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from the root pw to be on the watch, to awake early,' ROE, ROE-BUCK, '23 tzebi, opkas (Antilope to hasten.

Dorcas.) The wild gazelle, which is still common in Rod, 7912 motah, a wand or walking staff; as Africa and Western Asia, is the roe or roe-buck of our Moses' rod, (Exod. ch. 4,) Aaron's, (Exod. 7. 9,) Jona translators. It is one of the most beautiful animals of than’s, (1 Sam. 14. 17.) Moses' rod was the visible | the deer kind, and is particularly remarkable for its means chosen by the Almighty for the instrument of his large beaming eye, its wreathed horns, and its singularly wonders at the Red Sea, and in the wilderness. After | light and graceful step or bound. It is generally from it had been consecrated by the first miraculous change twenty-two to twenty-seven inches in height, covered on in Midian, (Exod. 4. 4,) it is sometimes called the rod the back with hair of a delicate fawn colour, which passes of God. (Exod. 4. 20; 17. 9.)

into a brown band on the sides, suddenly interrupted by As the wonders wrought by the instrumentality of the white of the belly. These graceful creatures are Moses and Aaron's rods attracted the attention of neigh- easily domesticated, and are favourite pets with Asiatic bouring nations, it is not extraordinary if, in course of time, these personages were interwoven with mythology. And it has been plausibly conjectured, that Aaron's rod, which in its serpent state devoured the serpent-rods of the Egyptian magicians, was the prototype of the caduceus, or wonder-working rod of Mercury, which was figured as entwined with two serpents. Aaron's rod was caused to blossom miraculously, and bring forth almonds, (Numb. 17. 8,) to show God's election for the priesthood. Parkhurst thinks that the rods of the chiefs among the Israelites were of the almond tree, to denote vigilance; that being an early tree, flowering before all others.

The almond-rod seen by Jeremiah (1. 11,) (vide supra,) is rendered by the Vulgate “virgum vigilantem," the vigilant rod. Rod, qui molah, figuratively means strength,

The Roebuck. assistance, as in Psalm 110. 2.

ladies. In their wild state they are exceedingly swift Rod, uw shebet, a rod or staff for correction, (Exod. 21. 20; 2Sam. 7. 14;) hence, figuratively, punishment,

of foot, especially in the hills, where the rapidity with

which they bound from rock to rock, and from precipice affliction, as in Job 9. 34. A mark of authority, often rendered "sceptre” in our version, as Esther 8. 4; hence,

to precipice, frequently baffles the skill of the most figuratively, the merciful power of God (Psalm 23. 4,)

enterprising hunters. When heated in the chase, how.

ever, they will expose themselves to the greatest danger and his glorious power. (Ezek. 21. 10.) A shepherd's

in order to obtain the refreshment of water, and hence staff or crook, symbol of authority over the flock. Passing under the rod to select the tithe of the flock,

the hunters generally watch for them in the vicinity of (Levit. 27. 32,) is explained by the Rabbins that the

some spring or mountain stream. The Oriental poets lambs were shut into a fold with a narrow door, that

abound in comparisons deduced from the graceful form, permitted but one to pass at a time; the dams were left

lovely eyes, and agile step of the gazelle; the Song of

Solomon has several complimentary eulogies derived without, and the lambs, forcing their way out to them,

from these particulars; indeed, there is no animal that were counted by the shepherd as they passed; and when

has contributed more to the language of poetry and comthe tenth came, the shepherd held down his crook, smeared with ochre, close to the lamb, which, touching

pliment in the East. as it passed under, had its fleece marked. Ezek. 20.37, ROLL. See Book. alludes to this practice; and symbolizes God as thus marking off his people after the Babylonish captivity; ROME, ROMAN. This great metropolis of the and distinguishing the righteous from the ungodly. | ancient world is situated on the river Tiber, in the west

Rod, 70n choter, more properly a branch or shoot; of Italy, in lat. 41° 58' N., and long. 12° 25' E. The “In the mouth of the foolish is a rod of pride." (Prov. period of its foundation is uncertain; but the general 14. 3.) Figuratively, for something flourishing in opinion is that it was founded by its first king, Romuwords, like a branch blossoming, or shooting out. lus, on the 12th of the Kalends of May, a little before

