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ings. The song might also be sung on the way by indi- | Our Saviour as a crime that he sat at meat with public viduals or in choirs. They congratulated each other on cans. (Matt. 9. 10,11; 12. 19; 21. 31,32.) The paytheir journey.” See HEBREW POETRY.

ment of taxes to the Romans under any circumstances was accounted by the Jews an intolerable grievance; hence

those Jews who assisted in collecting them were detested PSALTERY. See MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

as plunderers in the cause of the Romans, as betrayers · PTOLEMAIS, IItornuais, the name borne in the of the liberty of their country, and as abettors of those time of the Apostles (Acts 21.7) by the ancient Accho, who had enslaved it; this circumstance will account for now known as Akka, or Acre. See Accho.

the contempt and hatred so often expressed by the Jews, Professor Robinson, in his recent Biblical Researches

in the Evangelical histories, against the collectors of in Palestine, says, “ The name of 'Akka, or Ptolemais,

taxes or tribute. recalls many a deadly struggle. There Napoleon was

The parable of the Pharisee and the publican (Luke baffled, and driven back from Syria; and in our own

18.10-13) will derive considerable illustration from these day, torrents of blood have flowed within and around its

circumstances. Our Saviour, in bringing these two walls, during the long siege and subsequent capture of

characters together, appears to have chosen them as the city by the Egyptian army, in A.D. 1832.

making the strongest contrast between what, in the “ The ink with which these lines were penned was

public estimation, were the extremes of excellence and hardly dry, when the coasts of Syria were again visited

villany. The Pharisees were the most powerful and by war; 'Akka became the closing scene of the struggle

popular sect among the Jews, and made great pretences between the allied English and Austrian fleets, and the

to piety, whilst the very name of publican was synoniforces of Mohammed Ali. On the third day of Novem

mous with extortioner, and all who followed that prober, 1840, 'Akka was bombarded for several hours, until

fession were regarded with the extreme of hatred and the explosion of a magazine destroyed the garrison, and contempt. laid the town in ruins." See SYRIA.

PUBLIUS, IoTcos, (Acts 28. 7,) the Roman

governor of Malta at the time of St. Paul's shipwreck, PUBLICAN, telavns. (Matt. 9. 9.) The term who miraculously healed Publius' father of a dangerous "publican” employed by our translators in this and malady. The bay in which the vessel was wrecked was other passages, is derived from the Latin publicani, the contiguous to his estate, and he most probably entername of a kind of corporate bodies among the Romans tained the Apostle during his three months' stay in that who farmed the public revenue, and had their sub island. (Acts 28. 11.) An ancient inscription, found ordinates, to whom the appellation given by the Evan- | at Malta, designates its governor by the same annellagelist more properly applies, in all the provinces of the tion, II PWTOs, or “chief-man,” which St. Luke gives to empire. The principals were men of great consideration Publius. See MELITA. in the government, and Cicero says, that among these were the flower of the Roman knights, the ornaments of the city, and the strength of the commonwealth; but PUDENS, IIovdns. (2Tim. 4. 21.) This person, the deputies, the under-farmers, the commissioners, the mentioned by St. Paul, was thought by ancient writers publicans of the lower order,—who were at least in some to have been a Roman senator, converted by St. Peter; cases natives of the provinces, (Matt. 9. 9,) whilst the | but there is reason to think they confounded with him superiors were Romans by birth,- for their rapine and another Pudens, a senator said to be father of Prasidus extortion, were looked upon as so many thieves and and Prudentiana above a hundred years afterwards. The pickpockets. Josephus has made mention of several Greeks put Pudens in the list of the seventy disciples, Jews who were Roman knights, whence Dr. Lardner and say that after the death of Paul he was beheaded thinks it probable that they had merited the equestrian by Nero; and some writers think that Claudia, menrank by their services in collecting some part of the tioned by Paul after Pudens, was his wife; but this is all revenue.

merely conjectural. The ordinary taxes which the Romans levied in the

PUFF. The Psalmist says, “ The wicked, ..... provinces were of three sorts: (1,) Customs upon goods

as for all his enemies, he puffeth at them.” (Psalm imported and exported; which tribute was therefore

10. 6.) This is still an Oriental figure of speech. called Portorium, from portus, “a haven;” (2,) A tax

