

to the frame as it can possibly be, it remains there till it who being at Rome during St. Paul's second imprison

is perfectly dry and stiff; so that when the parchment is ment, (A.D. 65,) deserted him in liis necessity along

taken off the last, there are four cavities in it, correwith Hermogenes and others. (2Tim. 1. 15.)

sponding to the thickness of the four pieces of board;

and into every one of these cavities is put a section of PHYLACTERY, Dużaktnpia, (Matt. 23. 5.)

the Law, written with great exactness, upon very fine

vellum.' The four sections that are thus put are as The Greek word pulaktnplov signifies a watch, post,

follow:- The first is, from the beginning of the fourth or guarded place, and figuratively, protection, safe

verse of the sixth chapter of Deuteronomy to the end of guard,,hence, an amulet. In the New Testament the

the sixth verse of the same; the second is, from the term ta pulaktypra, phylacteries, is used to signify the

beginning of the thirteenth verse of the eleventh chapter strips of parchment on which are written various sentences of the Mosaic law, (Exod. 13. 1-10,11-16, &c.,)

of Deuteronomy to the end of the twenty-first verse of which the Jews usually bind in different ways round the

the same; the third is, from the beginning of the first

verse of the thirteenth chapter of Exodus to the end of forehead and left wrist while at prayer, following a

the tenth verse of the same; and the fourth, from the literal interpretation of Exodus 13. 16. Among the charges alleged against the Pharisees by

beginning of the eleventh verse of the said chapter to

| the end of the sixteenth verse of the same. On the Our Lord, is that of enlarging their phylacteries, as indi

outside boards of the frame the letter V shin, the initial cating their pretensions to a more studious and perfect observance of the Law.

letter of Shaddai, Almighty, one of the incommunicable The phylacteries consisted of four strips or scrolls of parchment, or the dressed skin

names of Jehovah, is cut out in relievo, and the other

which is written within the board, is cut so deep, that of some clean animal, inscribed with four paragraphs of the Law, taken from Exodus 13. 1-10, and 13. 11-16;

the strokes of the letters, either prominent or hollow, Deuteronomy 6. 4-9, and ll. 13-21, all inclusive;

distinctly appear upon this parchment case when it is

dry. It is made wide enough at the bottom to reach a which the Pharisees, interpreting literally Deuteronomy

little over the lowest board; this is done in order that it 6. 8, and other similar passages, (as do the modern Rabbins,) tied to the points of their caps, and on their

may be sewed together at last, that the sections of the arms, and also inscribed on their door-posts. These

Law may not drop out of the cavities. At one end there phylacteries were regarded as amulets, and efficacious

is a loop, into which a thong is put, with which it is in keeping off evil spirits.

made to bind about the head. They are termed in the

The parchment is

covered carefully over with a fine skin, the hairy side of Talmud, 1953 tephillin. A modern writer on the forms, customs, and manners of the Jews thus describes

which must be outermost, to keep the perspiration of them.

the head from the case, and the phylacteries that are “The parchment case for the head into which the

within it. The whole is sewed together with thongs of phylacteries are put, is formed into a particular shape

leather, cut very fine and made very soft.

“ The following is the mode of preparing the parchupon a last of wood, made exactly square at the bottom.

ment case for the phylacteries for the arm. It is made upon a frame, the same as the other, but with only one cavity, into which is put the same four sections as in those which are for the head. The four sections thereof must be written on four different slips of vellum; and must also have the letter w shin on the two sides thereof. But as to the phylacteries for the arm, the abovementioned four sections are to be written on one piece of vellum, in four columns, and not to have the letter w shin on each side as the other had. In every circumstance of this affair they are extraordinarily scrupulous, as to the order of writing and placing the sections; the manner of making the ink; preparing the vellum, &c., all of which are very particularly described by Maimonides, in his Hilcoth Tephillin, «The use of the Tephillin or Phylacteries. Every male of the whole Jewish nation, at or above the age of thirteen, is considered accountable for his actions, enters into what they term the state of manhood; and, therefore, from that time forward, he is obliged to observe the precepts of the Law. Before he begins his prayers, he must whether it be at the public worship, in the synagogue or privately at home,) put on the phylacteries in the following manner. They first take the phylactery for the arm, and having placed it on that part of the left arm

which is opposite the heart, say the following grace: Pżylactory for the Ecad.

