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idolatry, there chambers: as pourtrayed on
breaks down the idolatrous altars in the upper rooms. | as one of the holy names of God is written on the In Ezekiel 8. 10, we see that when the Jews lapsed into outside of the parchment. M. idolatry, they painted the objects of their worship on the walls of chambers: as the paintings of Egyptian mythology are still found pourtrayed on the walls of tomb chambers, &c., &c.
ROOT. That part of a plant which extends downWhere the word “upper chamber” is used in the wards and fastens itself in the earth. The rocky ground English translation, two different words appear in the
of Palestine is in some places covered with a very thin Greek, avwyalov, anogeon, and utepwov hypero-on,
soil, so that the plants growing in these spots cannot distinguishing, in fact, rooms in different stories. The
strike deep roots, and are therefore easily uptorn by the first is quasi arwyalov, from ava tys yns, a room on
winds or withered by the scorching sun; a circumstance the first story, above the ground floor. Such was the
to which a beautiful allusion is made in the parable of room in which Our Lord ate the Passover with his
“the sower.” (Matt. 13. 21.) The root of a family is disciples. (Mark 14. 15; Luke 22. 12.) The latter,
the progenitor from whom the race derives its name; UTEpwov, hypero-on, is the highest room of all. Here
thus it is said, “Out of the serpent's root shall come the body of Dorcas was laid out, (Acts 9.37,) and from
forth a cockatrice,” (Isai. 14. 29,) meaning Hezekiah, this Eutychus fell; and we learn it was three stories
who was descended from David, and was like him a high. (Acts 20.9.)
scourge to the oppressors of Israel. The word is used in The word translated " highest room," in Luke 14. 8,
this sense in a very remarkable prophecy: “And in that is TpwTokhiola, protoclisia, the first couch, meaning
day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for the couch on which the Jews reclined at meals: (like
an ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek, the Greeks and Romans:) so that the injunction in the
and his rest shall be glorious.” (Isai. ll. 10.) The text, is not to sit (or recline) on the principal, or most
Messiah, elsewhere called “the branch,” is here described honourable seat, lest a person of superior rank arrive,
as “the root,” for, though David's son in his human and the intruder be obliged to take a lower “place,”
| character, yet in his Divine capacity he is David's “root,” TOTOV, not “room," as it is translated. The guest
as being his Lord and God. A similar passage occurs in chamber, appropriated to the guests and lodgers, was
| the book of the Revelation: “The lion of the tribe of the avwyeoy, anogeon, or the story above the ground
Judah, the root of David, hath prevailed.” (Rev. 5. 5.) C. floor. (Mark 14. 15.) We read of store-rooms, (Nehem. 13. 5,) wherein were laid up the meat-offerings, frankincense, various tithes, and the sacred vessels.
ROSE. The rose is but little mentioned in ScripThere were many rooms built in the Temple: twelve ture; only twice in the Canonical Books of the Old to the north, twelve to the south, six to the west. They Testament, and four times in the Apocrypha. were in rows of three stories; each story increased a The principal roses of Syria and Palestine are the rose cubit in breadth: the access to the two upper stories of Damascus and that known in Europe as the Rosa was by a winding stairs through the first stories.
provincialis, or province rose. The former is of a The Jews were not without some ideas of magnifi- delicate colour, and is said to have been introduced into cence in their rooms, which were ceiled with cedar Europe at the time of the Crusades by a Count de Brie. boards, sometimes painted with vermilion. (Jerem. The striped rose, known in England by the names of 21. 14.) The wealthy had the frames of their beds the “union rose," and the “ York and Lancaster rose," and couches adorned with ivory and carving, (Amos is a casual variety from it. The province rose is of a 6. 14.) and decked with coverlets of tapestry perfumed. fine crimson, very fragrant, and has two or three flowers (Prov. 7. 16,17.) Their walls were adorned with at the top of each branch. hangings. They had cups and vessels of gold and silver; The Hebrew word nyan chabatzeleth, translated in and even silver baskets for fruit. Verse 11 of Prov. 25, our version, “ rose;" has been by some rendered “lily;" “ Apples of gold in pictures of silver" is explained to by others, “narcissus;" but the Chaldee paraphrase has mean oranges or citrons in a silver basket, (quo mesek it “rose." The best commentators on the verse, “I am is a basket, not a picture). The articles of furniture do the rose of Sharon," (Canticles 2. 1,) conceive that the not seem to have been numerous. The chamber fur- bride does not mean to extol her loveliness by comparing nished for Elisha by the pious Shunamite, (2Kings | herself to a beautiful rose of the garden, but she speaks 4. 10,) was of course as well appointed as usual; and humbly of her charms, modestly likening herself to a it contained only a bed, a table, a stool, and a candle wild rose, a rose of the fields: understanding Sharon stick.