Roberts says, “Of a proud and powerful man in the upon cattle fed upon certain pastures belonging to

East it is said, 'He puffs away his fears; that is, they the Roman state, the number of which being kept in

are so contemptible, so light, that like a fake of cotton, writing, this tribute was called Scriptura; (3) A tax

he puffs them from his presence. Great is the contempt upon corn, of which the government demanded a tenth

which is shown by puffing through the mouth, and blowpart; this tribute was therefore called Decenna.

ing through the nostrils.” The collectors of these tributes were known by the general name of telwvat, that is, tax-gatherers. Some I I. PUL, 500 the name of a people remote from of them, mentioned in Scripture, seem to have been Palestine, mentioned in Isaiah 66. 19. The Septuagint receivers-general for a large district, as Zaccheus, who is translate the word ovd, confounding it with W15 Phut; styled “a chief publican,” apxITelwins. Matthew, who the Vulgate renders it Africa; and Bochart says it is is termed simply “a publican,” Telwins, was one who sat the island of Philæ, or Elephantine, in Upper Egypt; at the receipt of custom where the duty was paid upon but it is impossible, at the present time, to determine imports and exports. (Matt. 9. 9; Luke 6. 29; Mark 2. 14.) These officers, at least the inferior ones, were II. An Assyrian king, who rendered the kingdom generally rapacious, extorting more than the legal tri of Israel tributary. He invaded the kingdom shortly bute, (Luke 3. 13;) thence they were reckoned infamous after Nenahem had usurped the throne, and received by the rest of the people, and various passages in the from him a thousand talents of silver to support him in Gospels show how odious they were to the Jews, (Mark his kingdom. (2Kings 15. 19.) See ASSYRIA; ISRAEL 2. 15,16;) insomuch that the Pharisees would hold no KINGDOM OF. communication whatever with them, and imputed it to

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PULSE, 5 kali, (Lev. 23. 14,) a general term, punishment was not uncommon in the East in the applied to those grains or seeds which grow in pods, as seventeenth century. beans, peas, vetches, &c. Our English word is said to (3.) Crucifixion was practised among several ancient be derived from 510 phul, a bean, but this is ques- nations, as the Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, and Cartionable.

thaginians, as well as the Romans. The Carthaginians The Vulgate renders kali, in 2Sam. 17. 28, frixum generally adjudged to this death their unfortunate and cicer, or “ parched peas," which is very probably correct; unsuccessful commanders. There are many unhappy for Dr. Shaw informs us that the Cicer garamancos, or instances of this. They crucified Bomilcar, whom Justin chick peas, are in the greatest repute in the East, after calls their king, when they detected his design of joining they are parched in pans or ovens, then receiving the Agathocles. They erected a cross in the midst of the name of leblebby. This practice seems to be of great forum, on which they suspended him, and from which antiquity, for Plautus speaks of it as very common in with a great and unconquered spirit, amidst all his his time; and Horace mentions parched peas as the food sufferings, he bitterly inveighed against them, and of the poorer Romans.

| upbraided them with all the black and atrocious crimes In Daniel 1. 12-16, the word rendered “pulse” is they had lately perpetrated. But this manner of exeDy zaraim, which may signify seeds in general, for cuting criminals prevailed most among the Romans. It various kinds of grain, as wheat, barley, peas, &c., were was considered an infamous punishment, and was chiefly dried and pressed for food by the people of the East. inflicted on vile, worthless, and incorrigible slaves. In See Food.

reference to this, the Apostle, describing the condescension'of Jesus, and his submission to this most opprobrious

death, represents him as taking upon him the form of a PUNISHMENTS. The punishments mentioned servant, (Phil. 2. 7,8,) and becoming obedient to death, in the Scriptures may be said generally to be comprised even the death of the cross. in the Apostle's recapitulation of the sufferings of the Crucifixion was universally and descrvedly reputed the righteous in former times: “Some had trial of cruel most shameful and ignominious death to which any one mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and im- could be exposed. In such an exit were comprised prisonment: they were stoned, they were sawn asunder, every idea and circumstance of odium, disgrace, and were tempted, were slain with the sword.” (Heb. 11. public scandal. Hence the Apostle extols and magnifies 36,37.) Of these punishments some were inflicted by the love of Our Redeemer, in “that while we were yet the Jews in common with other nations, and others sinners, Christ died for us," and "for the joy set before were peculiar to themselves. They were usually divided him, endured the cross despising the shame,” (Rom. into two classes, capital and non-capital.

