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tered Egypt and saw the pyramids, he desired to know The third pyramid, called that of Mycerinus, is much what was within, and therefore would have them opened. / smaller than the others. It has not been opened, and He was told it could not possibly be done. He replied, little therefore can be said about it. 'I will bave it certainly done. And that hole was Professor Robinson is the latest traveller who has opened for him which stands open to this day, with fire visited these wonderful structures. He says, “Our most and with vinegar. Two smiths prepared and sharpened important excursion was to the pyramids situated about the iron and engines, which they forced in; and there six miles west of el-Gîzeh, which lies on the left bank was a great expense in opening it, and the thickness of of the Nile, opposite Old Cairo. Crossing the river at the wall was found to be twenty cubits. Within they that place, we proceeded in a direct course to the pyrafound a square well, and in the square of it there were mids; although at other seasons of the year, when the doors; every door of it opened into a house, (or vault,) river is higher, a considerable circuit is necessary in in which there were dead bodies wrapped up in linen. | order to cross the Babr Yûsof, the canal which runs Towards the upper part of the pyramid, they found a parallel with the Nile. Even now the water in it was chamber, in which was a hollow stone; in it a statue so deep that we could not pass it on donkeys; but were of stone, like a man, and within it a man, upon whom carried over on the shoulders of Arabs from adjacent was a breast-plate of gold, set with jewels, and on him were villages. The pyramids, as seen from the river against written characters with a pen, which no man can explain.” | the horizon, appeared enormously large; as we ap
Greaves, an Englishman, who visited the Great Pyra- proached, their apparent magnitude continually dimimid in 1648, describes the passages thus opened, and nished, and was nowhere less than as seen from the foot then open, very accurately, and he suspected that at the of the rocky terrace on which they stand. This terrace bottom of a well in the pyramid was the passage to those is about one hundred and fifty feet above the plain; and secret vaults mentioned by Herodotus, but he made no the pyramids are thus seen only against the sky, without new discovery. Davison, who visited it in the middle of any surrounding objects from which the eye can judge the eighteenth century, discovered some secret chambers of their relative magnitude. They seem here to be comand passages connecting the largest gallery with the posed of small stones, and to have no great elevation. central room, and an apartment four feet high over it. But as we approached their base, and became aware of He descended the well 155 feet, but found further pro- the full size of the stones, and looked upward along gress blocked up.
their sides to the summit, their huge masses seemed to Caviglia was first to discover the above suspected swell into immensity, and the idea of their vastness was passage. After much trouble in clearing the narrow absolutely overpowering. They are probably the earliest opening at the entrance of the first, or entrance-gal- as well as the loftiest and most vast of all existing works lery of the pyramid, he found that it did not terminate of man upon the face of the earth; and there seems now at that point, as hitherto supposed, but proceeded | little room to doubt that they were erected chiefly, if not downwards to the distance of two hundred feet. It solely, as the sepulchres of kings. Vain pride of human ended in a doorway on the right, which was found to pomp and powers! Their monuments remain unto this communicate with the bottom of the well. But the day the wonder of all time; but themselves, their hisnew passage did not terminate there; it went beyond tory, and their very names, have been swept away in the the doorway twenty-three feet, and then took a hori dark tide of oblivion. zontal direction for twenty-eight more, where it opened “We followed the usual course of visiters. We into a spacious chamber immediately under the central explored the dark passages of the interior; mounted to room. This new chamber is seven feet broad, and sixty- the summit of the Great Pyramid; and admired the mild six feet long. The flocr is irregular, nearly one-half of features of the gigantic Sphinx, the body of which is the length from the eastern or entrance end being level, again nearly covered by the drifting sand. and about fifteen feet from the ceiling, while in the “We also visited several of the adjacent tombs, and middle it descends five feet lower, in which part there is examined those which had then recently been cleared a hollow space bearing all the appearance of the com from the sand, under the direction of Colonel Vyse. mencement of a well, or shaft. From thence it rises to The ascent of the Great Pyramid is less difficult than a the western end, so that there is scarcely room between visit to its interior. The top is now a square platform the floor and the ceiling to stand upright.