here, not as a proper name, but as meaning the fields, or The poor Jews used the same mats and skins on champaigne in general; and particularly as they say that which they sat by day as bedding by night, and their the district of Sharon was not remarkable for the beauty upper garments for covering: hence the command in of its roses. The Vulgate and Septuagint taking this Deut. 24. 12,13, to return pledges at sunset, that the view translate it, “I am a flower of the fields:" flos pledger “may sleep in his own garment.”
campi, avoos TOV Tedlov. The modern Jews are forbidden by their rabbis to | The Septuagint and Vulgate render nyan chabatzadorn their rooms with pictures and statues. But this | elelh, rose, in Isaiah 35. 1, as “lily." But whatever precept is often transgressed by the Italian Jews, who, flower it be, it is put in this place figuratively for a however, take care that the statuary does not represent state of great prosperity after a previous affliction or the whole body, and that the pictures are not hung up desolation, which is typified by the desert. “The desert high, as if for adoration.
shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose.” The modern Jews are commanded by their doctors to In latter times when the Jews (particularly the young place inside the doors of rooms that are not applied to and the lax,) began to imitate the manners of the any servile uses a mesusa, which is a bit of parchment, Gentiles, they wore in their festivities garlands of roses, on which is written, from Deut. 6., the verses from 4 to like the Greeks. The verses 7 and 8 in Wisdom, ch. 2, 9 inclusive, and from Deut. 11., from verse 13 to 20 “ Let us fill ourselves with costly wine and ointments; inclusive. It is rolled up and put into a hollow cane. and let no flower of the spring pass by us. Let us It is considered a charm against evil spirits, particularly | cros
crown ourselves with rose-buds before they be withered,”
strongly resemble some of the Greek festive poems, / a people, but are now the people of God, which had not particularly some of Anacreon's Odes.
obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.” (1Pet. 2. 10.)
St. Paul also distinctly applies the prophecy not to RUBY, O'I'3D peninim, (plural.)
the Jews only, but to the Gentiles: “That he might The oriental ruby ranks next to the diamond in hard
make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of
mercy... even on us, whom he hath called, not ness. It is a species of red sapphire, often so pure and
of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles. As he saith bright as to require no polishing. It is sometimes
also in Osee, I will call them my people which were not varied with blue: sometimes parti-coloured. The true oriental ruby is now found only in the kingdom of Pegu
my people, and her beloved which was not beloved." and the island of Ceylon. The ruby was supposed by
(Romans 9. 23-25.) The wording in Hosea 1. 2.
indicates the admission of the Gentiles into the particithe ancients to be capable of resisting fire, of curing
pation of the promises made to the Jews. In the first poisons, keeeping off pestilence, and alleviating grief. It is now impossible to know with certainty what is
instance, in the threats against Israel and Judah, it is a meant by peninim, though translated in our version
son Lo-Ammi, and a daughter Lo-Ruhamah. When “rubies.” The Vulgate avoids translating it by the
the promises are given, the plural number is used; then
it is brethren and sisters: not Jew only, but Jew and name of any precious stone; where it occurs in Prov.
| Gentile. ch. 3. 20,31; Job 28; and in Lam. 4. 7, it is rendered “Thy Nazarites were as ruddy as ancient ivory,” (instead
RUIN. The words used in the Hebrew which we of rubies.) Unless by ancient ivory is meant coral, it is
have translated “ruin,” are very expressive. The ruin hard to guess at the signification. The Septuagint equally avoid the translating it as a gem in Proverbs
of a city by dilapidation, separating all its stones, (Isai. and in Job; but in Lam. 4. 7. render it sapphire.