‘ Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, King of the UniThis is a flat smooth piece of board, upon which there | verse! who hath sanctified us with his commandments, are four other smooth pieces placed parallel to each and commanded us to say the Tephillin. They then other. The parchment which covers and receives its | instantly, by means of a leather thong which runs

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PHYLACTERY

PIBESETH.

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through a loop of the case like a noose, fasten it on the mine from the monuments whether they, like the Israelarm that it may not slip from thence. They then take ites, connected the medical art with conjuration and the phylactery for the head, and saying the following, magic; but it is not an improbable conjecture, that they, • Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, King of the Uni like most Oriental nations, regarded sickness as a superTerse! who hath so sanctified us with his commandments, natural visitation, somewhat like possession by devils, and commanded us the commandment of Tephillin,' for the priests were the chief practitioners in medicine. place the case on the forehead on that part where the They were sacerdotal physicians in Egypt, to whose care hair begins to grow, and fasten it by means of a leather the embalming of bodies was confided. thong, which runs through the loop, is carried round the | Among the Assyrians, Chaldæans, Egyptians, Libyans, head, and tied behind, where it remains in that posi- and Greeks, we have hints of skilful physicians; but until tion; observing also, at the same time, that it is placed | Hippocrates the Coan, about A.M. 3540, digested medi. exactly between the eyes. All this is understood by cine into a kind of system, it was very little considered. the commandment in the Law: “And thou shalt bind Aretæus the Cappadocian, long afterwards, further imthem for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be proved it. Galen, who lived in the second century of as frontlets between thine eyes.' The Rabbins say, the Christian era, put the art into a still clearer order, this commandment, if duly considered, and properly but by pretending to found everything on the four eleweighed, is indeed a sign of the first magnitude ments, he embarrassed it with unintelligible jargon. between the Almighty and us. For we herein make Between the sixth and ninth centuries of Christianity, confession of the unity of God, and the duties which we the art of medicine was in a manner lost, but from that owe unto him; and that we may remember the miracles to the thirteenth the Arabs cultivated it with much zeal. and wonders which he wrought for us when he brought It was not, however, until the last two centuries, that it us forth from Egypt; and that he hath power and govern- was treated in a proper manner; nor is it so even now, ment over all; as well in the heavens above as in the except among Europeans of the Christian name. See earth beneath; to do in them according to his will. MEDICINE. They moreover state, that he hath commanded us to bind the phylacteries on our arm, in remembrance of the PIBESETH, nd) 's (Ezek. 30. 17.) According strong hand wherewith the Lord brought us forth; and to the Septuagint and Vulgate, this was the same as that it should be on that part of the arm which is oppo Bubastis, a celebrated city of Egypt, situated on the site the heart, to show that we ought to subject the appe. Pelusiac branch of the Nile. Bubastis derived its name tites and imaginations of our hearts to his service; and and celebrity from a magnificent temple dedicated to the that the phylactery for the head, which is just opposite goddess Bubastis. The site still bears the name of Tel the brain, is to intimate that it is the place nearest where Basta; but the great mass of ruins is situated at Chobra the soul is seated, and that all its senses and powers and Heryeh, rather more than half a mile west of the should be entirely devoted to the service of God. Thus Tel. There is no portion of any standing edifice remainit becomes an article of faith among the Jews, that every ing. All is overthrown, and the wide-spread rubbish one of them are bound, every morning at least, during affords the only remaining evidence of the ancient splenthe time of reading the Shema, and saying the nineteen dour of Bubastis. The direction of the ruins can, howprayers, to have on the phylacteries, because it is a sign ever, easily be traced, and they correspond precisely to of their acknowledging the Almighty to be the creator the ancient intimations concerning the place. It was of all things; and that he hath power to do as he prophesied that “the young men of Pibeseth should fall pleases. On the Sabbath and other festivals, they do by the sword,” (Ezek. 30.17,) and it is believed that the not put on the phylacteries, because the duly observing city was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. them is a sufficient sign of itself, as expressed in Exodus “The city of Bubastis," says Sir John Gardner Wilkin31. 12:' And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak son, “where the goddess was particularly adored, stood unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily, my Sabbath east of the Delta, and at a short distance from the Pelusiac shall ye keep; for it is a sign between me and you branch of the Nile, where lofty mounds, called Tel Basta, throughout your generations; that ye may know that I still mark its site. “Here,' says Herodotus, 'is a temple am the Lord that doth sanctify you. And again, (verse of Bubastis deserving of mention. Other temples are 17,) 'It is a sign between me and the children of Israel | larger and more magnificent, but none are more beautifor ever; for in six days the Lord made heaven and ful than this. The goddess Bubastis is the same as the earth. Thus every one of the whole Jewish nation is Greek Diana. The temple stands in an island sursealed with these two signs of the covenant of God con- rounded on all sides by water, except at the entrance tinually, thereby making confession of the unity of God, passage. Two separate canals lead from the Nile to the and consequently of the duties they owe to Him. For entrance, which, diverging to the right and left, surround He being the Creator of all things, as well celestial as the temple. They are about one hundred feet broad, terrestrial, it is proper that Divine worsnip should be and planted with trees. The vestibule is ten orgyes offered to Him and none else.”