of about thirty feet on each side, at an elevation of four On the south of this chamber is a passage hollowed hundred and seventy-four feet above the base. The out, just high and wide enough for a man to creep along | view from it is very extensive; in front, Cairo and upon his hands and knees, which continues in the rock numerous villages, with their groves of slender palmfor fifty-five feet, and then suddenly ends. Another at trees; in the rear, the trackless Libyan wastes; on the the east end commences with a kind of arch, and runs south, the range of smaller pyramids, extending for a about forty feet into the solid body of the pyramid. great distance along the edge of the desert; and then in
As to the second pyramid of Gizeh, that of Cephrenes, boundless prospect, north and south, the mighty river the ancients knew less about it than they did of the first. winding its way through the long line of verdure which Herodotus says it has no underground chambers, and | it has won by its waters from the reluctant grasp of the the other ancient authorities are silent. But the enter desert upon either side. The platform is covered with prising Belzoni found its entrance in the north front, in the names of travellers who have resorted hither in dif1818, and, from an Arabic inscription an the wall, dis- | | ferent ages, from various and distant lands, and have covered at the same time that it had been previously here stood as upon a common and central point in the forced open by the Arabian caliph, Ali Mehemet, (A.D. | history of the world. Here, too, we find an American 782,) more than a thousand years before. After forcing comer, with the names of both living and departed an entrance, and advancing along a narrow passage, one friends. hundred feet long, he found a central chamber, forty-six “We left the great pyramids the same evening, and feet long by sixteen wide, and twenty-three high, cut proceeded southwards along the edge of the desert to out of the solid rock. It contained a granite sarcopha- Sakhâra, where we slept; and the next morning visited gus, half sunk in the floor, with some bones in it, which, the tombs in the neighbouring cliffs, and the great on inspection by Sir Everard Home, proved to be those necropolis around the adjacent pyramids. The whole of a cow.
tract here was anciently a cemetery. Pits leading to the
chambers of death have been opened in every directions posterior to those at Thebes, which were erected about and the ground is everywhere strewed with the bones the period of the eighteenth dynasty. and cerements of mummies. Such a field of dead men's “ It is, however, far more probable, that a long period bones I have nowhere else seen. There can be little intervened between the reigns of Asychis and Anysis, doubt that all along this tract, from the pyramids of and that the former lived many ages before Bocchoris, Gizeh to those of Dashûr, was once the great necropolis which is confirmed by another passage in Herodotus, of ancient Memphis, which lay between it and the Nile." placing him as the immediate successor of Mycerinus,
The Egyptian pyramids are mostly of stone; but “among the son of Cheops; and the ruinous and crumbled apthe monuments," observes Sir John Gardner Wilkinson, pearance of the brick pyramids of Dashoor fully justifies - erected by Asychis, was a pyramid of brick, with this the opinion that they were erected very soon after the inscription engraved on a marble slab: ‘Compare me stone ones, near which they stand, and to which the not with the stone pyramids, for I am as superior to them inscription of Asychis forbade the spectator to compare as Jove is to the other gods. Thus was I made. Men them. They had chambers, the lower part of whose probing with poles the bottom of a lake, drew forth walls are still visible, and we may be permitted to conthe mud which adhered to them, and formed it into clude that they were arched like those at Thebes." bricks.'
| There are few subjects which have occupied so much “Four pyramids built of these materials still remain of antiquarian research as the pyramids of Egypt, and in Lower Egypt, independent of several smaller ones at few which have better deserved the zealous inquiry they Thebes, and it is probable that one of them is that have a wakened. Whether the gigantic character of their alluded to by Herodotus as having been erected by outward form be considered, the singularity of their Asychis. Two are close to Memphis, and the modern internal design, or the length of their duration, the town of Dashoor; the others stand at the entrance of mind derives a pleasing awe from the great associations the Faioum. Near the former are two pyramids of stone; with which they are connected. In surveying them, the and this circumstance, and their vicinity to Memphis, genius of the past seems to be present, to commune with induce me to believe one of them to be the crude brick us, and to mingle us with the earliest offspring of manmonument in question; for it is reasonable to suppose it kind. Their unchanging and apparently indestructible would be erected near the city where the prince resided, forms, have outlived successive generations, and endured, and in the vicinity of stone pyramids, to which it forbade amidst the ruins of Babylon and Rome, the ravages of the spectator to compare it. In what its superiority Cambyses and the conquests of Alexander. consisted, we are unable to decide. Dr. Richardson The use for which the pyramids were designed is at ingeniously ascribes it to the vaulted roofs of its cham- least as obscure as their history, and has given rise to bers, whose construction was the result of the novel as many conjectures; but there seems most reason invention of the arch. But though chambers did exist for regarding them as temple-tombs. That they were in the brick pyramids, vestiges of which I have myself sepulchres is by no means evident; that is, sepulchres seen in one of those at Dashoor, and their roofs, as he exclusively, and in the sense in which we understand justly concludes, were vaulted, other pyramids of similar the term. Antiquity gave other and more important materials had long before been erected at Thebes, with significations to the word; and a tomb implied not only roofs of the same construction, and the arch was invented a receptacle for the dead, but a temple for the deity. and used in Upper Egypt many centuries before the In this double and united sense is the term twußos accession of this monarch."
