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the last trump, and the dead shall be raised incor- | For I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that He shall ruptible.” It is probable that the bodies of the righteous stand at the latter day upon the earth. And though, and the wicked, though each shall in some respects be after my skin, worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh the same as before, will each be in other respects not the shall I see God. Whom I shall see for myself, and same, but undergo some change conformable to the mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my character of the individual, and suited to his future reins be consumed within me.” (Job 19. 23-27.) state of existence; yet both, as the passage just quoted “ It has been the fashion with a class of interpreters clearly teaches, are then rendered indestructible. and divines,” remarks Dr. Pye Smith, “ pleased, perhaps,

Respecting the good, it is said, “ When Christ, who to associate their own with the names of Grotius, Le is our life, shall appear, we shall appear with Him in Clerc, and Warburton, to explode from this passage any glory; we shall be like Him; our body shall be fashioned reference to a future life, or the expectation of the Meslike his glorious body;" yet, notwithstanding this, “it siah ; and no slight contempt has been expressed for the doth not yet fully appear what we shall be.” (Col. credulity and mental servitude (very candidly taken 3. 4; 1John 3.2; Phil. 3. 21.) This has a very obvious for granted) of those who entertain the belief of such a reason: language cannot communicate to us any such reference. This has, however, been the opinion of the ideas as would render those matters comprehensible. greater number of Scripture critics, ancient and modern, But language may suggest striking and pleasing analo Popish and Protestant. The usual objections against gies; and with such we are presented by the Apostle: this interpretation are, that no vestiges appear in the “ All flesh,” says he, “is not the same flesh: but there is Book of Job of any acquaintance with the doctrine of a one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another future life; that it would be very extraordinary, if there of fishes, and another of birds;" yet all these are fashioned really existed in the mind of the composer of this book out of the same kind of substance, mere inert matter, any knowledge of the Redeemer to come, that such a till God gives it life and activity. So will the body glorious hope should show itself nowhere but in this differ at the resurrection from what it was when com single passage; that we cannot reconcile such an avowal mitted to the grave. It is sown an animal body; a body with the despondency which appears to have prevailed which previously existed with all the organs, faculties, in the mind of Job; and that the terms employed do and propensities, requisite to procure, receive, and not necessarily import more than the persuasion of a appropriate nutriment, as well as to perpetuate the spe- deliverance, by Divine goodness, from the present calacies; but it shall be raised a spiritual body, refined from mity, and a restoration to health and happiness in the the dregs of matter, freed from the organs and senses present life. To these reasonings we reply: requisite in its former state, and probably retaining the “1. Admitting that there is no intimation of the docremaining senses in greater perfection, together with new trine of immortality and a future judgment, or of the and more exquisite faculties, fitted for the exalted state expectation of a Messiah, in any other part of this book, of existence and enjoyment to which it is arising. the consequence does not follow. It should be recol

In the present state, the organs and senses appointed lected that, in a poetical book, the matter is disposed to transmit the impressions of objects to the mind have considerably according to the taste and choice of the