5. 8; Heb. 12. 2;) disregarding every circumstance of The capital punishments of the Jews have been dis- public indignity and infamy with which such a death tinguished by the Talmudical writers into lesser deaths, was loaded. It was from the idea they connected with and such as were more grievous; but there is no such a death, that the Greeks treated the Apostles with authority in the Scriptures for these distinctions, neither the last contempt and pity for publicly embarking in are the Rabbins agreed among themselves what parti- the cause of a person who had been brought to this cular punishments are to be referred to these two heads. reproachful and dishonourable death by his own counA capital crime was by the inspired writers termed trymen. The preaching of the cross was to them foolgenerally a sin of death, (Deut. 22. 26,) or a sin worthy ishness, (1 Cor. 1. 23;) the promulgation of a system of of death, (Deut. 21. 22,) which mode of expression is religion that had been taught by a person, who, by a adopted or rather imitated by the Apostle John, who national act, had publicly suffered the punishment and distinguishes between a sin unto death, and a sin not death of the most useless and abandoned slave, was, in unto death. (1John 5. 16.) Criminals, or those who their ideas, the extreme of infatuation; and the preachwere deemed worthy of capital punishment, were called ing of Christ crucified, publishing in the world a religion sons or men of death, (1 Sam. 20. 31; 26. 16; 2Sam. whose founder suffered on a cross, appeared the last 19.29, marginal rendering;) just as he who had incurred absurdity and madness. The heathens looked upon the the punishment of scourging was designated a son of attachment of the primitive Christians to a religion stripes. (Deut. 25. 2.) Those who suffered a capital whose publisher had come to such an end, as an unpunishment were said to be put to death for their own doubted proof of their utter ruin, that they were destroysin, (Deut. 24. 16; 2Kings 14. 6;) a similar phraseo ing their interest, comfort, and happiness, by adopting such logy was adopted by Our Lord when he said to the a system founded on such a dishonourable circumstance. Jews, “ Ye shall die in your sins." (John 8. 21-24.) The same inherent scandal and ignominy had crucifixion Eleven different sorts of capital punishments are men in the estimation of the Jews. They, indeed, annexed tioned in the sacred writings.

more coinplicated wretchedness to it, for they esteemed (1.) Beating to death, trup Traviouos, was a punish the miscreant who was adjudged to such an end not ment in use among the Greeks, and was designed for only to be abandoned of men, but forsaken of God: slaves. The criminal was suspended to a stake and “He that is hanged,” says the Law," is accursed of God.” beaten with rods till he died. (2Macc. 6. 10,19,28,30; | (Deut. 21. 23.) Hence St. Paul, representing to the Heb. 11. 35.)

Galatians the grace of Jesus, who released us from that (2.) Burning offenders alive is a punishment which curse to which the Law of Moses devoted us, by being Moses commanded to be inflicted on the daughters of made a curse for us, by submitting to be treated for our priests who should be guilty of unchastity, (Levit. sakes as an execrable malefactor, to show the horror of 21. 9,) and upon a man who should marry both the such a death as Christ voluntarily endured, adds, “ It is mother and the daughter. (Levit. 20. 14.) This punish- written in the Law, Cursed is every one that hangeth on ment seems to have been in use in the East, from a very a tree!” (Gal. 3. 13;) and from this express declaration early period. When Judah was informed that his of the Law of Moses concerning persons thus executed, daughter-in-law was pregnant, he condemned her to be we may account for that aversion the Jews discovered burnt. (Gen. 38. 24.) Many ages afterwards we find against Christianity, and perceive the reason of what the Babylonians or Chaldæans burning certain offenders St. Paul asserts, that their preaching of Christ crucified alive, (Jerem. 19. 22, Dan. 3. 6;) and this mode of was to the Jews a stumbling block. (1 Cor. 1. 23.) The

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circumstance of the cross caused them to stumble at the sensible to the sufferer. This beverage was refused by very gate of Christianity.