(fathoms) high, ornamented with very fine figures six cubits in height. The temple stands in the centre of

the town, and in walking round the place you look down PHYSIC. See MEDICINE; DISEASES.

upon it on every side, in consequence of the foundations PHYSICIAN, 297 ropha, (Gen. 50. 2;) latpos, of the houses having been elevated, and the temple still (Mark 5. 26.) Though the art of the physician was but continuing on its original level. The sacred inclosure is httle regarded among the Hebrews, the language of the encompassed by a wall, on which a great number of prophet Isaiah proves that it was sometimes resorted to. figures are sculptured ; and within it is a grove, planted He describes the moral corruption of Judah in the fol- round the cella of the temple, with trees of a considerlowing terms: “From the sole of the foot even unto the able height. In the cella is the statue of the goddess. bead there is no soundness in it; but wounds and bruises, The sacred inclosure is a stadium (six hundred feet) in and putrifying sores: they have not been closed, neither | length, by the same in breadth. The street, which corLound up, neither mollified with ointment.” (Isai. 1. 6.) responds with the entrance of the temple, crosses the The ancient Egyptians were highly celebrated for their public square, goes to the east, and leads to the temple skill in surgery and medicine. It is not easy to deter- of Mercury; it is about three stades long, and four

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PIBESETH

PI-HAHIROTH.

plethra (four hundred feet) large, paved and planted on on the splendid crown of the upper and lower country. either side with large trees.

- that is, the king, Remeses III., has put on the two “Bubastis is represented with the head of a lioness or crowns. a cat, and to her the latter was peculiarly sacred. On “The pigeon is also noticed as a favourite food of the her head she bears a disk, from which rises the uræus, | Egyptians; and so pure and wholesome was it conor royal asp, and in her hand she holds the usual sceptre sidered by them, that when the country was visited by of the Egyptian goddesses. From the difficulty expe epidemic diseases, and all things were affected by the rienced in distinguishing between the cat and the lion pestilential state of the atmosphere, they believed that headed figures, doubts sometimes arise respecting the those alone who contented themselves with it were safe form of the Egyptian Diana; though it appears she took from the infection. Indeed, during that period, no other the head of both those animals. The goddess of the food was placed upon the tables of the kings and priests, Speos Artemidos is represented in the hieroglyphics by whose duty it was to keep themselves pure for the sera lioness; and if it be true that the wolf and jackal vice of the gods. There is, however, no appearance of were dedicated to one deity, Anubis, we can with equal pigeons, or even doves, having been sacred; and neither reason suppose the lion and cat to have been emblems these nor the quail are found embalmed." of the same goddess.

