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both as Rehoboth Hanuhar. (Gen. 36. 37.) By the celebrated; a square hole being made in the middle of name of Rehoboth, there are no traces of this city in or the altar, big enough to receive the hand; and herein is near Assyria. Ptolemy, however, makes mention of a deposited the relic, being first wrapped in red silk, and city of the name of Birtha, and as Birtha, in the inclosed in a leaden box. In Catholic countries, these Chaldee, signifies the same thing as Rehoboth does in relics are popularly esteemed the most precious treasures the Hebrew, it is thought that Birtha and Rehoboth are of the churches, and in earlier times they had even a but two different names of the same city. It is sup high marketable value, large sums having been often posed, too, that this Birtha, mentioned by Ptolemy, is raised, by necessitous princes, by the sale or mortgage of the same as Virta, mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus; pieces of the “true cross," &c. &c. and this city lay on the Tigris, not far from the mouth The veneration of relics is undoubtedly a very ancient of the Lycus. No great dependence can be placed upon | practice, but the following extract from the Primilive such analogies as these, but it seems impossible to arrive Christianity of Bishop Mant, will suficiently show it to at anything more satisfactory.
be a corruption destitute of warrant either from Scripture II. REHOBOTH, 1737 nian7 Rehoboth Hanuhar. or from the practice of the earliest professors of our faith. (Gen. 36. 37.) Another Rehoboth, termed in our version | “In the New Testament, the account of the death of Rehoboth by the River, (the Euphrates,) is by some St. Stephen is followed by the information that devout authorities supposed to be the same as Rachbah, a city | men carried Stephen to his burial, and made lamentaon the Euphrates, between Cercusium and Ana.
tions over him. They took due steps for the decent REINS or KIDNEYS. The Hebrews, regarding
disposal of the earthly part of him whom they had lost,
"3 and they expressed their own feelings by outward dethese in some measure as the secret seat or source of
monstrations of their sorrow. Natural and becoming the mental affections, ascribe to the reins, knowledge,
effusions these of respectful and affectionate regard! joy, pain, pleasure; hence, in Scripture, it is so often
And after a manner somewhat similar, we read, in the said, that God searches the heart and the reins. (Psalm
ninth chapter, that, on the death of Dorcas, the survivors 7.9; Jerem. 17. 10; 20. 12.)
mourned over the lifeless body, for when Peter was
come, they brought him into the upper chamber, and all RELICS. In the Romish and Greek churches the the widows stood by him weeping, and showing the supposed remains of the bodies or clothes of saints coats and garments which Dorcas made while she was or martyrs, or the instruments by which they were put with them. But it does not appear, nor is there any to death, or suffered torment, are devoutly preserved in ground for supposing, that in any case the memory of honour of their memory; kissed, revered, and carried in the departed, however excellent they had been in their procession.