25. 2) “Thou hast made of a fenced city a ruin," (or Bochart (and many commentators follow him) says it
separation, 739 palah.) Ruin of strongholds, by breakshould be rendered pearl, and considers the etymology,
ing them up, (Psalm 89. 40.) “Thou hast brought his pinna, in Greek and Latin (the pearl oyster) as imme
strongholds to ruin,” (i.e., to a breaking, and chatat.) diately derived from peninim. The expression, “Thy
This word also means terror, and expresses the alarm Nazarites were as ruddy as pearls,” in Lam. 4. 7, is no
attendant on the taking of a fortified place. The ruin conclusion against it; for the best pearls have a beau
of a land by impoverishment and devastation, (Isai. 23.
13,) “Behold the land of the Chaldeans . . . he tiful pink tinge, like the blush of the human face, The word Tas nopech, which is the Hebrew name for
brought it to ruin,” (impoverishment, wurn therthe fourth stone in the high-priest's breast-plate, the
eshish.) gem that was incribed with the name of Judah, has been
Ruin, figuratively, a fall, or stumbling, from some by some rendered ruby. The Septuagint translates it
cause of, or temptation to, sin; (2Chron. 28. 23,) “They as the emerald, but the Vulgate as the carbuncle. M.
(the gods of Damascus,) were the ruin (1750machshalleh, a stumbling block) of him (Ahaz) and of all Israel.” Ruin, (fig.,) destruction, (Prov. 24. 22)
“ Their calamity shall rise suddenly; who knoweth the RUFUS. The name signified “red," and probably ruin (79 pid, destruction) of them both ?" Ruin (fig.) alludes to the colour of the hair of the person who bore a cause for repentance, (Prov. 26,) “A flattering mouth the appellation. Two persons of the name are mentioned worketh ruin,” Nya midcha, contrition or repentance in Scripture. (Mark 15. 21, and Rom. 16. 13.) Some, (brings cause to repent,) from dachah, to be conhowever, are of opinion that the same person is meant in trite. M. both places. C.
RULER. Of the officers of the Synagogue menRUHAMAH, JOnn “Having obtained mercy,” | tioned in the New Testament there were three classes: a figurative name, (Hosea 2. 1,) in contradistinction from I. Rash Haceneseth, NDIZI DX7 or president, someLo-Ruhamah, 7017-35 “Unpitied,” or “Not obtain times translated episcopus, bishop; and rendered in ing mercy,” in Hosea 1.6. When God directed Hosea Greek apxlouvayoryos. He sat at the head of the to prophecy against the wickedness of Israel and Judah, consistory, and all the elders at each side of him in a he commanded him to take to wife a harlot, the symbol semicircle, with their disciples below them. It was his of idolatry, the spiritual harlotry of the Jews; and of office to order all matters relative to the synagogue, and her were born a daughter, named after God's direction, its services, and to give licence to preach: also to judge Lo-Ruhamah, “Not obtaining mercy,” and a son named in cases of breach of the ecclesiastical law. Jairus is Lo-Ammi, “ Not my people.” (Hosea 1. 6,9.) Israel is thought by Lightfoot to have been one of these presirepresented by Lo-Ruhamah, Judah by Lo-Ammi. Per- | dents. See Lightfoot on Matt. 9. haps Israel is typified by the female, because that king II. The Sheliach Zippor, 7129 TSW or angel of the dom was the weaker of the two, and the more completely | Church, who offered up the prayers for the congregation, overthrown; and Judah by the male, because from Judah III. The Chazan, in the reader, sometimes transthe Messiah was to descend according to the flesh. lated minister, who read the appointed portions of Serip· In chapter 2, verse 1, Hosea says, “Say unto your ture. brethren Ammi (my people,) and to your sisters Ruha To these may be added the Shamash, uw or servant mah (having obtained mercy;)” thus promising God's of the synagogue, who kept the keys, and performed all reconciliation to the people on their repenting, and seek- | the menial duties of it. The word nissa, 122 in the ing Him; saying that He will have mercy, and they shall Hebrew Scriptures, translated “ruler,” in Exod. 22. 28; be his people: thus indicating the restoration of the Numb. 13. 2; Levit. 4. 22, is always understood by the Jewish nation after much affliction. As the promises Jews to mean exclusively the head or president of the of grace to the obstinate Jews are transferred meanwhile Sanhedrim. to the believing Christians, St. Peter applied them to | The ruler of the feast (John 2. 9,) was the person the Gentile proselytes, to whom he addresses his first whose prerogative it was to bless the repast, saying, epistle, telling them that in time past they “were not “ Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, the King of the
world, who producest bread out of the earth.” And | Where our version uses the word “rust” in Matthew then, having blessed the cup of wine, saying, “Blessed 6. 19,20, the original Greek is Bpwors, erosion, wearing art thou, O Lord our God, the King of the world, who away, such as by attack of insects, not corrosion, wearing hast created the fruit of the vine,” to taste the cup, and away by rust; and it is thought to mean destruction by then pass it round among the guests. M.