Solomon says, “Curse not the king, no, not in thy “ One of the principal festivals of the Egyptians was thought, and curse not the rich in thy bedchamber ; for held at Bubastis, in honour of Pasht; and Herodotus a bird of the air shall carry the voice, and that which hath considers that they took a greater interest in it than in wings shall tell the matter.” (Eccles. 10. 20.) There is any of the numerous fêtes annually celebrated in Egypt. here an obvious allusion to the carrier-pigeon. Professor * This,' says the historian, “is the nature of the cere Paxton observes, " The manner of sending advice by mony on the way to Bubastis. They go by water, pigeons was this: they took doves which had a very and numerous boats are crowded with persons of both young and unfledged brood, and carried them on horsesexes. During the voyage, several women strike the back to the place from whence they wished them to cratala, (a sort of cymbals,) while some men play the return, taking care to let them have a full view. When flute; the rest, both men and women, singing and clap- | any advices were received, the correspondent tied a bill ping their hands. As they pass near a town, they bring to the pigeon's foot, or under the wing, and let her loose. the boat close to the bank. Some of the women continue | The bird, impatient to see her young, flew off with the to sing and play the cratala; others cry out as long as utmost impetuosity, and soon arrived at the place of her they can, and utter reproaches against the people of the destination. These pigeons have been known to travel town, who begin to dance, while the former continue to from Alexandretta to Aleppo, a distance of seventy conduct themselves in a scoffing manner. The same is miles, in two hours, and in two days from Bagdad; and repeated at every town they pass on the river. Arrived when taught, they never fail, unless it be very dark, in at Bubastis, they celebrate the festival of Diana, sacri which case they usually send two, for fear of mistake. ficing a great number of victims, and on that occasion a “It is more than probable that to this singular custom greater consumption of wine takes place than during Solomon alludes in the above-named passage. The the whole of the year; for, according to the accounts remote antiquity of the age in which the wise man of the people themselves, no less than seven hundred flourished, is no valid objection; for the customs and thousand persons of both sexes are present, besides usages of Orientals are almost as permanent as the soil children.'”

on which they tread. Averse to change, and content, The black basalt sitting figures in the British Museum, for the most part, with what their fathers have taught and other European collections, represent the Egyptian them, they transmit the lessons they have received, and Bubastis.

the customs they have learned, with little alteration,

from one generation to another. The pigeon was emPIGEON, 731' yonah. (Levit. 1. 14.) A sketch ployed in carrying messages, and bearing intelligence, of the natural history of this bird has been given in a long before the coming of Christ, as we know from the former article. See Dove.

odes of Anacreon and other classics ; and the custom Michaëlis, in his Commentaries on the Laws of Moses, seems to have been very general and quite familiar. says, “ It may be doubted whether breeding of pigeons When, therefore, the character of those nations and the was much practised among the Israelites; for those kept stability of their customs are duly considered, it will in dove-cotes, are, in the later Hebrew, called by a name | not be reckoned extravagant to say Solomon in this text equivalent to Herodian doves, because Herod is said to referred to the carrier-pigeon.” have introduced them. Pigeons, it is true, appear frequently in their offerings; but then they might be of the wild kind, as well as turtle-doves. Here, however, PI-HAHIROTH, nizina (Exod. 14. 2,9; I speak doubtfully; for even in the patriarchal history, Numb. 13. 7;) a place on the borders of the Red Sea, we find pigeons used as offerings, and Egypt, out of where the Israelites made their second encampment. which the Israelites came, is at this day, full of pigeon- | As the Israelites were truly delivered at this place from houses."

their captivity, and fear of the Egyptians, (Exod. 14.5,) Sir John Gardner Wilkinson says, “ Pigeons are not Dr. Shaw thinks that it derived its name (signifying, the generally represented in the sculptures of Egypt; but | opening of liberty,) from that circumstance. The an instance occurs of their introduction at the corona- | Israelites were commanded to turn to the south-west, tion ceremony, which is particularly interesting, as it | and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the shows the early custom of training carrier-pigeons, and sea, over against Baal-zephon by the sea. This place, adds one more confirmation of the truth of Solomon's then, together with the two places in connexion with remark, “There is no new thing under the sun. The which it is mentioned, must probably have been situated king is there represented as having assumed the pshent, on the west coast of the western arm of the Red Sea, or double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt; and a which stretches up into the desert, and near the top of priest lets fly four pigeons, commanding them to it, above the modern town of Suez, announce to the south, the north, the west, and the east, that Horus, the son of Isis and Osiris, has put