Our Saviour, for the obvious reason that he chose to die The person who was subjected to the punishment of with the faculties of his mind undisturbed and uncrucifixion among the Romans was deprived of all his clouded. (Matt. 27. 34; Mark 15. 23.) The drink the clothes excepting something around the loins. In this Roman soldiers subsequently offered to the Saviour was state of nudity, he was beaten, sometimes with rods, but a mixture of vinegar and water, denominated posca, and more generally with whips. Such was the severity of was a common drink for soldiers in the Roman army. this flagellation that numbers died under it. In addition | (Luke 23. 36; John 19. 29.) to scourging, Our Lord was crowned with thorns and It was customary for the Romans, on any extraordimade the subject of mockery, but nothing of this kind nary execution, to put over the head of the malefactor could be legally done, or in other words, insults of this an inscription denoting the crime for which he suffered. kind were not among the ordinary attendants of cruci Several examples of this occur in the Roman history. fixion. They were owing, in this case, merely to the It was also usual at this time at Jerusalem to post up petulant spirit of the Roman soldiers. (Matt. 27. 29; advertisements, which were designed to be read by all Mark 15. 17; John 19. 2-5.)

classes of persons, in several languages. Titus, in a The criminal, having been beaten, was subjected to message which he sent to the Jews when the city was the further suffering of being obliged to carry the cross on the point of falling into his hands, and by which he himself to the place of punishment, which was com endeavoured to persuade them to surrender, said, “ Did monly a hill, near the public way and out of the city. you not erect pillars, with inscriptions on them in the The place of crucifixion at Jerusalem was a hill to the Greek, and in our [the Latin] language, 'Let no one north-west of the city.

pass beyond these bounds?'” In conformity to this The cross, otavpos, a post, otherwise called the usage, an inscription by Pilate's order was fixed above unpropitious or infamous tree, consisted of a piece of the head of Jesus, written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, wood erected perpendicularly, and intersected by another specifying what it was that brought him to this end. at right angles near the top, so as to resemble the This writing was by the Romans called titulus, a title, letter T. The crime for which the person suffered, was and it is the very expression made use of by the Evaninscribed on the transverse piece near the top of the gelist John: “ Pilate wrote a title (eypaye Titlov,) perpendicular one. There is no mention made in any and put it on the cross.” (John 19. 19.) After the cross ancient writer of anything, on which the feet of the was erected, a party of soldiers was appointed to keep crucified person rested. Near the middle, however, of guard, and to attend at the place of execution till the the perpendicular beam there projected a piece of wood, criminal breathed his last; thus also we read that a body on which he sat, and which served as a support to the of Roman soldiers, with a centurion, were deputed to body, since the weight of the body might otherwise guard Our Lord and the two malefactors that were have torn away the hands from the nails driven through crucified with him. (Matt. 27. 54.) them. The position which is taken by some, that the (4.) Dismemberment. This method of putting crimipersons who suffered crucifixion, were not in some nals to death prevailed among the Chaldæans and Perinstances fastened to the cross by nails driven through sians. When this punishment was inflicted, the left the hands and feet, but were merely bound to it by hand and right foot, or both feet and hands, were cut off ropes, cannot be proved by the testimony of any ancient at the joints. (Dan. 2. 5; Matt. 24. 51; Luke 12. 46.) writer whatever; while that the feet as well as the hands A mutilation, in this way, of persons who had been were fastened to the cross by means of nails is expressly punished with death, is mentioned in 2Samuel 4. 12. asserted by Plautus. In regard to the nailing of the feet, (5.) Drowning was a punishment in use among the it may be also remarked, that Gregory Nazianzen has Syrians, and was well known to the Jews in the time of asserted, that one nail only was driven through both of Our Saviour, though we have no evidence that it was them, but Cyprian, who had been a personal witness to practised by them. It was also in use among the Greeks crucifixions, and is consequently in this case the better and Romans. The Emperor Augustus, we are told, authority, states, on the contrary, that two nails or punished certain persons who had been guilty of rapaspikes were driven one through each foot. The cru city in the province of Syria or Lycia, by causing them cified person remained suspended in this way, till he to be thrown into a river, with a heavy weight about died. While he exhibited any signs of life, he was their necks. Josephus also informs us that the Galiwatched by a guard, but they left him, when it appeared leans revolting, drowned the partisans of Herod in the that he was dead. The corpse was not buried except by sea of Gennesareth. To this mode of capital punishexpress permission, which was sometimes granted by the ment Our Saviour alludes in Matthew 18. 6. It is still emperor on his birth-day, but only to a very few. An practised in India; a large stone is tied round the neck exception, however, to this general practice was made by of the criminal, who is cast into the sea, or into deep the Romans in favour of the Jews, on account of Deute- water. ronomy 21. 22,23, and in Judæa, accordingly, crucified (6.) Hanging does not appear to have been a punishpersons were buried on the same day. When, therefore, ment among the Jews after their settlement in Palestine; there was not a prospect that they would die on the day | although Joshua hung the king of Ai on a tree until of the crucifixion, the executioners hastened the extinc evening. (Josh. 8. 29.) In Egypt, however, it was a tion of life, by kindling a fire under the cross, so as to customary punishment for many capital crimes; and the suffocate them with the smoke, or by letting loose criminals were kept bound in prison till their fate was wild beasts upon them, or by breaking their bones upon decided; being confined under the immediate superinthe cross with a mallet, or by piercing them with a tendence, and within the house, of the chief of the spear, in order that they might bury them on the same police. day.