insects, rather than by metallic rusting; for to the former the treasures of the Orientals were more exposed than to
the latter; because their riches consisted principally in RUSH. The valleys of Palestine are sometimes magnificent garments, some families having even a thoumarshes, and are then overgrown with rushes which sand changes of raiment. We read often in Scripture afford shelter to various kinds of toads, snakes, &c.; of presents of raiment; and to this day a splendid robe hence rushes are noted as a mark of neglect and desola- is the usual mark of favour given by great men of the tion by the prophets. In Egypt, on the contrary, the East. Their treasures, when of metal, were vessels of water plants, particularly the papyrus and the lotus, are gold and silver, which are not liable to corruption by very valuable, and were sometimes sedulously cultivated; rust. these, however, could not properly be called “rushes,” | When the destruction or injury of anything valuable though they have been so rendered by our translators. It is mentioned in Scripture, it is usually likened to a moth would have been better to have used the general name of fretting a garment, as in Job 13. 28; Psalm 39. 11; Isai. " water plants.” Isaiah (19. 15) alludes to the profitable 56. 9; 51. 8. purposes to which the water plants on the Nile were ap- In James 5. 3, when rust is mentioned in connexion plied, and intimates in his denunciation that they were with silver and gold, the Greek is los, not Bpwois, as not less valuable to the Egyptians than the trees and in Matthew 6. It alludes to the corrosion of money by shrubs of the land. On the other hand, the rushes and lying by; for various writers agree that the gold and other fluvial and lacustrine productions of Palestine are silver coins of antiquity were much more liable to corperfectly worthless. W.
rosion than those of the present, being much more extensively adulterated with alloys., M.
RUTH. The Book of Ruth is one of the five Megilloth, or volumes, which the Jews regard as adscititious to the sacred writings, but still forming part of the canon: the other four are Canticles, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, and Esther. It may be regarded as an appendix to the book of Judges, and the general opinion among the Jewish commentators is that the interesting narrative which it relates belongs to the time when Ibzan, who succeeded Jephthah, was ruler of Israel.
Ruth was a Moabitish woman who accompanied her mother-in-law, the widowed Naomi, to Palestine, when that matron, after having lost her husband and her two sons, returned to Judæa. The young woman supported Naomi by the labour of her hands. While gleaning in
the fields of the wealthy Boaz her modest demeanour HEHEHE
attracted the attention of the benevolent proprietor. He inquired into her circumstances, and finding that she had
a claim upon him as a relative of her deceased husband, The Bulrush.
made her his wife. The fruit of their union was Obed,
the father of Jesse and grandfather of David, from whom RUST. The word “rust" does not occur in our
the Messiah was lineally descended. · It is probably on version in the Old Testament, and only twice in the
this account that the genealogy of Boaz is so specially New; in Matthew 6. 19, 20, and James 5. 3; but the
recorded. word translated “scum” 178307 chelah, in Ezekiel 24.
The authorship of the book of Ruth is uncertain, but 6,11,12, means the rust or corrosion of the pot of brass
it is most usually attributed to the prophet Samuel. (or rather copper), which typified Jerusalem. Copper is more liable to corrosion than the other metals, each of which has its own dissolvent; but copper is acted upon RYE, na kusemeth. The word occurs in by all those dissolvents; and the corrosion of the copper Exodus 9. 32; but as rye is not and never has been pot symbolizes the aptitude of Jerusalem to corruptions, cultivated in Egypt, it is probable that some species of which being shown by Ezekiel to be removed only by maize or spelt is indicated. The Septuagint render the the agency of fire, was a type of the awful punishments word oupa, which is a generic name for all kinds of and fiery purgation awaiting Jerusalem.