lives, was holden in superhuman honour; or that prayers The honouring of the relics of saints, on which the were offered, or a mediatorial character attributed, by Church of Rome afterwards founded her superstitious and the primitive Christians, to any deceased saints, 'whose lucrative use of them, as objects of devotion, as a kind faith' they were instructed to follow,' but whom they of charms, or amulets, and as instruments of pretended were never authorized to invoke. Of James, the son of miracles, appears to have originated in a very ancient Zebedee, the first Apostle who drank of the cup of marcustom that prevailed among Christians, of assembling tyrdom, admitted, as he had been, to special distinction at the cemeteries or burying-places of the martyrs, for the by his Divine Master, the narrative which records his purpose of commemorating them, and of performing death is limited to the fact and occasion of it. And Divine worship. When the profession of Christianity certainly no intimation is given, either in the case of the obtained the protection of the civil government, under first martyred Apostle, or that of his predecessor in Constantine the Great, stately churches were erected over martyrdom, the holy Stephen, or in that of any other of sepulchres, and the names and memories of the departed the primitive disciples of Christ, that the members of were treated with every possible token of affection and the Church employed the name of the departed saint as respect. This reverence, however, gradually exceeded a mediatorial recommendation of prayer to the throne of all reasonable bounds; and those prayers and religious the heavenly grace, or preserved a bone, a tooth, or a services were thought to have a peculiar sanctity and lock of hair, or any other relic of the deceased, as an virtue which were performed over their tombs; hence object of religious veneration. the practice which afterwards obtained, of depositing | “Even with respect to their Divine Master, no relics of saints and martyrs under the altars in all methods of this latter kind appeared to have been churches. This practice was early thought of such adopted in token of their reverence and affection. · Not importance, that St. Ambrose, in the fourth century, | a word of this fondness,' as has been well observed by would not consecrate a church because it had no relics; Bishop Burnet, on the 22nd Article of Religion, 'appears and the Council of Constantinople, in Trullo, (A.D. 692,) in the beginnings of Christianity; though it had been ordained that those altars should be demolished under an easy thing at that time to have furnished the world which were found no relics. Such was the rage for with pieces of Our Saviour's garments, hair, or nails; and them, at one time, that even Mabillon, the Benedictine, a great store might have been had of the Virgin's and justly complains, the altars were loaded with suspected the Apostles' relics. St. Stephen's and St. James's relics, numerous spurious ones being everywhere offered bones might have been parcelled about; and if that to the piety and devotion of the faithful. He adds, too, spirit had then reigned in the Church which has been in that bones are often consecrated, which, so far from the Roman church now above a thousand years, we belonging to saints, probably do not belong to Chris- should have heard of the relics which were sent about tians. From the catacombs of Italy, Sicily, and other from Jerusalem to all the churches. But when such places, which had served as the burial-places of the pri- things might have been had in great abundance, and mitive Christians, although the catacombs have both have been known not to have been counterfeits, we hear before and since been used for other purposes, numerous not a word of them. If a fondness for relics had been relics have been taken. In the eleventh century, relics in the Church upon Christ's ascension, what care would were tried by fire, and those which did not consume have been taken to have made great collections of them.'” were reckoned genuine, and the rest not. Relics were, and still are, preserved on the altars whereon Mass is RELIGION. See CHRISTIANITY; THEOLOGY.
REPHAIM, VALLEY OF.
אדרמלך and ענמלך be recognised in the Iebrew words
REMISSION, S297 DJO Shinath hayobil, (the | by which converted sinners are distinguished. (Matt. Jubilee year,) or the release of an obligation, in the He- | 3. 2-8.) brew Scriptures, is especially used with reference to the | Repentance is sometimes used generally for a change year of jubilee, or the sabbatical year, in which the slaves of mind, and an earnest wishing that something were were set at liberty, and in which every one returned unto undone that has been done. In a sense analogous to his own inheritance. (Levit. 25. 10; Numb. 36. 4; Deut. this, God himself is said to repent; but this can only be 15. 1.) The equivalent term adinui, is generally used | understood of his altering his conduct towards his creain the New Testament for the pardon of sin, which is a tures, either in the bestowing of good, or infliction of Divine discharge from the obligation to suffer the punish evil: which change in the Divine conduct is founded on ment of the Law. The Gospel says that “ John did bap | a change in his creatures; and thus, speaking after the tize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repent- | manner of men, God is said to repent. In this generic ance for the remission of sins.” (Mark 1. 4; Luke 3. 3.) sense, also, Esau “found no place of repentance, though And, that the blood of Jesus Christ was shed to procure he sought it carefully with tears;" that is, he could not remission of our sins. (Eph. 1. 7; Col. 1. 14; Matt. move his father, Isaac, to repent of what he had done, 26. 28.)
or to recall the blessing from Jacob and confer it on
himself. (Heb. 12. 17; Rom. 11. 29; 2Cor. 7. 10.) REMPHAN, Peubav, or Pedav, (Acts 7. 43,)
The Author as well as Object of true repentance is quoted from Amos 5. 46, where the Septuagint gives
God. (Acts 5. 31.) The subjects of it are sinners, since Paigav, a Coptic name for the planet Saturn, is sup
none but those who have sinned can repent. The means posed to be the same as Moloch, an idol of the Ammon
of repentance are the Word, and the ministers of it. ites, to which the Hebrews also offered human victims.