(7.) Precipitation, or casting headlong from a winThe Jews, while under the jurisdiction of the Romans, | dow, or from a precipice, was a punishment rarely used; were accustomed to give the criminal, before the com- though we meet with it in the history of the Kings, and mencement of his sufferings, a medicated drink of wine in subsequent times. Thus the profligate Jezebel was and myrrh. The object of this was to produce intoxica- | precipitated out of a window, (2Kings 9. 30-33.) and tion, and thereby render the pains of crucifixion less the same mode of punishment is still practised in Persia.

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Amaziah, king of Judah, barbarously forced ten thou- | meant in the passage referred to in Leviticus, is not to sand Idumæan prisoners of war to leap from the top of be admitted. a high rock. (2Chron. 25. 12.) The Jews attempted to (11.) Strangulation, to which an allusion is made in precipitate Jesus Christ from the brow of a mountain. | 1 Kings 20. 31, is by the more recent Jews attributed (Lake 4. 29.) James, surnamed the Just, was thrown | to Moses, but without cause. They suppose strangulafrom the highest part of the Temple into the subjacent tion is meant, when the phrase “He shall die the valley. The same mode of punishment, it is well death," is read. As that phrase, in their estimation, known, obtained among the Romans, who used to throw is meant to express the easiest death by which a person certain malefactors from the Tarpeian rock. A similar can die, they suppose the mode of death intended is no practice is still in use among the Moors in Barbary. other than that of strangulation. A person will be sur

(8.) Sawing asunder, was occasionally practised by prised at their notions of an easy death, when he underthe Jews. The criminal was sometimes sawn asunder stands the method by which it was effected to have been lengthwise, which was more especially the practice in as follows. The criminal (as the punishment, according Persia. The Prophet Isaiah, according to the Tal- to their account, was inflicted,) was thrust up to his mudists, was put to death in this manner. David in- | middle in mud; a handkerchief was then tied round flicted this punishment upon the conquered inhabitants his neck, which was drawn by the two ends in opposite of Rabbath Ammon. (IChron. 20. 3.)