writer, and a more vivid impression might be made, by and seeing, for example, to light; the ear and hearing, presenting a capital circumstance, with its brightness to sound. In the refined and glorious state of existence and force collected into one point, than would be proto which good men are tending, where the objects which duced if it were dispersed through the general composolicit attention will be infinitely more numerous, inte sition. The whole texture of this passage, introduced resting, and delightful, may not the new organs, facul- | with the most impassioned wish for attention and perties, and senses, be appropriately refined, acute, suscep- petual remembrance, and sustained in the sublimest tible, or penetrating? Human industry and invention style of utterance, is evidently thus contrived to interest have placed us, in a manner, in new worlds; what, then, and impress in the highest degree. may not a spiritual body, with sharpened faculties, and “Those of our objectors who ascribe the date of the the grandest possible objects of contemplation, effect in poem to the period of the Captivity, cannot refuse to the celestial regions to which Christians are invited ? admit that the writer possessed whatever knowledge the There the senses will no longer degrade the affections, Jewish nation had with respect to a Messiah and a the imagination no longer corrupt the heart; the magni future state. The writings of Moses and the former ficent scenery thrown open to view will animate the prophets, and the greater part of the works of the latter attention, give a glow and vigour to the sentiments, that prophets, and the books grouped with the Psalms, were, roused attention will never tire; those glowing senti at this time, the accredited Scriptures of the Jews; and ments will never cloy; but the man, now constituted of few will be so hardy as to affirm, that no intimations an indestructible body, as well as an immortal soul, may occur in those writings of the doctrines which constituted visit in eternal succession the streets of the celestial city, the hope and consolation of Israel. On this in my may “drink of the free river of the water of life, clear opinion, untenable) hypothesis, it would appear highlyereas crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God, and of dible that some very distinct reference to those doctrines the Lamb," and dwell for ever in those abodes of har- would enter materially into the structure of the work. mony and peace, which, though "eye hath not seen, nor “2. The alleged inconsistency between these expresear heard, nor has it entered into the imagination of sions of triumphant confidence, as we understand them, man to conceive," we are assured “God hath prepared | and the gloominess and despondency generally prevalent for them that love Him." (1 Cor. 2. 9.)

in the speeches of Job, presses equally on our opponents, There is one passage in the Book of Job, (19. 23-27,) | who confine the passage to the expectation of restored which is generally, and justly, regarded as bearing decisive prosperity in the present life. It lies even more against testimony to the truth of this great doctrine, but which them; for Job, not only before, but in his very last it is to be lamented some eminent men have endeavoured speech, evidently despaired of a restoration to temporal to turn from its obvious meaning. The passage is the felicity. His property might, indeed, by some wonderfollowing:—“O that my words were now written! O ful, though almost incredible, reverse of God's prori. that they were printed in a book! that they were dence, be retrieved, or, at least, equivalent comforts in graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock for ever! that class of things might be obtained; but his children

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were destroyed; they could not live again: and his dis- | the Holy Ghost to speak.' His ignorance of the purport order, probably the dreadful Oriental leprosy, was incur- of the Divine testimony of a future Saviour from sin and able and fatal. Yet, between this hopeless condition as its consequent evils, would place him on a level with the to earthly enjoyments, and a vigorous aspiration of the other saints, in his own and many succeeding ages, who mind after spiritual and immortal blessings, there is no 'died in faith, not receiving the promises' in their inconsistency. A man must have little judgment, little clearest development, 'but seeing them afar off.' Even taste, and less moral sensibility, who does not perceive in when those promises had received many accessions of these alternations of faith and diffidence, despair and hope, successive revelations, the Jewish prophets did not a picture exquisitely just and touching of the human mind, apprehend the exact design and meaning of their own under the influence of the most agitating conflict between predictions; for they inquired and searched diligently, the religious principles resting on the belief of invisible what or what kind of time, the Spirit of Christ which existences, and, on the other hand, the dictates of sense, was in them did signify. Our inquiry is, therefore, not the pressure of misery, and the violence of temptations. so much what the patriarch actually understood, as what

“3. But we are not disposed to grant either of the the Author of inspiration intended, since it was 'not assumptions before mentioned. We have better evi unto themselves, but unto us,' that the patriarchs and dence than the dicta of German anti-supernaturalists, or | prophets ministered these things. “No prophecy of the opinions of English refiners upon theology, that the Scripture is of self-solution;' but is made gradually patriarchs from whom the tradition of Divine truth has plainer by new communications from the same omnis. descended to Job, confessed that they were strangers cient source, and by the light of events. and pilgrims on the earth, and desired a better country, “Upon this principle it is proper for us to compare that is, a heavenly. Nor is it credible that the promise the language of this passage with the character and of a Messiah was totally unknown to the true worship- declarations of Him to whom all the prophets gave pers of Jehovah in Arabia, allied to the family of Abra- witness.' He in the fulness of time was manifested, ham, and in the habit of reverentially cherishing the as the Redeemer from sin and death, the First and the remains of primeval truth. And, besides the possession Last, and the living One, the resurrection and the life; of the patriarchal religion, what is there to prevent any who, in the appointed season, 'is coming with the but a deist from conceiving that God might inspire His clouds, and every eye shall see Him; whose voice the faithful and afflicted servant with the knowledge and the dead shall hear, and hearing shall live. joyful confidence which he expresses? Is not such a “If, then, the evidence which we can attain in this supposition consonant with all the known scheme and case, be sufficient to satisfy an impartial judgment, that principles of the Divine dispensations? Was not the the passage before us was given by inspiration of God, occasion worthy of the interposition? Has it not always as a prophecy of the second coming of the only Rebeen the faith of the Jewish and Christian church, that deemer and Judge of mankind; it is no less evidence in the ultimate sentiments which it is the design of the point to our present investigation, on the person of the Book of Job to support and illustrate, and which, in the Great Deliverer, than if it directly regarded his first sequel of the book, receive the stamp of Divine approba advent; and it unequivocally designates Him by the tion, form a part of the body of revealed truth? There highest titles and attributes of Deity. Upon the hypoare also many passages in the book which may be thesis of those who regard the Book of Job as a Divine rationally urged as recognitions of a future state.