Rhabdomancy, or divining by rods, became a common the beginning of the eighth Olympiad. superstition or idolatrous custom among the Jews, aris | Rome was originally built in a square form, whence it ing, doubtlessly, from the ideas of supernatural agency is called Roma Quadrata, on the Palatine hill. When attached to the rods of Moses and Aaron. It is alluded the city was founded, and when it was at any subseto in Hosea 4. 12: “My people ask counsel at their quent period enlarged, the first care was to mark out the stocks, and their staff declareth unto them.” It was Pomorium, a consecrated space round the walls of the performed, first, by inscribing certain characters on small city on which it was unlawful to erect any edifice. rods, and then drawing them, like lots, out of a vessel; | This custom manifestly arose from the necessity of secondly, by measuring the rod in spans, and saying, | preventing besiegers from finding shelter near the fortialternately, words expressing a negative and an affirma fications; and in this, as in a thousand other instances, tive, and then determining, according to the last span, the early legislators gave utility the sanction of superwhether negative or affirmative, to do the intended stition. A set form was prescribed for marking the action or not; thirdly, by erecting two sticks, repeating Pomerium; a bullock and heifer were yoked to a bronze a charm, and then determining by certain rules, accord- or copper ploughshare, and a furrow was drawn marking as the sticks fell backwards or forwards, to the right ing the course of the future wall. The plough was so or to the left. M.

guided that all the sods fell to the inside, and if any went in an opposite direction, care was taken that they should be turned into the proper way. As the plough

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Roman Forum was sacred, it would have been profanation if anything many splendid edifices, both public and private, were impure passed over the ground which it had once erected, when wealth was so vastly increased as it must touched; but as things clean and unclean must neces- have been after the conquest of Carthage and Western sarily pass into a city, when the plough came to a place Asia, -it could scarcely be called a splendid city before where the builders designed to place a gate, it was taken the reign of Augustus, who boasted that “he found it up, and carried to the spot where the wall was resumed. brick, and left it marble.” When Corinth was subdued Hence the Latins named a gate porta, from the verb by Mummius, so little were the Romans acquainted portare, to carry. The comitium, or place of public with the fine arts, that many precious pieces of statuary assembly, was next consecrated: the most remarkable were destroyed for the sake of their materials; but from part of this ceremony was the preparation of a vault, that time taste was improved by a more constant named mundus, in which were deposited the first-fruits intercourse with the Greeks, especially when Athens of all things used to support life, and a portion of each became the university of the empire. But the long colonist's native earth. To this structure many super- civil wars between the aristocratic and democratic facstitious notions were attached; it was supposed to be tions prevented the developement of these improvethe entrance to the invisible world; and it was opened ments, until the battle of Actium gave Rome tranquillity three days in the year, with many solemn forms, to and a master. In the days of its greatest prosperity admit the spirits of the deceased.

the circumference of Rome, inclosed by walls, was It is probable that the first extension of the Pom- about twenty miles; but there were also very extensive rium was occasioned by inclosing the Quirinal hill for suburbs. The city had thirty gates, some authors say the Sabines, when, under Tatius, they united themselves more, of which the most remarkable were the Tergeto the people of Romulus. The next addition was the minal, the Carmental, the Triumphal, and the Naval; Cælian hill, on which the followers of Coles Vibenna, to which we may add the Capena, near the great whoever that Etruscan adventurer may have been, aqueduct. erected their habitation. Tullus Hostilius inclosed the The most remarkable buildings were the amphitheatres, Viminal hill after the destruction of Alba, to which the Capitol with its temples, the senate-house, and the Ancus Martius added the Aventine, which was regarded forum. as the peculiar habitation of the plebeians. In the reign The first amphitheatre was the Circus Maximus, of the first Tarquin, Rome was increased by the Esqui- erected by Tarquinius Priscus; but so enlarged by line and Capitoline; these completed the number of the subsequent additions, that it was capable of containing seven hills for which the city was celebrated. At a two hundred thousand spectators. In the arena were much later period the Pincian and Vatican mounts were exhibited the cruel fights of the gladiators, in which the added; and these, with the Janiculum on the north Romans took a pleasure equally infamous and extravabank of the Tiber, made the number ten.

gant, together with races, exhibitions of strange animals, Ancus Martius was the first who fortified the city and combats of wild beasts. A still larger edifice was with outworks, especially by raising a castle and garrison erected for the same purpose in the reign of Vespasian, on the Janiculum, which was connected with Rome by whose massive ruins are called the Colosseum. Theatres, a wooden bridge (pons sublicius). But the elder Tar- public baths, and buildings for the exhibition of naumaquin was the first who beautified his capital with chiæ, or naval combats, were erected by the emperors, splendid buildings, not only ornamental, but useful. who seemed anxious to compensate the people for the To him the great sewer by which the city was drained, loss of their liberty by the magnificence of their public whose vast proportions still claim admiration, is gene- shows and entertainments. rally attributed.