used by Lycophron; whence came the tumulus of The same author remarks, in another place, “The Virgil and the Romans, and the tomb of our own native age of the crude brick pyramids of Memphis and the tongue. The most ancient tombs were conical heaps of Arsinoite nome is unknown. Herodotus tells us the earth, or accumulations of stones. Hence appears to first built of those materials was erected by Asychis, have originated the shape of the pyramids; they are whom he makes the predecessor of Anysis, the contem- artificial tumuli, in imitation of the ancient sepulchral porary of Sabaco, thus limiting its date to the ninth mounds of earth. But tombs were also temples; and Century before our era; and, consequently, making it even supposing them to have been ever intended as
sepulchres, it will by no means follow that they are not | We may then look for the preference given to the conical also intended for a higher and a nobler purpose, since form of the pyramids, of the tower of Babylon, and others the respect paid to the dead, and the homage due to the of the most ancient monuments, in the oldest species of divinity, were so frequently commingled. While no idolatry, the worship of fire, and find the resemblance vestiges that distinctly mark the pyramids to have been between the pointed sanctuary and the spiral shape of ever employed as sepulchres remain, or were ever found, flame. Accordingly temples of this form, and consa to assist the earliest inquiries of historians, there are crated to fire, are to be found among the Persians, and apartments of different kinds, which might well become even among the Mexicans of the New World. a temple constructed to suit the dark, solemn, mysterious, The three pyramids of Gizeh, with several smaller and secret superstitions of the Egyptians. This conjec- ones, occupy the plain of that name opposite Cairo, and in ture seems to be further confirmed by the subterraneous the immediate neighbourhood of the site of Memphis. passages attached to some of them, and their connexion More to the south, within a limit of twenty or thirts with stupendous chambers, extending in length four- miles, on the same western bank of the Nile, and at teen hundred feet, in depth thirty, cut out of the about the same distance from the bed of the river, there solid rock in the vicinity, and formed with infinite are other groups, as at Sakhara, Dashour, and Esneh. labour; circumstances which, together with the well in Of these, the first place is connected with Gizeh by a the principal pyramid, are unaccountable on the suppo- chain of sepulchres and ruined buildings; but there are sition of their being sepulchres merely, but seem well to numerous others, not so ruined, in different places, even accord with the conclusion that they were temples. so far southward as Nubia,
QUAIL, Siv silav, (Exod. 16. 13; Numb. 11. may be heard uttering their whistling call-notes in 31,32; Psalm 105. 40;) Sept. Optuvo untpa; Vulg. defiance of each other. In France, whence the London colurnix; a quail, a small bird of the gallinaceous kind. markets are principally supplied with these birds, ad
We read that God gave quails to his people in the vantage is taken of the note of the males to lure them wilderness upon two occasions. God caused a wind to under nets, the bird-catchers having a call made to arise and drove them within and about the camp of the imitate it. As by this device few excepting males are Israelites: first, a few days after they had passed the captured, we may easily account for the fact, that out of Red Sea, (Exod. 16. 3-13,) and secondly, at the en- the hundreds kept alive by the London poulterers for campment at the place called, in Hebrew, Kibroth sale, the number of females is very inconsiderable. Hattaavah, the graves of lust. (Numb. 11. 32; Psalm “The female makes its artless bed in a slight hollow 105.40.) These events both happened in the spring, of the ground for her eggs, which are of a green tint, when the quails passed from Asia into Europe. They and vary in number from eight to twelve, or even are then to be found in great quantities upon the coasts fifteen. In the month of October the quail departs. of the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.