the Israelites lites made the borders of the i

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PILATE, the Roman governor of Judæa, under that alarmed her, requested he would not stain his hands whose orders the crucifixion of Our blessed Lord took with the blood of that just person, (v. 19.) He thereplace. Pontius Pilate is supposed to have been a native fore attempted to appease the wrath of the Jews by of Italy, and was sent to govern Judæa about the year scourging Jesus, (John 19. l; Matt. 27. 26 ;) and also A.D. 26 or 27. According to the testimony of Philo, tried to take him out of their hands by proposing to he was procurator of Judæa eleven years, and his deliver him or Barabbas on the day of the Passover. government was one scene of extortion and cruelty; Lastly, he thought to discharge himself from prohe set justice to sale, plundered the people, and executed nouncing judgment against him by sending him to the innocent. His conduct from the first excited dis- Herod, king of Galilee. (Luke 23. 7,8.) When he satisfaction in Judæa; as he commenced his administra found all this would not satisfy the Jews, and that they tion with an act that outraged the national and religious even threatened him in some manner, saying he could feelings of the Jews. He sent his soldiers from Samaria be no friend to the emperor if he suffered Jesus to be to Jerusalem to winter quarters, and directed them to set at liberty, (John 19. 12,15,) he caused water to be carry the images of Cæsar, which were on their standards, brought, and washed his hands before all the people, and into the city by night. The people regarded this as a publicly declared himself innocent of the blood of that violation of their law, and many Jews went to Cæsarea just person, (Matt. 27. 23,24;) yet, at the same time, to entreat Pilate to remove the images from the city. he delivered him to his soldiers, that they might crucify They remained five days before his palace, without him. Pilate ordered the inscription to be placed over obtaining the object of their requests. On the sixth the head of Our Saviour, (John 19. 19,) and when day, Pilate seated himself on a throne in one of the requested by the Jews to alter it, peremptorily refused. public squares; and when the Jews appeared before He also gave permission for the removal of Our Lord's him, he surrounded them with his soldiers, and threat body, and to place a guard over the sepulchre. (Matt. ened them with instant death unless they departed to 27. 65.) These are all the particulars that we learn their homes; but they threw themselves on the ground, concerning Pilate from the writers of the Gospels; but bared their necks, and exclaimed, that they would rather we know from other sources, that after he had held his die than suffer the images to remain in their capital con office for ten years, having caused a number of innocent trary to the law. Pilate was finally prevailed upon to Samaritans to be put to death, that injured people sent give orders for the removal of the standards from Jeru- / an embassy to Vitellius, proconsul of Syria, by whom salem.

Pilate was ordered to Rome to give an account of his If the relation of Philo be true, that Pilate next set administration to the emperor; the charges against him up shields with idolatrous inscriptions at Jerusalem, and being proved, Caligula banished him to Gaul, where he afterwards, at the request of the Jews, received orders is stated to have committed suicide about the year of from the Emperor Tiberius to take them away, it was Christ 41. probably in part through desire of revenge, that he now! There are said to have been once extant certain wridetermined to construct an aqueduct to Jerusalem from tings of Pontius Pilate having reference to Our Lord, a fountain at the distance of twenty English miles, and which demand a brief notice. Justin Martyr, Tertuldemanded disbursements from the treasury of the lian, Eusebius, and after these several other writers, Temple to pay the expenses. In consequence of this both ancient and modern, assure us that it was formerly demand, when in his tribunal at Jerusalem, he was beset the custom for the Roman magistrates to prepare copies with the most earnest entreaties by the people; but he of all verbal processes and judicial acts passed in their sent disguised soldiers among the multitude with dag- several provinces and to send them to the emperor; gers or bludgeons concealed under their garments, who | and that Pilate, in compliance with the custom, having slew several, and others were trodden to death in the informed Tiberius of what had passed relating to Jesus crowd. Such a course of conduct provoked frequent | Christ, the emperor wrote an account of it to the senate, commotions, especially in Galilee, and Pilate sought in a manner that gave reason to suppose that he thought revenge upon the people of that province, by putting to | favourably of the religion of Jesus Christ, and showed death some of them who had repaired to Jerusalem to that he should be willing for them to confer divine the Temple. Thus St. Luke acquaints us that Pilate honours upon him; but the senate was not of the same mingled the blood of certain Galilæans with their sacri- opinion, and so the matter dropped. It appears by fices; and that the matter having been related to Our what Justin says of these acts, that the miracles of Lord, he introduced the subject into his discourse. Christ were mentioned there, and even that the soldiers (Luke, ch. 13.)