Yet sometimes consideration, sanctified afflictions, con(Levit. 18. 21; 1 Kings 11. 7.)
versations, &c., have been the instruments of repentance, · The Prophet Amos calls this god both a star and a
The blessings connected with repentance are, pardon, king; as in fact Saturn was both a planet and the king
peace, and everlasting life. (Acts 11. 18.) The time of or idol-deity, who was otherwise called Molec, Moloc,
repentance is the present life. (Isai. 55. 6; Eccles. Milcom, and Malcom. This double character of Saturn,
9. 50.) The evidences of repentance are, faith, humias a star in heaven and a monarch on earth, may perhaps
lity, prayer, and obedience. (Zech. 12. 10.)
The necessity of repentance appears evident from the Annamelech and Adramelech, (2Kings 17. 31,) since it
evil of sin; the misery it involves us in here; the comappears that both of the deities thus named were wor
mands given us to repent in God's Word; the promises shipped by the offering up to them of human sacrifices.
made to the penitent; and the absolute incapability of See ANNAMELECH; Chiun.
enjoying God here or hereafter without it. See MEDIREND. The rending of one's clothes is an expres
ATOR; SIN. sion frequently used in Scripture, as the token of the highest grief. Reuben, to denote his sorrow for Joseph,
REPHAIM, O'X99 (Gen. 14. 5,) the sons of rent his clothes, (Gen. 37. 29;) Jacob did the like,
Repha, (2Sam. 21. 16-18, margin,) a Canaanitish race (v. 34;) and Ezra, to express the concern and uneasiness
of giants that dwelt beyond the Jordan, from whom the of his mind, and the apprehensions he entertained of the
gigantic Og, king of Bashan, was descended. (Deut. Divine displeasure, on account of the people's unlawful
3. 11.) In a wider sense, this word seems to have marriages, is said to rend his garments and mantle,
included all the giant tribes of Canaan. (Deut. 2.11,20.) (Ezra 9. 3,) that is, both his inner and upper garment.
In subsequent times the sons of Repha appear to have This action was also an expression of indignation and
been men of extraordinary strength among the Philisholy zeal; the high-priest rent his clothes, pretending tines. (2Sam. 21. 16-18, margin.) that Our Saviour had spoken blasphemy, (Matt. 26. 65;) and so did the Apostles, when the people intended to
REPHAIM, VALLEY OF. Between Jerusalem pay them Divine honours. (Acts 14. 14.)
and Bethlehem, is a valley of upwards of six miles in To rend the garments was, in Eastern countries, and
length and of considerable breath, which is identified by among ancient nations, a symbolical action, expressive
all the old travellers with the Valley of Rephaim, celeof sorrow, fear, or contrition. The passage in Joel,
brated alike for its fertility and the victory which David (2. 13,) “Rend your hearts and not your garments,” is
achieved there over the Philistines. (2Sam. 23. 13; in allusion to this practice. But the phrase here is a
iChron. 11. 15; 14. 8-15; Isai. 17. 5.) The valley not Hebraism, meaning, “Rend your hearts rather than |
being deep, it might perhaps be more appropriately your garments;" or, “Rend your hearts, and not your described as a depressed plain, bounded on each side by garments only;" for the prophet does not forbid the
low hills. Its present appearance in some measure still external appearances of mourning, but he cautions them justifies its ancient character for fertility; as, though against a merely hypocritical show of sorrow, and exhorts / generally stony, it has some productive patches of ground, them to cherish that contrite and broken spirit which is
and contains corn fields, vineyards, olive grounds, and acceptable in the sight of God. See Burial; MOURNING. orchards of various kinds of fruit.