Africa is undoubtedly the great winter abode of this Some commentators have supposed the bird given to the Israelites to have been the partridge, particularly that kind called kuta. (See PARTRIDGE.) Professor Robinson remarks, “ The kuta is the Telrao alchata of Linnæus; Hasselquist calls it Tetrao Israelitarum, and describes it fully. But the Hebrew name of the bird of the Israelites is 1500 silav, quail, and the present Arabic name for the quail is selwa. The ancient versions also understand here the quail. There would therefore seem to be no sufficient reason for laying aside this coincidence, and adopting another explanation on mere conjecture."
Hasselquist, mentioning the quail, says, “I have met with it in the wilderness of Palestine, near the shores of the Dead Sea and the Jordan, between Jordan and Jericho, and in the deserts of Arabia Petrea. If the food of the Israelites was a bird, this is certainly it; being so
The Quail. common in the places through which they passed." species; and it is across the Mediterranean, the Black
A modern writer gives us the following particulars Sea, and the Red Sea, that countless multitudes, passing respecting the quail:-—“Closely allied to the common to that country from Europe and Asia, and returning partridge is the quail (Cotonis dactylisonans), which is from it to their summer haunts, wing their flight. one of our summer visitors, and perhaps not strictly to “During their passage across the Mediterranean, they be numbered among our feathered game: its flesh is rest on different islands, to some of which the ancients excellent. The quail is much less than the partridge, gave the name of Ortygia, from the Greek word optus; being only about seven inches in length; it however a quail. Varro gives us an account of the arrival m resembles that bird in its form and modes of life. It spring, and departure in autumn, of quails in prodigious the widely spread, being found throughout the whole of multitudes on various islands bordering the souther southern and temperate Europe, and the greater part of coast of Italy, where they were accustomed to rese Asia and Africa, but is everywhere migratory.
during their migratory journeys. M. Godehen, Me “In our island the quail makes its appearance in de Mathém. et Physique, in confirmation of a May, but not in great abundance, and, as it is said, statement, observes, that he has seen these birds coma less so than formerly. Richly cultivated lands are its tinually passing Malta in the month of May, carried by favourite localities, and especially extensive wheat-fields.
ially extensive wheat-fields. certain winds, and again repassing in the month on my The species is polygamous, in which respect it differs tember. Among other islands that of Capri, near . from the partridge; and, on their first arrival, the males Gulf of Naples, is celebrated for the multitudes "
nourbither annuree or four Areat
periodically visit it; and at Nettuno and other places of Our Saviour's forty days' temptation. The Arabs along the Italian coasts, incredible numbers make their have adopted the name under the form of Jebel Kuappearance. In the neighbourhood of Nettuno, within runtul. The mountain rises precipitously, an almost an area of four or five miles, 100,000 are said to have | perpendicular wall of rock, twelve or fifteen hundred been taken in one day. On the coast of Provence vast feet above the plain, crowned with a chapel on its flocks also appear, and the birds are often so exhausted highest point. The eastern front is full of grots and with their flight as to suffer themselves to be taken by caverns, where hermits are said once to have dwelt in great the band. According to Baron de Tott, no country numbers. At the present day, some three or four Abysabounds more in quails than the Crimea; they arrive sinians are said to come hither annually to pass the there in spring, crossing the Black Sea, and return time of Lent upon the mountain, living only upon herbs. southward in August. At the close of a serene day, There is nothing else remarkable about this naked cliff, when the wind blows from the north at sunset and pro to distinguish it from the other similar ones along the mises a fine night, they repair to the strand, take their Ghor and the Dead Sea further south. The tradition departure at six or seven in the evening, and have which regards the mountain as the place of Our Lord's finished a journey of sixty leagues by break of day. temptation, as well as the name Quarantana, appear not The flights of quails, which were brought by a wind to be older than the age of the Crusades." from the sea, so as to supply the Israelites in the desert, The mountain is with more probability identified were evidently directing their course north wards from with the Rock of Rimmon, where the defeated BenAbyssinia, Nubia, and the southern districts of Arabia. jamites took refuge. (Judges 20. 47.)