parable, all doctrinal and practical conclusions from it are “4. The bare assertion that the terms of the passage strengthened, rather than rendered weak or precarious.” do not import so much as is usually attributed to them, “ The modern Jews," says Hyams, “ look for their may be fairly enough met by asserting the contrary. To Messiah to come on this wise: that on one of those days the unlearned reader, as well as to the critical scholar, the trumpet will sound at Jerusalem, and the sound will the means of judging for himself are industriously pre be so great that the Jews living in different parts of the sented in the close version given above, and in the re world will hear the sound thereof; and the very moment marks and references subjoined. The words are as they will be transformed into angels, and by the power plain as in any instance the language of prophecy can of God transferred to Jerusalem, where the Messiah be expected to be. It appears to me strictly rational, will reign over them. They do not look for a spiritual probable, and in harmony with the great plan of a pro reign, but a temporal one. But still they do not expect, gressive revelation, to regard this remarkable passage as after once they return to Jerusalem, there will be any dictated by the Spirit of prophecy, who, in many por more death; for Jerusalem they look upon as their parations and in mamy modes, spake to the fathers.' Let dise. And all the Jews, who have died and been buried me also entreat the reader's most impartial consideration, | since the creation of the world, will work their passage whether the sense here maintained is not required, even underground the same as moles, and rise on the same necessitated, by the words, taken in their fair meaning spot where the Temple stood in the days of old. Then and connexion; and whether the affixing of a lower | will the world at large cry and say, 'O I have been uninterpretation does not oblige those who take this course done! for now I find there is only one God, and He is to put a manifest force upon the phrases, and upon the | the God of the Jews, and the Saviour who is now come marks of pre-eminent importance with which the sacred is the real Messiah, who was foretold in the Scriptures.' author has signalized them.

Then as many of the world, who will lay hold of the “After employing the utmost force and beauty of lan skirt of a garment of a Jew, and say, 'I will go with guage to stamp importance on the words which he was you, for I can plainly see you are a holy and chosen about to utter, and to ensure for them a never-dying | people,' then those will be saved with the Jews. attention, the patriarch protests his confidence that the “Their love is so great for Jerusalem, that for centuliving God, the eternal, independent, and unchanging ries past, down to this time, many opulent Jews, in difOne, would be his vindicator from injustice, and his ferent parts of the world, arrange matters, and go and Redeemer from all his sorrows; and would restore him settle in the Holy Land, to die and be buried there; for from the state of death to a new life of supreme happi they are given to understand it will be a twofold advanness in the favour and enjoyment of God.

tage. First, it will save them a tedious journey under“It is not necessary to suppose that Job understood ground when the Messiah comes; and, secondly, in their the full import and extent of what he was 'moved by graves they will not feel the gnawing of the worms.”