directions by two lictors; and while the process of (9.) Slaying with the Sword. Decapitation, or be- strangulation was going on in this way, melted lead was heading, was a method of taking away life that was poured down his throat. early practised. This mode of punishment, therefore, (12.) Exposing to wild beasts, appears to have been a must probably have been known to the Hebrews. And punishment among the Medes and Persians. It was it may be remarked, that if in truth there occur no inflicted on the Prophet Daniel, who was miraculously indubitable instances of it in the time of the early preserved. (Dan. 6. 7,12,16-24.) Hebrew kings, it is clear that something, which bears The Romans, for the gratification of the people, commuch relationship to it, is meant in such passages as the pelled their criminals, and also captives taken in war, following. (2Sam. 4. 7; 2Kings 10. 6-8.) It appears to fight with wild beasts in the amphitheatre. This in the later periods of the Jewish history, that Herod was a death to which the primitive Christians were and his descendants, in a number of instances, ordered frequently exposed. (2Tim. 4. 17, comp. 1 Cor. 15. 32.) decapitation. (Matt. 14. 8-12; Acts 12. 2.) “ It be- They likewise compelled them to contend with one anocomes us to observe, however,” says Professor Jahn, ther in the manner of gladiators, till their life was thus “ lest these remarks should carry an erroneous impres- terminated. sion, that beheading was not sanctioned by the laws of Of the non-capital punishments among the Jews, the Moses. The Mosaic punishment, the most correspon- following were the principal. dent to it, was that of the sword; with which the cri- (1.) Banishment, was not a punishment enjoined by minal was slain in any way which appeared most conve- the Mosaic law, but after the Captivity, both exile and nient or agreeable to the executioner. That this state- forfeiture of property were introduced among the Jews; ment in respect to the liberty exercised by the execu- it also existed under the Romans, by whom it was tioner is correct, may be indeed inferred from the phrase, called diminutio capitis, because the person banished Rush upon him,' 12 yaa piga boi, (Judges 8. 21,) and lost the right of a citizen, and the city of Rome thereby He rushed upon him, 12 y.Dy vayiphga boi. (1 Sam. lost a head. But there was another kind of exile, termed 22. 18; 2Sam. 1. 15.) The probability is, however, disportatio, which was accounted the worst kind. The that the executioner generally thrust the sword into party banished forfeited his estate; and being bound, the bowels of the criminal."

was put on board ship, and transported to some island (10.) Słoning, in the Mosaic law, was denounced specified exclusively by the emperor, there to be confined against idolaters, blasphemers, sabbath-breakers, inces- in perpetual banishment. In this manner the Apostle tuous persons, witches, wizards, and children who John was exiled to the little island of Patmos, (Rev. either cursed their parents or rebelled against them. | 1.9,) where he wrote his Revelation. (Levit. 20. 2,27; 24. 14; Deut. 13. 10; 17. 5; (2.) Blinding, was not ordinarily practised among the 23. 21-24.) It was the punishment most generally Hebrews as a punishment of crime, nor was it in fact denounced in the Law against notorious criminals; and thus practised among other nations, but rather resorted is intended by the indefinite term of putting to death.” to in cases where the person whose eyes were put out (Levit. 20. 10, compared with John 8. 5.) Michaëlis would otherwise have been in a condition to have supposes that the culprit was bound previously to the engaged in plots against the existing government. It execution of the sentence. Moses (following probably was from the fear of this, that the eyes of rebellious some ancient custom,) enacted that witnesses should kings were put out, (2Kings 25. 7; Jerem. 52. 11;) and throw the first stone against the criminal, and after the Eastern princes in modern times, more particularly the witnesses, the people. (Deut. 13. 10; 17. 7; Josh. 7. 25; Persians, have often resorted to this barbarous expedient John 8. 7.) Instances of persons being stoned in the toward off danger to their authority from suspected rivals. Old Testament occur in Achan, (Josh. 7. 25;) Adoram, (3.) Cutting off the hair of criminals seems to be (1Kings 12. 18;) Naboth, (1 Kings 21. 10;) and Zecha- rather an ignominious than a painful mode of punishriah. (2Chron. 24. 21.) The assertion of the Tal- ment; yet it appears that pain was added to the disgrace, mudists, (Sanhedrin 6. 1-4,) that the criminal was first and that the hair was violently plucked off, as if the thrown off from an elevated scaffolding, and then stoned, executioner were plucking a bird alive. This is the is a mere fable.

/ literal meaning of the original word, which in Nehemiah This mode of punishment is meant in Leviticus | 13 25 is rendered “plucked off their hair;" sometimes 20. 10, where the discourse is concerning adulterers. hot ashes were applied to the skin after the hair was off, Accordingly, this is the construction to be put upon the in order to render the pain more exquisitely acute. In passage in Ezekiel 16. 38,40, and in John 8. 5. Com- the spurious book commonly termed the Fourth Book of pare likewise Exodus 31. 14, and 35. 2, with Numbers | Maccabees, it is said that the tyrant Antiochus Epiphanes 15. 35,36. The opinion, therefore, of the Talmudists, caused the hair and skin entirely to be torn off the who maintain that strangulation is the punishment heads of some of the seven Maccabean brethren. As an

execution that the pared with a

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Infiction of the Bastinado. From the Egyptian Monuments. historical composition, this book is utterly destitute of Beside these punishments, which were common also credit, but it shows that the mode of punishment under to the surrounding nations, there were some which, being consideration was not unusual in the East. This sort grounded on passages of the Law, were peculiar to the of torture is said to have been frequently inflicted on the Jews. First may be mentioned ignominious treatment early martyrs and confessors of the Christian faith. ' of the bodies of criminals. The bodies of those who had