Professor Robinson says, “As we advanced from RENDEST. In the Prophet Jeremiah, (ch. 4.30,) 'Akabah to Jerusalem, we had on our right low hills, when he denounces the Divine judgments upon the and on the left the cultivated Valley or Plain of Rephaim people, it is said, “Though thou rendest thy face with or the Giants, with gentle hills beyond. This plain is painting;" the Hebrew has, instead of face, “eyes," and broad, and descends gradually towards to the south-west the expression is an allusion to the Eastern practice of until it contracts in that direction into a deeper and painting the eyes, which we have explained under the narrower valley, called Wady el-Werd, which unites words Eye and PAINT.
further on with Wady Ahmed, and finds its way to the Mediterranean.
with waayn Amed, and
The Plain of Rephaim extends
nearly to the city, which, as seen from it, appears to be REPENTANCE. Repentance signifies a change almost on the same level. As we advanced, the plain of the mind from a rebellious and disaffected state to / was terminated by a slight rocky ridge forming the brow that submission and thorough separation from iniquity of the Valley of Hinnom.”
of the mind from a rebellious and disaffected state **
REPHIDIM, O'TD7 a station or encampment | tant from the point where Wady esh-Sheikh issues from of the Israelites in the desert, where they were mira- the plain er-Rahah. This would correspond well to the culously supplied with water out of the rock of Meri distance of Rephidim; and then these blackened cliffs bah. (Exod. 17. 1-7.) They were also here attacked would be the outskirts of Horeb. I am not aware of by the Amalekites, but defeated them. (Exod. 17.8-13.) any objection to this view, except one which applies The situation of this place has never yet been fully equally to every part of Wady esh-Sheikh and the adjadetermined, though the tradition of the monks of Mount cent district, viz.: that neither here nor in all this tract Sinai pretends to point out the rock from which the is there at the present day any special want of water. miraculous supply was afforded. The most satisfactory | There is a well near the defile itself; and an hour above determination of the locality of Rephidim is that of it a spring called Abu Suweirah, which we visited; Professor Robinson, who commences his remarks by besides others in various quarters. This difficulty I am applying in a new manner the terms of Horeb and not able to solve; except by supposing, that as the Sinai.
people appear to have remained for some time at RephiThe Professor observes, “The names of Horeb and dim, the small supply of water was speedily exhausted. Sinai are used interchangeably in the Pentateuch, to 1 “It was during the encampment at Rephidim that denote the mountain on which the Law was given; and Amalek came and fought with Israel. It is not necesthis circumstance has naturally occasioned difficulty to sary here to look for a wide open plain, on which the commentators. The most obvious and common explan battle might take place according to the rules of modern ation is, to regard one (Sinai) as the general name for warfare. The Amalekites were a nomadic tribe, making the whole cluster, and the other (Horeb) as designating an irregular attack upon a multitude probably not better a particular mountain; much as the same names are trained than themselves; and for such a conflict the low employed by the Christians at the present day. So, too, hills and open country around this part of Wady eshthe Arabs now apply the name Jebel el-Tur to the Sheikh would afford ample space. whole central granite region; while the different moun- “ After the departure of the Israelites from Mount tains of which it is composed are called Jebel Katherin, Sinai, there is no account, either in Scripture or elseJebel Musa, &c. On looking at the subject during our where, of its having been visited by any Jew; except sojourn at the convent, I was led to a similar conclu- by the Prophet Elijah, when he fled from the machinasion; applying the names however differently, and tions of Jezebel. This is the more remarkable as this regarding Horeb as the general name, and Sinai as the region had been the seat of the revelation of their Law particular one. Two circumstances seem to favour this to which they clung so tenaciously; and because from conclusion. One is, that before and during the march the splendour and terrors of that scene the inspired of the Israelites from Egypt to the place where the Law Hebrew poets were wont to draw their sublimest was given, the latter is called only Horeb; just as the images.” Arabs now speak of going from Cairo to Jebel el-Tur: It was not to be expected that the monks of Sinai while during the sojourn of the Hebrews before the would fail to identify the rock of Meribah, and their mountain, it is spoken of (with one exception) only as absurd tale seems to have imposed upon several travel. Sinai; and after their departure, it is again referred to lers. Some notice of the stone in question is therefore exclusively as Horeb. The other and main fact is, that necessary. while the Israelites were encamped at Rephidim, Moses At twenty minutes' walk from the convent of Elwas commanded to go on with the elders before the Erbayn, a block of granite is shown as the rock out of people, and smite the rock in Horeb, in order to obtain which the water issued when struck by the rod of water for the camp. The necessary inference is, that Moses. It is thus described by Burckhardt: “It lies some part of Horeb was near to Rephidim; while Sinai quite insulated by the side of the path, which is about was yet a day's march distant.