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REUBEN, 1989 (Gen. 29. 32,) the eldest son a common right of pasture in the Arabian deserts, of Jacob and Leah, gave his name to one of the twelve Michaëlis thinks that David kept numerous herds there, tribes of Israel. Moses, before his death, said of (1Chron. 27. 29,31,) which were partly under the care Reuben, “Let Reuben live and not die, yet let his num- of Arabian herdsmen. ber be but small.” (Deut. 33. 6.) His tribe was never 3. The produce of the royal demesnes, consisting of very numerous nor very considerable in Israel. They arable lands, vineyards, olive, and sycamore grounds, had their inheritance beyond Jordan, between the brooks &c., which had originally been uninclosed and uncultiArnon south and Jazer north, having the mountains of vated, or were the property of state criminals confiscated Gilead east and Jordan west. The Reubenites were to the sovereign; these demesnes were cultivated by early carried into captivity. (See ISRAEL, KINGDOM OP.) | bondsmen, and, perhaps, also by the people of conquered The present state of their country will be found countries, (iChron. 27. 26,31; 2Chron. 26. 10;) and it described under PALESTINE.

appears from 1Samuel 8. 14; 22. 7, and Ezekiel 46. 17, that the kings assigned part of their domains to their

servants in lieu of salary. REVELATION. This word may signify the act 4. Another source of the royal revenue was the tenth of making a thing public that was before unknown; it part of all the produce of the fields and vineyards, the is in a stronger sense used for the discoveries made by collection and management of which seem to have been God to his prophets, and by them to the world; and confided to the officers mentioned in 1 Kings 4. 7, and more particularly for the books of the Old and New

iChronicles 27. 25. It is also probable from 1Kings Testament.

10. 14, that the Israelites likewise paid a tax in money. Having under BIBLE, CANON, INSPIRATION, PROPHECY, These imposts Solomon appears to have increased; and examined the evidences of the truth of the fact that the

Rehoboam's refusal to lessen them is stated by the sacred Almighty has deigned to communicate his will to man,

historian as the cause of the revolt of the ten tribes we may here confine ourselves to a brief recapitulation

against him. (1 Kings 11. 14,18.) There is an allusion of the assertions there proved.

in Malachi 1. 8; Nehemiah 5. 18, to the custom of pay(1.) The revelation contained in our Bible is perfectly ing dues in kind to governors, which exists at this day in credible. It is an address to the reason, judgment, and many Eastern countries. affections of men. The Old Testament abounds with 5. Not only did the most precious part of the plunthe finest specimens of history, sublimity, and interest- der of the conquered nations flow into the royal treaing scenes of Providence. The facts of the New Testa sury, (2Sam. 8.) but the latter also had tributes imposed ment are supported by undoubted evidence from enemies on them, which were termed NO mincha, or presents, and friends. The attestations to the early existence of and were paid partly in money, and partly in agricultural Christianity are numerous from Ignatius, Polycarp, Ire- |

produce. (1 Kings 4. 21; Psalm 72. 10, compared with næus, Justin Martyr, and Tatian, who were Christians;

1 Chronicles 27. 25,31.) and by Tacitus, Suetonius, Serenus, Pliny, &c., who were

6. Lastly, Solomon had a source of revenue which heathens.

perhaps was not much enjoyed by his successors; this (2.) The revelations contained in our Bible are was the custom paid to him by the foreign merchants Divinely inspired. The matter, the manner, the scope,

who passed through his dominions, (1 Kings 10. 15;) the predictions, miracles, preservation, &c., &c., all

this tax afforded a considerable revenue to that monarch; prove this.

who also carried on a very extensive and lucrative trade, (3.) Revelation is intended for universal benefit. It (1Kings 10. 22,) particularly in Egyptian horses, and is a common objection, that hitherto it has been con the byssus, or fine linen of Egypt. (1 Kings 10. 28,29.) fined to few, and therefore it cannot come from God, who must be conceived too benevolent to allow any to REVERENCE, in general denotes love conjoined remain in ignorance of what is essential to their eternal

with the solicitude not to thwart or offend the object welfare; but this mode of arguing will equally hold

beloved; and considered with respect to God, is called good against the permission of evil, the dreadful sins

filial fear; a duty we owe God. Reverence to God is and miseries of mankind, and all other dispensations of