ular is generally used in host,” or barmy.of 23 expression a surroundes applied to theinca military sensen; The angeression, appears to
SABAOTH, 71823 tzabaoth, the plural of 833 expression appears to have every thing in heaven, both tzaba, which signifies “a host,” or “army." The angels and heavenly body. Isaiah uses the phrase singular is generally used in a military sense, but it is 127 823 tzaba ha marom, “the Host on High,” sometimes applied to the company of angels which in opposition to the kings of the earth. God is called surround the throne of Jehovah, who are called nixas 738 717' Jehovah Elohi Tzabaoth, “Jehovah SOUT R23 Izaba hashamaim, “ the host of heaven.” | God of Hosts," which most commentators regard as The same phrase is also applied to the stars, for the synonymous with “God of Heaven,” though others most part as objects of idolatrous worship; indeed the assert that it should be taken in a military sense, as
ate a spade de Noah's sendinking the seten ated, innd strict obsebbath to Sout the dore
as a custo Exod. 20.10. the (John 3:2. 10,) beca
signifying "the God of armies,” or “of wars.” It is to Sabbath observances. And the Rabbins, in their Combe also observed that this epithet of God does not appear mentaries, have invented a number of strange, and somein the Book of Genesis or Judges.
times ingenious quibbles to evade the letter of the law, In the Book of Numbers (4.3) X23 tzaba is used to e. g., the use of fire was prohibited; but any thing heated signify the service that Jehovah's ministers perform for the day before, might be re-heated on the Sabbath. One him in the tabernacle; because they are there, as it might not do prohibited work; but two might. Thus it were, soldiers or guards, attending at the court of their was forbidden to write any word on the Sabbath; but prince,
one man might write the first letter, another person the
second letter; the first man the next letter again, and so SABBATH, no Rest. The mention of a Sab on, alternately, till the word was finished. There were bath is co-eval with creation. We are told that on the cases in which the peculiarly strict observance of the seventh day God sabbatised, or rested from his works. Sabbath produced great injury to the Jews, especially in (Gen. 2. 2.) From the arguments of able commentators, their last wars with the Gentiles, who could attack them it is to be inferred that even then a Sabbath of rest, and with impunity on the Sabbath, and unresistingly cut of religious observance, on one day in seven, was ordained them to pieces, until at last they were persuaded by for man, in memory of the great work of creation; and Jonathan and Mattathias to repel attacks at least, was observed by the early Patriarchs as a day for pious though they would not commence any. But the Genpurposes; but not with the same ceremonies and the tile armies, by selecting the Jewish Sabbath for making same strictness as after the Exodus out of Egypt. The their fortifications and entrenchments, secured themtexts in Genesis 8. 8,12, marking the seven days between selves from any opposition, and completed their works the periods of Noah's sending out the dove, clearly indi- unmolested. cate a space from Sabbath to Sabbath. When the par- To break the heavy yoke imposed by the Jewish ticular and strict observance of the Sabbath is promul- | doctors, and to give room for the performance of works gated, in Exodus 16. 23, it is not mentioned as a new of necessity, duty, and mercy, Our Lord applied the inthing, but rather alluded to as a custom already known, fluence of his benevolent example. He healed diseases but which needed to be reinstituted, (Exod. 20. 10,) and of long standing on the Sabbath, such as the blind man, to receive additional laws. (Exod. 31. 14.) It is the |(John 6. 14,) and the man with the withered hand, opinion of some Jewish writers, and indeed seems highly (Matt. 12. 10,) because the Rabbins harshly forbade any probable, that the Israelites could not keep the Sabbath treatment of chronic diseases on that day; and he desired in Egypt, by reason of their severe slavery. Therefore, the healed paralytic to take up his bed and walk, (John after their deliverance, the rest of the Sabbath was formally 5.9,) because they forbade carrying any kind of burden re-established; not only in memory of the creation, but on that day; even though the bed was only a kind of also of their repose after the Egyptian bondage. (Deut. mat, also used for sitting upon, and the covering, the 5. 14,15.) And additional sacrifices were appropriated man's outer garment; a common case among the less to it, such as two more lambs and additional drink opulent Jews. And He excused his hungry disciples offerings, (Numb. 28. 10,) which additions are called by plucking the ears of corn on the Sabbath, because the the Jews, Musaphim. Special laws were added for the Rabbins included that act under the head of reaping. peculiar sanctification of the Sabbath, by abstaining from (Matt. 12. 