ten feet higher than the bottom of the valley. The “ The position of Rephidim itself can be conjectured rock is about twelve feet in height, of an irregular shape, only from the same passage to which reference has just approaching to a cube. There are some apertures upon been made. If we admit Horeb to be the general name its surface, through which the water is said to have for the central cluster of mountains, and that the burst out; they are about twenty in number, and lie Israelites approached it by the great Wady esh-Sheikh, nearly in a straight line round the three sides of the then Rephidim must have been at some point in this stone. They seem, for the most part, ten or twelve valley not far from the skirts of Horeb, and about a inches long, two or three inches broad, and from one to day's march from the particular mountain of Sinai. | two inches deep, but a few of them are as deep as four Such a point exists at the place where Wady esh-Sheikh inches. Every observer must be convinced, on the issues from the high central granite cliffs. We did not slightest examination, that most of those fissures are the visit the spot; but Burckhardt in ascending Wady esh- work of art; but three or four perhaps are natural, and Sheikh towards the convent, thus describes it: “We these may have first drawn the attention of the monks now approached the central summits of Mount Sinai, to the stone, and have induced them to call it the rock which we had in view for several days. Abrupt cliffs of of the miraculous supply of water. Besides the marks granite from six to eight hundred feet in height, whose of art evident in the stones themselves, the spaces surface is blackened by the sun, surround the avenues between them have been chiselled so as to make it leading to the elevated platform to which the name of appear as if the stone had been worn in those parts by Sinai is specifically applied. These cliffs inclose the the action of the water; though it cannot be doubted, holy mountain on three sides, leaving the E. and N.E. that if the water had flowed from the fissures, it must sides only, toward the Gulf of ’Akabah, more open to generally have taken quite a different direction. One the view. We entered these cliffs by a narrow defile traveller saw on this stone twelve openings, answering about forty feet in breadth, with perpendicular granite to the number of the twelve tribes of Israel ; another rocks on both sides. (In this defile is the seat of Moses, describes the holes as a foot deep. They were probably so called.) Beyond it the valley opens, the mountains told so by the monks, and believed what they heard, on both sides diverge, and the Wady esh-Sheikh con- rather than what they saw. About one hundred and tinues in a south direction with a slight ascent. The fifty paces farther on in the valley, lies another piece of entrance to this defile from the west, is five hours dis- rock, upon which it seems the work of deception was
first begun, there being four or five apertures cut in it, elders or superiors, but rather to remonstrate and supplisimilar to those on the other block, but in a less finished cate for redress. What the ministers of God do in this state. As it is somewhat smaller than the former, and kind they do by special commission, as those that must lies in a less conspicuous part of the valley, removed give an account. (1Tim. 5. 1; Heb. 13. 7.) (2.) We from the public path, the monks have thought proper, in must not reprove rashly : there should be proof before process of time, to assign the miracle to the other. As reproof. (3.) We should not reprove for slight matters, the rock of Moses has been described by travellers of for such faults or defects as proceed from natural frailty, the fifteenth century, the deception must have originated from inadvertency, or mistake in matters of little conseamong the monks of an earlier period. As to the pre quence. (4.) We should never reprove unseasonably, sent inhabitants of the convent and of the peninsula, as to time, place, or circumstances. (5.) We should they must be acquitted of any fraud respecting it, for reprove mildly, in a calm manner, and in gentle terms. they conscientiously believe that it is the very rock from | (6.) We should not affect to be reprehensive; perhaps whence the water gushed forth. In this part of the there is no one considered more troublesome than he peninsula the Israelites could not have suffered from who delights in finding fault with others. thirst. The upper Sinai is full of wells and springs, the greater part of which are perennial; and on whichever side the pretended rock of Moses is approached, copious RESEN, 107 (Gen. 10. 12,) a city of Assyria sources are found within an hour of it.” The fact that between Nineveh and Calah; its history is unknown, this part of the peninsula abounds with perennial and its site very doubtful. Bochart conceived it to be springs, which is attested by every traveller, proves the same city as is mentioned by Xenophon, in the decidedly that this cannot be the Vale of Rephidim. Anabasis, under the name of Larissa: “As they moved