“In Portugal, the quail is said to be stationary; it is not so, however, in Sicily or Italy. Pliny, who comments on the vast flocks of quails which passed across QUARRIES, Dibodo pisilim. In the account of the Mediterranean, informs us that the Romans did not the exploit of Ehud in Judges 3. 19, for the “quarries use them as food, accounting them unwholesome, in that were by Gilgal” of our version, or, as the Syriac consequence of their feeding upon the grains of the and the Chaldee read, stone pits or quarries, the prihellebore, and being subject to epilepsy; they kept them, mary signification of images of false gods may be however, for the purpose of making them fight with intended, as in Deuteronomy 7. 25; Jeremiah 8. 19; each other, which the males will do with great reso 51. 52; and it is so understood by the Septuagint and lution; and a similar practice is said to exist among the Vulgate in the above text. (Judges 3. 19.) We have Chinese. The pugnacious habits of the male in spring no knowledge of any quarries there might be at Gilgal and summer are notorious, and the ancients had a in the plain of Jericho; and Dr. Boothroyd conjectures proverb, “As quarrelsome as quails in a cage.'
that idols might have been erected at Gilgal by Eglon, and that the sight of them there inspired Ehud with
new ardour to execute his purpose. QUAKE. See EARTHQUAKE; SINAI.
Professor Robinson, speaking of Gilgal, where the
quarries are said to have existed, observes, “ It may be QUARANTANA. The mountainous wilderness doubtful whether at first this name belonged to a city, between Jerusalem and Jericho has by tradition been though afterwards there can be little question that fixed upon as the scene of Our Lord's temptation. In Gilgal was an inhabited place. It seems to have been this region there is one very high mountain, the highest early abandoned, for there is no certain trace of it after in Judæa, which is supposed to be the one referred to in the exile, nor is it mentioned by Josephus as existing in Matthew 4. 8, which bears the name of Quarantana, in his time. The ancient Gilgal was 'in the east border allusion to the forty days' fasting of Our Lord. Maun. | of Jericho,' ten stadia from that city and fifty from the drell thus describes the spot: “We arrived at that Jordan. This would in all probability bring it somemountainous desert into which Our Saviour was led by where in the vicinity of the modern village of Riha, the Spirit, to be tempted by the devil. It is a most which is reckoned at two hours from the river. But miserable, dry, barren place, consisting of high rocky there are no traces of antiquity whatever, unless it be mountains, so torn and disordered as if the earth had some fragment of Syenite granite and some slight foundsuffered some great convulsion, in which its very bowels ations. Neither Sheikh Mustafa, nor the sheikh of the had been turned outwards. On the left hand, looking village, nor any of the Arabs, had ever heard of such down into a deep valley, as we passed along, we saw some a name in the valley of the Jordan. At Tanjibeh, ruins of small cells and cottages, which we were told were indeed, the priest, who had been dealing a little in formerly the habitations of hermits, retiring hither for Scriptural topography, told us that the name Jilgilia penance and mortification; and certainly they could not still existed in this vicinity; but when we met him have found on the whole earth a more comfortless and here, he could only point to the ruined convent of St. abandoned place for that purpose. On descending from John on the bank of the Jordan as the supposed site." these hills of desolation into the plain, we soon came to the foot of Mount Quarantana, on which they say
QUARTUS, a Christian resident at Corinth, whose the devil tempted Our Saviour with that visionary
salutations St. Paul transmitted to Rome. (Rom.16.23.) scene of all the kingdoms and glories of the world. It is, as St. Matthew calls it, an exceeding high moun
He was probably a Roman, but nothing is known about
him. tain, and in its ascent difficult and dangerous. It has a small chapel on the top, and another about half-way up, on a prominent part of the rock. Near this latter are
QUATERNION, τετραδιον. A quaternion of several caves and holes in the sides of the mountain,
soldiers was a detachment of four men, the usual nummade use of anciently by hermits, and by some at this
ber of a Roman night-watch, who were relieved every day for places to keep Lent in, in imitation of Our
three hours. The Apostle Peter, who is stated to have Saviour."
been watched by a quaternion of soldiers, was therefore Professor Robinson, speaking of Jericho and its guarded by four men at a time, two within the prison, environs. remarks. “We were now at the foot of the , and two before the doors. (Acts 12. 4,6.) mountain Quarantana, so called as the supposed place
QUEEN, 1052 malchah, (Esth. 1. 9, the con- | the sculptures, of numerous females being employed in sort of the king. Though the Hebrew monarchs in- / weaving, and in the use of the distaff.” See DISTAFF; dulged in polygamy, there was always one chief wife to EMBROIDERY. whom the title of queen seems to have been restricted, and who enjoyed much consideration, more particularly when her son became king. Hence in the Books of Kings and Chronicles the mother of the king is very frequently spoken of.