| had divided his garments among them ; Eusebius insiYet in the proceedings relative to the death of Our nuates that they also spoke of his resurrection and blessed Saviour, Pilate appears to have been actuated at ascension. Tertullian and Justin refer to these acts first by a sense of justice, though he too easily suffered with so much confidence, as to make it supposed that himself to be led away by the clamours of the high- they had read and handled them. However, neither priests and their followers. His extreme reluctance to | Eusebius nor Jerome, nor any other author who wrote condemn Christ, considering his merciless character, is afterwards, seems to have seen them, at least not the signally remarkable, and still more, his repeated pro | true and original acts, for as to what we have now in testations of the innocence of his prisoner, although on great numbers, they are not authentic, being neither occasions of massacre, he made no scruple of confound- ancient nor uniform. There are likewise some preing the innocent with the guilty. But he was un tended letters of Pilate to Tiberius, giving a history of questionably overruled by the Almighty, to make the | Our Saviour; but they are universally allowed to be righteousness of Our blessed Lord appear as clear as the spurious. noon-day, even when condemned and executed as a malefactor, by the fullest, the most authentic, and the most public evidence.

PILESER. See AssyRIA. At the time of Our Saviour's passion, Pilate made PILGRIMAGE. The word 790 magur, signifies some attempts to deliver him out of the hands of the) a stay, or an abode in a foreign country, travels, a pil. Jews. He knew the reasons of their enmity against grimage. (Gen. 17. 8.) Metaphorically, it is applied to him, (Matt. 27. 18;) his wife also, having had a dream the sojourning on earth; thus the patriarch Jacob says 1050

PILGRIMAGE-PILLAR.

to Pharaoh, " The days of the years of my pilgrimage (Gen. 31. 45-53.) Such monuments of erected stones are an hundred and thirty years.” (Gen. 47. 9.) The with heaps of stones at their base or near at hand, are Psalmist likewise says, “ Thy statutes have been my far from being unknown among the most ancient monu. songs in the house of my pilgrimage.” (Psalm 119. 54.) ments of our own country; thus in Cornwall there is

Pilgrimage, in later times, is understood to be a kind one remarkable monument of this kind, with a heap of of religious discipline, which consists in taking a journey stones lying at its base, in Boswen's Croft, Sancred; and to some reputed holy place, as the tomb or shrine of a a similar monument occurs in Oxfordshire, about half a saint or martyr, frequently in discharge of a vow. Pil-mile to the south-west of Eston Church. The twelve grimages, by Christians, chiefly to Judæa, began to be pillars which Moses set up together with an altar at the made about the middle of the fourth century, were foot of Mount Sinai, (Exod. 24. 4,) and those which much practised through the whole of the middle ages, Joshua caused to be set up at Gilgal, taken from the bed but were most in vogue from the end of the eleventh of the Jordan, (Josh. ch. 4,) are instances of another century to the end of the thirteenth. Objects of pil. class of monuments. The stone also which Joshua set grimage for the votaries of the churches of Rome and up under the oak at Shechem, was avowedly an evithe East, are found in almost every country, but the dence and memorial of the covenant into which the chief place has been, and still is, Palestine, or the Holy people entered with God. (Josh. 24, 26,27.) In addiLand. See JERUSALEM, Holy Places; Jordan; where tion to the numerous stones, the occasion of the erection will be found as full an account of this unscriptural of which is mentioned in Scripture, there are such incipractice as is consistent with the design of this work. dental references to other marked and conspicuous The journeys of the Mohammedans to the tombs of their stones as show that monuments of this kind were nufalse prophet, or his son-in-law Ali, though pilgrimages merous in the country. Thus there is the stone of in the strict sense of the word, are altogether foreign to Bohan, the son of Reuben, (Josh. 18. 17;) and in another our purpose.