It is astonishing to find such travellers as Shaw and eastward up the Tigris, they found, several miles north Pococke credulously adopting this imbecile legend. of the Lycus, a deserted city called Larissa, which had “Here,” says the former, “we still see that extraordinary formerly been in the possession of the Medes. It was antiquity, the rock of Meribab, which hath continued two parasangs (somewhat more than seven miles] down to this day, without the least injury from time or | in circuit, but nothing remained of it but the strong accident. It is a block of granite marble, about six brick wall, a hundred feet high.” The situation of this yards square, lying tottering, as it were, and loose in the town, Rosenmüller remarks, would correspond preity middle of the valley, and seems to have formerly be exactly with the position of Resen, as described by longed to Mount Sinai, which hangs in a variety of pre Moses: only there is too little similarity in the names to cipices all over this plain. "The waters which gushed warrant us in certainly identifying them as the same out, and the stream which flowed,' (Psalm 78. 20,) | place. The difference between the names Resen and have hollowed across one corner of this rock a channel | Larissa, or the change of the former to the latter, howabout two inches deep, and twenty wide, appearing to ever, Bochart thought not so great as, at first sight, it be incrusted all over, like the inside of a tea-kettle that would appear; but his argument is more ingenious than hath been long in use. Besides several mossy produc- conclusive. Larissa, he observes, is a Greek name, and tions that are still preserved by the dew, we see all over several cities in Greece were called by it; there was also this channel a great number of holes, some of them four another city of the same name in Syria, which, according or five inches deep, and one or two in diameter, the to Stephanus, the Syrians themselves called Sizara. Bat lively and demonstrative tokens of their having been there were no Greek cities in Assyria in the days of formerly so many fountains. It likewise may be further Xenophon, i. e., before Alexander the Great; and conobserved, that art or chance could by no means be con- sequently no Larissa. It is likely therefore that the cerned in the contrivance, for every circumstance points Greek asking what city those were the ruins of, the out to us a miracle, and, in the same manner with the Assyrians might answer, “ Laresen," i. e., of Resen; rent in the rock of Mount Calvary at Jerusalem, never which word Xenophon expressed by Larissa, a like fails to produce a religious surprise in all who see it." name of several Greek cities. In support of his theors,
That this rock is as truly the rock of Meribah as the he adduces some examples of the le, the sign of the spot alluded to is Mount Calvary, may be freely admitted; I genitive or dative case, prefixed to proper names in but the surprise which they are adapted to awaken in Hebrew, being incorporated with the name itself in a an intelligent observer is at the credulity of travellers. | translation: as Chronicles 5. 26, where 02073 which “The supernatural mouths,” says Sir F. Henniker, should be rendered “in Chalach,” and in our version is
appear to me common crevices in the rock; they are rendered “unto Halah," is in the Vulgate rendered "in only two inches in depth, and their length is not con- | Lachlach.” fined to the water-course. That incrustation is the effect of water I have not the slightest doubt, for the RESH, 7 the twentieth letter of the Hebrew rocks close at hand, where water is still dripping, are alphabet, is as a numeral equivalent to 200. The name marked in the same manner; and if a fragment of a | VRT resh, signifies head, and has a reference to the cliff were to fall down, we should scarcely distinguish | Phænician form of the letter, q whence comes by between the two. I therefore doubt the identity of the inversion the Greek P. stone, and also the locality; for in this place the miracle would be that a mountain so lofty as Mount Sinai should be without water.”