accompanied with a restraint from everything contrary God's providence, which pass our finite comprehension; to the Divine perfections; in this differing greatly from it therefore can never be entertained by the Christian

those who refrain from evil from mere fear, called

those who refr believer. Besides, this revelation, we have reason to

slavish fear, or dread of punishment, without any regard believe, will, in the fulness of time, be made known to

to God, peculiar to slaves; the reverence we pay God all mankind. Already its influence is widely spread. indicating an ingenuous mind. A reverence is due not In the cold regions of the north, in the burning regions

only to God and his perfections, when we think or speak of the south, the Bible begins to be known; and from of them, (Heb. 12. 28,29,) but also to things that hare the predictions it contains, we believe the glorious sun a relation to Him, as his worship, his servants, &c. of revelation shall shine and illuminate the whole globe. I Tevit. 19.

(Levit. 19. 30.) REVELATION. See APOCALYPSE.

REWARD, is the good which the lawgiver conjoins with a virtuous action, as the motive for doing it;

in the same manner as punishment is proposed as a REVENUE. The revenues of the Hebrew kings, motive to abstain from a vicious action: and both may we learn from the sacred writings, were chiefly collected be either natural, the necessary consequence of good or from the following sources:

bad actions; or positive, which depends on the good1. Voluntary offerings, or presents, which were made will or pleasure of the lawgiver. (See PUNISHMENTS.) to them conformably to the Oriental custom. (1 Sam. The original words in the Scripture rendered “reward," 10. 27; 16. 20.) Michaëlis is of opinion that they were signify: (1,) a gift or bribe, (Deut. 27. 25;) (2.) the confined to Saul only, as no trace of them is to be found fruit or result of labour, (Eccles. 9. 5;) (3) human after his time.

applause, (Matt. 6. 2-5;) (4,) comfort and joy. (Psalm 2. The produce of the royal flocks, (1Sam. 13. 23; 19. 11.) 2Chron. 32. 28,29;) and as both king and subjects had

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REZIN, 1737 (2Kings 15. 37,) the last native Sicily. Here St. Paul stayed one day, on his first voyking of Syria, an able prince, who formed an alliance age to Rome. (Acts 28. 13.) with Pekah, king of Israel, against Ahaz, king of Judah, Rhegium, now called Reggio, was founded by a colony whose dominions they invaded. After obtaining con- of Greeks in a very early age, and was long an indepensiderable advantages, Rezin sent a great number of pri dent state. At length it was united to Rome, and it was soners to Damascus, and then proceeded to lay siege to one of the last places held in Italy by the Eastern empeJerusalem, but in this he failed. This check, which had rors. In the eighth century it was captured by the Sarabeen foretold by Isaiah, (7. 1-8,) frustrated the project cens from Sicily, and held by them until the eleventh, formed by the allied princes for overthrowing the dynasty when it was conquered by the Normans, and it has ever of David. Rezin was more successful in Idumea, where since formed a part of the kingdom of Naples. In the he made himself master of the port of Eloth on the sixteenth century it was three times captured and burnt Red Sea; an important conquest, which gave him the by the Turks, and in 1783 it was totally destroyed by an command of the neighbouring country and sea. (2Kings earthquake. It has been since rebuilt, and is now the 16. 6.) His successes, however, were of short duration: neatest and most commercial town in the south of Italy, for, in the following year, agreeable to the predictions of having a population of 20,000 inhabitants. Isaiah, (8. 4,6; 9. 11,) Damascus was taken by Tiglathpileser, king of Assyria, who carried its inhabitants into I RHODA, 'Pódn, the name of a handmaid menbondage, and put to death Rezin, with whom the king- tioned in Acts 12. 13. “And as Peter knocked at the dom of Syria terminated. See Syria.

door of the gate, a damsel came to hearken, named

Rhoda. And when she knew Peter's voice, she opened RHEGIUM, 'Pnylov, a maritime city near the not the gate for gladness, but ran in, and told how Peter south-western extremity of Italy, opposite to Messina in stood before the gate,” &c.