place (1Sam. 6. 18,) we read of a well-known and dis

tinguished stone of great magnitude on which the ark · PILLAR, 2'3) nitsib. (Gen. 19. 26.) Pillar pro of God was placed when returned from the Philistines, perly means a column raised to support a building; but and taken out of the cart by the Levites; this had in Scripture the term occurs more frequently in the before been known as “the great stone of Abel.” Stones sense of a stone of memorial, or it is figuratively em were likewise set up as memorials of their victories ; ployed.

such was the Ebenezer, “ the stone of help," set up by Dr. Wait observes, “ What are termed the pillars of Samuel. (1 Sam. 7. 12.) Seth, Hermes Trismegistus, and the like, were means / Another use of stone pillars, as indicated in Scripture, employed to hand down historical facts to future times. was to point out the graves of the dead. The earliest They were covered with characters or hieroglyphics, instance of this is offered by the pillar which Jacob set which could only be deciphered by the sacred order, and up over the grave of his beloved Rachel, (Gen. 35. 20,) perhaps the initiated in the mysteries, without which all but as the Hebrews generally placed their dead in excathe knowledge of the primitive state of the Pagan world vated sepulchres, we do not find sepulchral pillars which we now possess would have been irretrievably common among them; and in fact, they appear to have lost. This style of hieroglyphic representation seems to been chiefly employed for such eminent persons as it bave prevailed in most parts of the world at some period was necessary to inter remote from the sepulchres of or other of their history. Very many of the rites and their fathers, as in the case of Rachel. The custom, opinions in the Pentateuch were, decidedly, anterior however, was very general with other nations, for the to Moses, all of which we denominate patriarchal. Greeks had for many ages no other monuments than Amongst thesc we reckon the use of pillars, on which such unhewn pillars, which they set up on the top of these records were most probably depicted in the sym- the barrow or the tumulus. Several allusions to such bolical style of the day, and these ornnai are often monuments are to be met with in the Iliad. contrasted with the Law engraven on stones. But we | We transcribe the following account from Professor do not imply that they were decorated in the same heroo- Robinson's Biblical Researches, respecting the singular hieroglyphical manner as the Egyptian pillars; because and mysterious monuments, or pillars, of Surabit el we find Moses expressly forbidding the n'vo y2x Khadim, in the Wilderness of Sin, which we are inclined aben maskith, (Levit. 26. 1,) image of stone,' which to consider as sepulchral. particular phrase carried with it some such idea as the “These lie mostly within the compass of a small n'ava 777 hodar maskilh, in Ezekiel 8. 8-11, which inclosure, one hundred and sixty feet long from east to can only signify the emblematical imagery, with which west, by seventy feet broad, marked by heaps of stones subterranean vaults were ornamented in the Egyptian, thrown or fallen together, the remains perhaps of former Mithraic, Hindoo, and Chaldaic religions." See IMAGERY, walls or rows of low buildings. Within this space are CHAMBERS OF.

seen about fifteen upright stones, and several fallen ones, Monuments of large and rude stones disposed in vari | covered with Egyptian hieroglyphics; and also the reous forms, whose date ascends for the most part beyond mains of a small temple, whose columns are decorated all history and tradition, are found dispersed in coun- with the head of Isis for a capital. At the eastern end tries the most remote from each other. The setting up is a subterranean chamber excavated in the solid rock, of such stones of memorial, appears to have been one of resembling an Egyptian sepulchre. It is square; and the earliest means devised for preserving the memory of the roof is supported in the middle by a square column important events and facts. The first instance men- | left from the rock. Both the column and the sides of tioned in the Scriptures, is that of the stone which Jacob the chamber are covered with hieroglyphics; and in each set up at Bethel to commemorate the vision with which of the sides is a small niche. The whole surface of the he was there favoured, and to be a witness of the engage inclosure is covered with fallen columns, fragments of ment he entered into. (Gen. 28. 18-22.) Then there sculpture, and hewn stones strewn in every direction; is the remarkable affair between Jacob and Laban, when over which the pilgrim can with difficulty find his way. the latter overtook the former in Gilead, where a pillar Other similar upright stones stand without the inclosure and a heap of stones were made the monuments and in various directions, and even at some distance; each evidences of a solemn compact of peace between them. surrounded by a heap of stones, which may have been

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