The Capitol was commenced on the Saturnian hill. Though Rome began to be more regularly built when which received the name Capitoline from a human it was restored after the departure of the Gauls, and I head being found by the labourers digging the founda

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tion, in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus. It was erected | named Curtius, smothered there while the place was as on the northern summit of the hill; the rocky eminence | yet a swamp.

called the Tarpeian cliff, to commemo- | In the forum was the celebrated temple of Janus. rate the treason of Tarpeia; and public criminals were built entirely of bronze, supposed to have been erected frequently executed by being precipitated from its peak. | during the reign of Numa. Its gates were only closed The temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was usually regarded three times in eight centuries, so incessant were the as the national sanctuary of the Romans: it was begun | wars in which the Romans were engaged. Not far from by Tarquinius Priscus, and Tarquinius Superhus, and it this was the temple of Concord, in which the senate frewas almost yearly improved by the rich presents that quently assembled: storks were encouraged to build in successful generals and foreign princes, eager to con | the roof of the edifice, on account of the social instincts ciliate the Romans, offered as votive gifts. Augustus attributed to those birds. In the same quarter of the alone presented gold and jewels exceeding five thousand city was the temple of Vesta, where a perpetual fire was pounds in value. During the civil wars between Marius maintained by the Vestal virgins: in it were said to be and Sylla, this temple was burnt to the ground; but it preserved the Palladium, or sacred image of Pallas was rebuilt with greater splendour; and Cicero informs Minerva, on which the fate of Troy depended, and us, that the statue of Jupiter Capitolinus was erected on other relics consecrated by superstition. its pedestal at the very time that the conspiracy of The senate-house was above the pulpits belonging to Catiline was discovered. It was destroyed twice again the public orators; it was said to have been originally during the reigns of Vespasian and Domitian, but was erected by Tullus Hostilius: but the senate had several restored each time with additional splendour. The other places of meeting, frequently assembling in the Sibylline books, and other oracles, supposed to contain temples. Near it was the comitium, or court in which important predictions respecting the fate of the city, the patrician curiæ were convened; it was not roofed were preserved in the sanctuary, under the charge of until the end of the seeond Punic war, soon after which fifteen persons of the highest rank, called the Quin the comitia curiata fell gradually into disuse. This decimviri. Here, also, were preserved the chronological space, before it was covered, was called a temple; archives of the city. A nail was annually driven into because templum properly signifies not merely an edifice, the temple by the chief magistrate; and this curious but an inclosure consecrated by the augurs. The custom is supposed to have been the first rude mode of principal theatres and public baths were erected in this marking the lapse of time.

vicinity. There were several other temples on this hill, the most The election of magistrates, reviews of troops, and the remarkable of which was that of Jupiter Feretrius, census or registration of the citizens, were held in the erected by Romulus, where the spolia opima were de Campus Martius, which was also the favourite exerciseposited. The spolia opima were the trophies presented ground of the young nobles. It was originally a large by a Roman general who had slain the leader of the common, which had formed part of the estate of the enemy with his own hand; they were only thrice younger Tarquin, and, being confiscated after the offered, by Romulus, Cossus, and Marcellus. From the banishment of that monarch, was dedicated to the god feretrum, or bier, on which these spoils were borne to of war, because the Romans believed Mars to be the the temple, the deity was called Feretrius.

father of their founder. It long remained unimproved; The Capitol was the citadel of Rome, except in the but in the reign of Augustus it began to be surrounded reign of Numa, when the Quirinal was chosen as the by several splendid edifices; ornamental trees and shrubs chief place of strength. This circumstance tends greatly were planted in different parts, and porticoes erected, to confirm Niebuhr's theory, that an ancient Sabine under which the citizens might continue their exercises town, named Quirium, stood on that hill, which modern in rainy weather. Most of these improvements were writers confounded with Cures: perhaps the double due to Marcus Agrippa, the best general and wisest faced Janus, whose temple was closed during peace, was statesman in the court of Augustus. He erected, the symbol of the united cities, and the opening of the | near the Campus Martius, the celebrated Pantheon, or temple gates was to enable the inhabitants of the one in temple of all the gods; the most perfect and splendid time of war to assist the other.