REST. Rest, like sleep, is in the Scriptures sometimes used as the symbol of death. Thus, the patriarch
exclaims, “For now should I have lien still, and been REPROOF, is blame or reprehension spoken to a quiet, I should have slept; then had I been at rest, with person's face. It is distinguished from a reprimand, kings and counsellors of the earth,” (Job 3. 13;) and thus; he who reproves another, points out his fault, and thus a charge is given to Daniel, “Go thou thy way till blames him. He who reprimands, affects to punish, the end be: for thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot at and mortifies the offender.
| the end of the days.” (Dan. 12. 13.) • In giving reproof, the following rules may be ob- This phrase also occurs in 1 Sam. 28. 15; Job 11. 18; served: (1.) We should not be forward in reproving our Acts 2. 26; Rev. 6. 9; and is common on Jewish
monuments for the dead: as, “May his rest be in the (Wisd. 3. 1, &c.; 4. 15; 2Macc. 7. 14,23,29, &c.;) and garden of Eden, with the other just men of the world." may be argued, (1,) from the resurrection of Christ, " May his soul rest in peace till the Comforter come.” (1 Cor. 15. 2;) (2,) from the doctrines of grace, elec“ May his rest be in the garden of Eden, with other tion, and redemption, &c.; (3) from direct Scripture just men. Amen, amen, amen, Selah.”
testimonies, (Dan. 12. 2; Matt. 22. 23, &c.; Phil. 2. 20; 1Thess. 4. 14; Rev. 20. 13;) (4,) from the general
judgment, which of course requires it. RESTITUTION, that act of justice by which we | At the time when Our Saviour appeared in Judæa, restore to our neighbour whatever we have unjustly the resurrection of the dead was received as one of the deprived him of: a point insisted on under both the old principal articles of the Jewish religion by the whole and the new covenant. (Exod. 22. 1; Luke 19. 8.) body of the nation, the Sadducees excepted. (Matt.
Justice requires that those things which have been 22. 23; Luke 20. 28; Mark 12. 18; John 11. 23,24; stolen or unlawfully taken from another, should be Acts 23. 6,8.) . Our Saviour arose himself from the restored to the party aggrieved, and that compensation dead, to give us, in his own person, a proof, a pledge, should be made to him by the aggressor. Accordingly and a pattern of our future resurrection. St. Paul, in various fines or pecuniary payments were exacted by the almost all his epistles, speaks of a general resurrection, Mosaic law; as (1.) Fines, WJY onesh, strictly so called, refutes those who opposed or denied it, and proves and went commonly to the injured party; and were of two explains it by several circumstances. (Acts 24. 15; kinds: fixed, that is, those of which the amount was Rom. 6. 5; 1Cor. 15. 12-15; Phil. 3. 10,11; Heb. 6. 2; determined by some statute, as for instance, that of 11, 35; 1Thess. 4. 13-17.) Deuteronomy 22. 19, or 22. 29; and undetermined, or On the immortality of the soul, and a consequent future where the amount was left to the decision of the state of rewards and punishments, a point so important, judges. (Exod. 21. 22.) (2.) Two-fold, four-fold, and but which to the wisest of the Gentiles seemed doubtful, even five-fold, restitution of things stolen, and restitu- the New Testament speaks in the most decisive lantion of property unjustly retained, with twenty per cent.guage, and holds out to the hopes and fears of mankind over and above. (3.) If a man killed a beast, he was rewards and punishments suited to their nature, and to make it good, beast for beast. (Levit. 24. 18.) If an which it is worthy of God to dispense. In the Gospel ox pushed or gored another man's servant to death, his we see the dead both small and great restored to life, owner was bound to pay for the servant thirty shekels of and appearing before the tribunal of God, to receive a silver. (Exod. 21. 