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RHODES, Podos, (Acts 21. 1,) an island of the famed for nothing more than for the colossal statue, to Lerant, the ancient name of which was Asteria, Ophiusa, which reference has already been made. It was a or Etheria, about eight miles south of the province of brazen image of Phæbus, or Apollo, fixed across the Caria, in the Lesser Asia, and seventy-eight east of mouth of the harbour, so that shipping passed under its Crete. It is one hundred and twenty miles in circum | legs. Its height was one hundred and five feet, and the ference, and is deemed next in importance to Cyprus whole in proportion; thus the thumb could scarcely be and Lesbos. It derived its name from the quantities of surrounded by the arms of the largest man. Within roses that grew in it. It possessed so clear an atmo- the legs and body was a winding staircase, which led to sphere that it was said that there was scarcely a day in the head, from which, with the aid of glasses, could be the year in which the sun did not shine in it. On this seen the shores of Syria. It was the work of Chares, account it was supposed that it was peculiarly favoured of the city of Lindus, and a pupil of Lysippus. It by Phæbus, or the sun, who, in consequence, was wor-occupied the artist twelve years; and for its size and shipped by its inhabitants as the patron god of the singular situation, became one of the seven wonders of island, and had a colossal statue erected at the mouth of the world. It cost three hundred talents, and contained the harbour. It produced excellent wines, and gave seven hundred and twenty thousand pounds weight of birth to several eminent artists in statuary and painting. brass. It was commenced three hundred years before So important was it in a maritime and political point of Christ; and, after standing about sixty years, was view, that it could originate a code of commercial regu- thrown down by an earthquake. The Rhodians received lations that was adopted by all the surrounding nations; large contributions from all the cities of Greece to and Demetrius Poliorcetes, one of the successors of restore it; but they appropriated them to their own Alexander the Great, deemed the reduction of it under uses, under the pretence that the oracle of Apollo was his own dominion essential to the permanence of his unwilling that the statue should be restored. After power among the Grecian states. Rhodes has been lying in this state for eight hundred and ninety-four

ical point of thrown down by ons from allt

the surrcommerciapoint of Orass. It dred and the

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RHODES-RIGHTEOUSNESS.

years, Muavius, the sixth caliph of the Saracens, sold it | denounced in Scripture. Riches are frequently used in to a Jew, who loaded nine hundred camels with the a metaphorical sense for intellectual endowments, and brass contained in it.

for the gifts and graces of God's Holy Spirit, which conThe Rhodians were at first governed by kings, but stitute the treasure to be “laid up in heaven, where afterwards formed themselves into a republic. They neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves passed through numerous vicissitudes and reverses; at do not break through and steal.” T. one time being subject to, and distressed by the Greeks,

RIDDLE. The riddles or enigmas of the Eastern and, at another, receiving homage from surrounding

nations are usually remote and far-fetched metaphors, nations; till they at length fell a prey to the Romans,

which require some exertion ‘of ingenuity to discover when their isle became part of the province of the

their meaning and application. In all ages the Orientals Islands. In A.D. 654, it was taken by the Saracens,

have exhibited a strong partiality for these mental puzfrom whom it was afterwards wrested by the Greeks.

zles, and gladiatorial displays of the wit displayed in the These retained possession of it till 1283, when it fell

solutions of enigmas, are common both in Arabia and under the power of the Seljukian Turks. In 1308, the

Persia. Samson's challenge to the Philistines, (Judges knights of St. John of Jerusalem wrested it from their

14. 12,) shows the great importance attributed to suchands, and kept possession of it till 1522, when Soly

cess in these trials of skill; his wager, “thirty sheets man, the Ottoman Turk, obliged them to quit the island

and thirty change of garment,” was one of very great Most of the Rhodians deserting the place at the same

magnitude in those days, when dresses were so valuable time, the Turks granted distinguished privileges to such

as to descend from father to son. On the other hand, Greeks as they could induce to re-inhabit it. It is still

we find that the Philistines threatened to destroy the under the power of the Turks. The Greeks, its ori

family of Samson's wife, unless she exerted all her ginal inhabitants, together with all Christians, are now

influence to discover the secret. The riddle put forth restricted to the miserable suburbs; Jews and Turks