monument of ancient Rome that has survived the rarages In the valley between the Palatine and Capitoline of time*. At present it is used as a Christian church, hills was the forum, or place of public assembly and and is universally admired for its circular form, and the great market. It was surrounded with temples, halls | beautiful dome that forms its roof. Near the Pantheon for the administration of justice, called basilicæ, and were the gardens and public baths, which Agrippa at his public offices; it was also adorned with statues erected | death bequeathed to the Roman people. in honour of eminent warriors and statesmen, and with Perhaps no public edifices at Rome were more revarious trophies from conquered nations. Among these markable than the aqueducts for supplying the city with memorials of conquest were several rostra, or prows of | water. Pure streams were sought at a great distance, ships taken at Antium, which were used to ornament and conveyed in these artificial channels, supported by the pulpits from which the magistrates and public | arches, many of which were more than a hundred feet orators harangued the general assemblies of the people: high, over steep mountains, deep valleys, and, what was from this custom the phrase “to mount the rostrum” still more difficult, dangerous morasses, which less enter originated. In the middle of the forum was a drained | prising architects would have deemed insuperable.. marsh, called the Curtian Lake, to which a singular first aqueduct was erected during the censorship legend was attached. Traditions recorded that an im Appius Cæcus, about four hundred years after the founmense chasm had suddenly opened in this place, which dation of the city; but under the emperors not fever the augurs declared could not be closed until the most | than twenty of these stupendous and useful struch precious things in Rome were thrown into it. Curtius, were raised, which brought such an abundant supp a Roman knight, armed and mounted, leaped into the water to the metropolis, that rivers seemed to yawning pit, declaring that nothing was more valuable through the streets and sewers. Even at the pres than courage and patriotism; after which it is added day, when only three of the aqueducts remain, art that the fissure closed. A much more probable account * The Colosseum in the Regent's Park is built on ti is, that the place derived its name from a Sabine general of the Pantheon.

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lapse of centuries, the neglect of rulers, and the ravages The palaces, public halls, columns, porticoes, and obeof barbarians, no city in Europe has a better supply of lisks, were without number; and to these must be added wholesome water than Rome.

the triumphal arches erected by the later emperors. It would be tedious to enumerate all the public Among the triumphal arches with which Rome was buildings that decorated “the Eternal City;" we may decorated, that of Titus, ercted to commemorate the therefore conclude by observing, that Rome, when in conquest and destruction of Jerusalem, was far the most the zenith of its glory, contained four hundred and remarkable, and its remains at the present day afford twenty temples, five regular theatres, two amphitheatres, many valuable illustrations of the Jewish and Roman and seven circuses of vast extent: there were sixteen costumes and manners in the apostolic age. The conpublic baths, built of marble, and furnished with every queror is seen advancing in the magnificent chariot used convenience that could be desired. From the aqueducts on these occasions, surrounded by the companions of a prodigious number of fountains were supplied, many his victory, shouting the customary Io Triumphe, and of which were remarkable for their architectural beauty. I behind them comes the crowd of unfortunate captives,

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forced to endure the taunts and insults of an excited trophies; and these spoils must have greatly aggravated multitude. The various articles of furniture used in the the grief of the wretched Jews, who saw the objects of Temple are displayed and borne in the procession as their highest veneration perverted to purposes of idol

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Spoils of the Temple. From the Arch of Titus. atry. The only antiquities connected with the apostolic | costliness. Of these the most remarkable was the age of Christianity in Rome are the places which tra- Appian road, from Rome to Brundusium, through the dition points out as the graves of the martyrs, or the Pomptine marshes, which were kept well drained during scenes of their sufferings; and the identity of these sites the flourishing ages of the empire, but by subsequent is very disputable.

neglect became a pestilential swamp. This road exThe public roads in various parts of the empire, but tended three hundred and fifty miles, and was paved more especially in Italy, though less ostentatious than through its entire length with enormous square blocks of the aqueducts, were not inferior to them in utility and hard stone. Nineteen centuries have elapsed since it

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was formed, and yet many parts of it still appear nearly Isai. ch. 21. 6, foretelling the invasion of Judea by the as perfect as when it was first made.