32.) In the case of one man's ox sentence “according to the deeds done in the body." pushing the ox of another man to death, as it would be The glories of heaven which are reserved “for them that very difficult to ascertain which of the two had been to love Him," and the everlasting miseries which will be blame for the quarrel, the two owners were obliged to the terrible portion of all the wilfully impenitent bear the loss between them. The living ox was to be workers of iniquity, are disclosed in the Scriptures; sold, and its price, together with the dead beast, was to which alone set forth the true reason of our being in this be equally divided by them. If, however, one of the world, viz.: not for enjoyment, but for trial; not to gain oxen had previously been notorious for goring, and the temporal treasures or possessions, but that our souls may owner had not taken care to confine him, in such case be disciplined and prepared for immortal honor and he was to give the loser another, and to take the dead glory. While the Divine displeasure is declared against ox himself. (Exod. 21. 36.) (4.) If a man dug a pit all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, and the and did not cover it, or let an old pit remain open, and most awful warnings are denounced against sinners, the another man's beast fell into it, the owner of such pit means by which they may obtain mercy are clearly diswas obliged to pay for the beast, and had it for the pay- played and offered to them. And as it is Jesus Christ ment. (Exod. 21.33,34.) (5.) When a fire was kindled who enables us to do the will of God and to preserve in the fields and did any damage, he who kindled it was his favour in this life, (for without Him we can do to make the damage good. (Exod. 22. 6.)
nothing) so it is through Him alone that we are Moralists observe respecting restitution: (1.) That made partakers of that eternal life and immortality, where it can be made in kind, or the injury can be cer which He has illustrated in the Gospel. The Father tainly valued, we are to restore the thing or the value. | sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world, (1 John (2.) We are bound to restore the thing with the natural | 4. 14,) to seek and to save that which was lost, (Luke increase of it, that is, to satisfy for the loss sustained in 19. 10,) that we might live through Him, (1John 4 9,) the mean time, and the gain hindered. (3.) Where the that the world through Him might be saved, (John thing cannot be restored, and the value of it is not cer- | 3. 17,) that believing, we might have life through his tain, we are to give reasonable satisfaction, according to name, (John 20. 31,) that whosoever believeth in Him a middle estimation. (4.) We are at least to give by should not perish, but have everlasting life. (John 3. way of restitution what the law would give, for that is 16.) Through Him we are saved from wrath; He hath generally equal, and in most cases rather favourable delivered us from the wrath to come. (1Thess. 1. 10; than rigorous. (5.) A man is not only bound to resti Rom. 5. 9.) Eternal life is the gift of God through tution for the injury he did, but for all that directly fol- | Jesus Christ Our Lord. (Rom. 6. 23.) God hath given lows from the injurious act; for the first injury being us eternal life, and this life is in his Son, (1John v. 11,) wilful, we are supposed to will all that which follows who is the Captain of our salvation, (Heb. 2. 10,) the upon it.
author of eternal salvation to all them that obey Him,
(Heb. 5. 9 ;) neither is there salvation in any other: RESURRECTION. The belief of a general resur for there is none other name under heaven given among rection of the dead, which will come to pass at the end men whereby we must be saved. (Acts 4. 12.) 7 of the world, and will be followed by an immortality : Our Lord has assured us, that the hour is coming in either of happiness or of misery, is an article of religion which all that are in their graves shall hear his voice, common to Jews and Christians. It is very expressly | and come forth; "they that have done good, unto the taught both in the Old and New Testament, (Psalm resurrection of life, and they that have done evil, unto 16. 10; Job 19. 25, &c.; Ezek. 37, 1, &c.; Isai. 26. 19; the resurrection of damnation.” Then we shall “all be John 5. 28,29;) as also in the Apocryphal books, changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at