(4.) Scourging, was an ignominious punishment, been stoned were burnt, (Josh. 7. 16-26,) and another appointed for several offences in the Mosaic law, but the mark of infamy was the suspension of the dead body on extent to which it could be carried was confined within a tree or gallows. This was customary in Egypt. (Gen. moderate limits, (Deut. 25.3,) though among the Gentile 40. 17-19.) The person suspended was considered as a nations it was often inflicted with such severity as to “curse," an "abomination in the sight of God," and as cause death.

receiving this token of infamy from his hand. The body, Sir John Gardner Wilkinson observes, that in ancient nevertheless, was to be taken down and buried on the Egypt, “in military as well as civil cases, minor offences same day. (Numb. 25. 4,5; Deut. 21. 22,23.) Posthuwere generally punished with the stick; a mode of chas- mous suspension of this kind, for the purpose of contisement still greatly in vogue among the modern inha- ferring ignominy, is a very different thing from the crucibitants of the Valley of the Nile, and held in such fixion that was practised by the Romans, notwithstanding esteem by them, that convinced of (or perhaps by) its that the Jews gave such an extent to the law in Deuteefficacy, they relate 'its descent from heaven as a blessing ronomy 21. 22,23, as to include the last-named punishto mankind.'

ment. (John 19. 31, et seq.; Gal. 3. 13.) Heaps of “ The bastinado was inflicted on both sexes, as with stones were raised, either directly upon the dead body of the Jews. Men and boys were laid prostrate on the a criminal, or upon the place where it was buried. (Josh. ground, and frequently held by the hands and feet, 7. 25,26; 2Sam. 18. 17.) The pile of stones that was while the chastisement was administered; but women, gathered in this way was increased by the contributions

of each passing traveller, who added to the heap in testimony of his aversion to the crime.

Excommunication, or exclusion from sacred worship, was not only an ecclesiastical punishment, but a civil one. The Jewish interpreters have made three species of it. The first was called '973 niddui, that is, removal or separation from all society. The second degree was called On cherem, the curse, and thoroughly excluded the guilty person from all communion whatever with his countrymen. The third and last degree of excommuni

שם אתא cation was termed מרן אהא shamm atha


maran atha, the Lord cometh. It was a solemn and From the Monuments.

absolute exclusion from all intercourse and communion as they sat, received stripes on their back, which were with any other individuals: and the criminal was left in also inflicted by the hand of a man. Nor was it unusual | the hands and to the justice of God. See ACCURSED; for the superintendents to stimulate labourers to their | ANATHEMA; ExcOMMUNICATION. work by the persuasive powers of the stick, whether The law of retaliation was acknowledged in its fullest engaged in the field or in handicraft employments; and extent in the Mosaic jurisprudence, and extended alike

to the taking of life and the destruction of property. With respect to the case of inurder, frequent mention is made in the Old Testament, of the goël, or blood avenger, whose duty it was to retaliate upon the murderer. Moses did not abolish this practice, but made various regulations concerning this person. (See AVENGER OF BLOOD.) If a man in a personal conflict with another smote him to such a degree as to cause confinement to his bed, he was bound to make him indemnification. (Exod. 21. 18,19.) When, in such a contest, injury

was intentionally done to a particular member of the From the Monuments.

body, or life was taken away, life was rendered for life, boys were sometimes beaten without the ceremony of eye for eye, tooth for tooth, burning for burning, stripe prostration, the hands being tied behind their back, while for stripe, hand for hand, foot for foot. (Exod. 21. 23-25; the punishment was applied." See BASTINADO; ScourgING. Levit. 24. 19-22.) A false witness, likewise, according

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