by Samson, “Out of the eater came forth meat, and out alone dwell in the city. The palace of the grand

of the strong came forth sweetness," is a very fair spémaster of the knights is still shown, though in a state of

cimen of what may be called a challenge riddle; it was ruin. Niebuhr visited it, and states that it contains

with such hard questions that the queen of Sheba came many old noble buildings, some of which are decorated

to test the boasted wisdom of Solomon. T. with the armorial bearings of some of the most ancient families in Europe. The Turks neglect the fortifica RIDER. It is uncertain at what time, or in what cations, although they might know their importance place, horses were first used for riding, but there is from having besieged the island so long before they every reason to believe that it was not until a period could make themselves masters of it. Ransom.

long after their having been employed for draught. The principal place of the island is also called Rhodes: | Instead of cavalry, the Egyptians and Babylonians, and it stands on the north-east shore, has a couple of har

-east shore, has a couple of har- the Greeks of the Homeric age, used war-chariots, the bours separated by a strongly fortified neck of land, and drivers of which are in the earlier books of the Old contains a number of churches, palaces, and forts con- | Testament called “riders," as in Miriam's song of structed by the knights. The population of the whole triumph for the overthrow of the Egyptian host. (Exod. island is variously estimated at from twenty to forty 15.) The Book of Job, however, clearly intimates a thousand: the great majority are Greeks, who are “rider," in our acceptation of the word, in the descripesteemed good sailors, and the most skilful shipwrights tion of the chase of the ostrich: “She scorneth the of the Levant.

horse and his rider.” (Job 39. 18.) White asses were

used as steeds by the nobles in the land under the RIB. See EvE.

Judges, and instead of these we find that mules were

used in the age of the Kings; horses being almost excluRIBAND. A narrow fringe or riband on the

sively reserved for chariots. The Persians appear to borders of the principal garment was a common mark

have been the first Oriental nation that discovered the or dignity amongst ancient nations, and a mystic signi

superiority of a flexible body of cavalry over a cumfication was frequently assigned to its shape, breadth,

brous and unwieldy corps of chariots; many of their and colour. Moses directed the children of Israel to

early victories may fairly be ascribed to their skill in use fringes and ribands of blue on the borders of their

horsemanship; on the other hand, the Jewish armies garments, “ that they may look upon them, and re

were always deficient in cavalry, and their alliances member all the commandments of the Lord and do

with foreign states were generally designed to obtain a them.” (Numb. 15. 38.) To this circumstance Christ

supply of auxiliary horse. It is not one of the least alludes when he assigns as one mark of the hypocrisy

proofs of Solomon's political wisdom that he exerted of the Pharisees, that “they enlarged the borders of

of himself to supply this national deficiency. C. their garments.” T.

RICH, RICHES. The wealth of a pastoral people, such as the Hebrews in the patriarchal age, consisted RIGHTEOUSNESS. Considered as a Divine chiefly in flocks and herds. Hence we find it assigned attribute, righteousness may be described as that peras a cause of the separation of Esau and Jacob, that fection of God's nature, whereby, being most holy and « their riches were more than they might dwell toge- | just in himself, all his relations towards his creatures ther; and the land wherein they were strangers could are established in perfect equity and rectitude. It is not bear them because of their cattle.” (Gen. 36. 8.) | described in Scripture as a moral character, which may It was not until the reign of Solomon that the Jews | be immediately deduced from the Creator's essential possessed any abundance of the precious metals, and as attribute of a ruler over the work of his hands: “Shall The nation never became commercial, its rich men must not the Judge of all the earth do right?" (Gen. 18. 25 ) in all ages have the great land-holders. Throughout | The righteousness of God is manifested not only in his the East the holders of land have ever been remarkable clemency, mercy, and goodness, (Deut. 6. 25.) but also from exacting very disproportionate shares of the profit in his infliction of chastisements upon the guilty: from the actual cultivators of the soil, and this is the “ Righteous art thou, O Lord, and just are thy judgreason wby we find “the rich" so often and so severely | ments.” (Psalm 119. 137.) But it is more particularly

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