Persians.) The access to the roof was by stairs outside Rome was inferior to Athens in architectural beauty, in the court, or sometimes, in poor houses, by a ladder: but it far surpassed it in works of public utility. Every and there is a rabbinical injunction forbidding the Jews succeeding emperor deemed it necessary to add some- | to keep a broken ladder for the purpose, lest any one be thing to the edifices that had been raised for the comfort killed, or maimed, by its giving way. It was by these and convenience of the citizens: even after the seat of outside stairs that Our Lord recommended his followers government had been transferred to Constantinople, we to escape in the coming troubles, and not lose time by find the son of Constantine evincing his gratitude for coming into the house through the door on the roof the reception he met with in the ancient capital, by which led to the upper chamber. (Matt. 24. 17.) sending thither two magnificent obelisks from Alex- ! It was through this door on the roof that Lightfoot andria in Egypt.

thinks the paralytic man was let down to Jesus The privileges of a Roman citizen were exemption (Lightfoot, on St. Mark 2. 4); that he was carried up from capital and corporal punishment without a regular the outer stairs to the roof, and the door being found too trial, and the privilege of appeal to the body of the | narrow, was widened by the removing of some of the people in the age of the Republic, and to the imperial stones and tiles. Other commentators, however, contribunal under the emperors. Large sums were fre. ceiving this to have been difficult of performance, withquently given by the natives of the provinces to purchase out injuring the persons in the upper chamber, by the the envied name of Roman, on account of the security it fall of rubbish, explain, that Christ and bis hearers were afforded against the exactions and cruelties of the pro in the court of the house; that being the place where vincial governors and other officers; but on some occa- | assemblies were usually held, and which was covered, sions the Senate and Roman people bestowed the privileges according to a common custom, with an awning; that of citizenship upon all the inhabitants of some state or the paralytic not being able to be carried through the city which had done them eminent service. Tarsus in crowd, was brought up to the roof, and let down along Cilicia was thus distinguished, and the Apostle Paul the wall, and the awning being drawn aside, the bed acquired all the rights and privileges of a Roman by was thus lowered into the assembly. There seems, being born in that free city. He availed himself of his however, some difficulty in this: even supposing that the franchise when menaced with examination by torture, word geyn in the Greek Testament (Mark 2. 4) will and also when he appealed from the tribunals of Felix answer for awning: and ecopugavies (digging through, and Festus to the emperor's court in Rome. T.

or piercing, breaking through) for drawing aside, still how could they penetrate the crowd in the court to get at the stairs that led to the roof, if they could not pene

trate to approach Our Lord? ROOF. The roofs of eastern houses are flat, to

Though the tops of the houses were flat, for the conafford the inhabitants the advantage of the cool air,

venience of the inhabitants, we are told by Jewish without the necessity of leaving their habitations. The

writers that the roof of the Temple was arched or Jews were commanded to protect their roofs with bat

vaulted, because no one should repair thither for the tlements, or a parapet wall, to prevent accidents by fall

same purposes as to the roofs of the houses. ing over; sometimes they were surrounded by a kind of

The roof of Dagon's temple (Judges 16. 27,) is said railing. The Jews frequently slept on the roofs, either

to have been crowded with 3000 persons to behold Samson's feats; but this can hardly mean the top of the temple, because the persons thereon could not have seen what was passing within. It appears rather to have been a loft or gallery running round the top of the building inside, and supported by pillars with two main posts, in the middle of the temple. M.


ROOM. The convenience of dividing habitations into separate apartments early suggested itself. We read of various kinds of rooms in Scripture: bed chamber, inner chamber, upper chamber, bride chamber, guest chamber, guard chamber of the king's house. In early

times the females and children of the family slept in Egyptian roof. From Champollion,

one room, on separate beds; and the males in another.

The bedchamber in which Jehoshabeath concealed Joasa under a tent, or in small closets built for the purpose (2Chron. 22. 11) is thought not to have been the usua, of wicker-work, and plastered at the bottom. It is to sleeping apartment, for it would have been but natural such a closet or cell that Proverbs 21. 9. alludes: “It is to have sought him there; but a room, in which the better to dwell in a corner of the house-top, than with bedding was laid by, rolled up, when not in immediate a brawling woman in a wide house.” They often per- | use. formed their devotions on the roof: “And Peter went! The inner chamber into which Benhadad mel, up on the roof to pray.” (Acts 10. 9.) They made (1 Kings 20. 30) is expressed in the Hebrew as booths, or arbours of boughs, on the roof, to celebrate the “chamber within a chamber,” and seems to have been feast of Tabernacles. (Nehem. 8. 16.) And in their secret closet within another room. lapses into idolatry, they often performed their sinful The bride chamber was the most decorated room in rites on the roof, and especially worshipped the stars the house. there, as the most fitting place whence to behold them. The upper room was used for devotional purposes (Zeph. 1. 5.)

probably from being more out of the way of dome They were accustomed, in times of danger, to go to interruptions. In times of idolatry, also, supers the roof to look out for the approach of enemies, (see rites were performed there: in 1 Kings 23. 12, JO

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