The conduct of the wicked Jezebel fully illustrates the power some Hebrew queens exercised over their husbands. “And Jezebel his wife said unto him, Dost thou now govern the kingdom of Israel? arise, and eat bread, and let thine heart be merry: I will give thee the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite. So she wrote letters in Ahab's name, and sealed them with his seal, and sent the letters unto the elders and to the nobles that were in his city, dwelling with Naboth. And she wrote in the letters, saying, Proclaim a fast, and set Naboth on high among the people: and set two men, sons of Belial, before him, to bear witness against him, saying, Thou didst blaspheme God and the king. And then carry him out, and stone him, that he may die.” (1 Kings 22. 7-10.)
Princes never want instruments to execute their pleasure; and yet it is strange that among all those judges and great men, there should be none that abhorred such a villany. It must be considered, however, that for a long while they had cast off all sense and fear of God, and prostituted their consciences to please their king; nor dare they disobey Jezebel's commands, who had the full power and government of the king, (as they well knew,) and could easily have taken away their lives had they refused to condemn Naboth. Besides, the crime of bearing false witness has ever been a stain on the character of Orientals. Roberts says, “ Ask any judge, any gentleman in the civil service of India, whether men may not be had in any village to swear anything for the fraction of a shilling? Thus Jezebel would not find it difficult to procure agents to swear away the life of Naboth the Jezreelite." See JEZEBEL.
The idolatrous and wicked queens Maacah, Jezebel, and Athaliah, the wise queen of Sheba, Vashti, and Esther, are the principal royal females mentioned in the Scriptures. Solomon allied himself to an Egyptian princess, and in the 45th Psalm has given us a description of her splendid apparel, to which and other particulars of the queenly dignity we have elsewhere adverted. See EMBROIDERY; PRINCESS. Sir John Gardner Wilkinson says, “It is remarkable
The Queen of Sesostris. From the Tombs at Tbebes. that, in Egypt, the royal authority and supreme direction of affairs were intrusted, without reserve, to women, as in those states of modern Europe where the Salic law
QUEEN OF HEAVEN. See ASATAROTH. has not been introduced; and we not only find examples in Egyptian history of queens succeeding to the throne, QUEEN OF SHEBA. See SHEBA. but Manetho informs us that the law, according this
QUENCH, a figurative expression, borrowed from important privilege to the other sex, dated as early as the reign of Binothus, the third monarch of the second
the practice of extinguishing fire, by throwing water
upon it. St. Paul uses it when he exhorts the dynasty. In the primitive ages, the duties of women
Thessalonians to “ quench not the Spirit." (1Thess. were very different to those of a later and more civi
5. 19.) And the counterpart to this is what he says to lized period, and varied of course according to the habits
the Ephesians, (5. 18,) “ Be filled with the Spirit." of each people. Among pastoral tribes, they drew water, kept the sheep, and superintended the herds as QUESTIONS. In the Gospel according to St. well as the flocks. As with the Arabs of the present Luke, (2. 46,) it is recorded of Our Lord, when missed day, they prepared both the furniture and the woollen by his parents on their return from Jerusalem, “ And stuffs of which the tents themselves were made; and it came to pass that after three days they found him in like the Greek women, they were generally employed in the Temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both weaving, spinning, and other sedentary occupations hearing them and asking them questions. This was within doors. Needlework and embroidery were a quite in accordance with the ordinary custom of the favourite amusement of the Grecian women; in which country. The Jewish teachers, though they had private it is highly probable the Egyptian ladies also employed lecture rooms, likewise taught in the Temple and in the much of their time; and we have positive evidence from synagogues, and, in fact, wherever they could find an