1.) all manner of work. (Exod. 20. 10.) The services of | The change of the Sabbath, as a day of devotion, from the Tabernacle only were excepted, (Numb. 28. 25-27,) | the seventh to the first day of the week, after the because they were neither worldly nor servile, but wholly | Christian era, was a necessary and appropriate change, religious; as also the rite of circumcision. (John 7. 22.) in honour of the Resurrection of Him who was Lord of The penalty for the breach of the Sabbath laws was the Sabbath, and who asserted his right over it. (Mark death. (Exod. 31. 14.) The cause of this severity was, 2. 38.) that the Sabbath was to be a sign (Exod. 31. 13) to the The old Sabbath commemorated the creation; the Jews, the chosen people of God, that they acknowledged new, a spiritual creation made sure in the Resurrechim as their Creator and their Deliverer out of Egypt. tion. The Jewish Sabbath was in commemoration of the So the contempt of the Sabbath was an actual rebellion Exodus out of Egypt; the Christian Sabbath, of a more against their Creator and Deliverer, denying Him in the excellent deliverance. As the Jewish Sabbath of Saturone character and rejecting Him in the other; and was a day was a distinguishing sign of the Jew from the first and great step to idolatry, the frequently beset Gentile, so the Christian Sabbath of the Lord's Day is a ting sin of the ancient Jews. Indeed, idolatry and sab distinctive sign between the Christian and the Jew. The bath-breaking are frequently mentioned in connexion change of the Sabbath from Saturday to the Lord's Dar, with each other, such as in Ezekiel 20. 16: They or Sunday, was made in virtue of the authority given by .66 polluted my Sabbaths, for their heart went after their Christ to his Apostolic Church. Besides, it was proidols."
phesied, (Jerem. 31.31,32,) that God would make a new In course of time the Jewish teachers made almost covenant with Israel and Judah, not according to the innumerable additions to the Sabbath laws, so that they covenant He made with them in the Exodus out of Egypt; became one of those heavy burdens described by Our and in Jeremiah 23. 7, that they should then no longer Saviour, (Matt. 23. 4,) instead of being, as originally refer to that Exodus as their particular sign. So that and benevolently intended, a beneficial rest and refresh- when the New or Christian Covenant was made, a new ment to the soul and body of man.
sign of the Covenant was appointed. St. Barnabas, in The Rabbins classed the prohibitions of work on the his General Epistle, declares the original Sabbath to have Sabbath under thirty-nine heads, but included, under been the foretype of a more glorious one. But though each head, a number of particulars by a figure; such as, the Lord's Day was immediately after the Resurrection under the head of building, the suffering milk to curdle; consecrated as a day of devotion, of preaching and breakunder that of threshing, walking upon grass, whereby ing bread, i.e., of celebrating the Sacrament, (Acts 20.7.) it is bruised; under carrying burdens, wearing much, or and for charitable collections, (1Cor. 16, 1,2;) still a heavy clothing, &c.
respect for the Jewish Sabbath was preserved even during • An entire Talmud Treatise, the Shabbath, is filled with the first three centuries; and this seems to have been frivolous and vexatious difficulties on the subject of unavoidable, particularly in the East, on account of the
habits and feelings of the Jewish converts. But the way of honouring the Sabbath is by great feasting, that early Fathers endeavoured to give it a Christian direc- they sometimes fast the preceding day to enable them to tion, declaring that they kept it not as a Jewish Sabbath, eat the more at the Sabbath meals. (Buxtorf's Syn. Jud. but as a Christian observance; and therefore instituted c. 15.) And there is a Jewish maxim, that he is greatly it a fast, (the Jews kept it as a high feast) in memory to be commended who honours the Sabbath exceedingly of Our Lord having lain in the grave on that day. The in his body, in his dress, and in eating and drinking. memorial of such institution still remains in the Calendar Such are the principal features of the carnal views of the Church of England, Saturday being one of the of the Sabbath from which the early Fathers wished to fast days in the Ember weeks. (See Wheatley on the wean the Jewish converts. A full account of the Common Prayer, chap. 5.) The early Fathers also ex Sabbatical ceremonies observed at present by the Jews, horted the Christians to keep the Lord's Day in a dif- may be found in Buxtorf's Synagoga Judaica, and in ferent spirit from that in which the Jews kept their Picard's Religious Ceremonies. Sabbath, piously and soberly, and not with voluptuous 1 The Sabbath kept by the Patriarchs attracted the feasting.
attention of the Gentile nations, or the custom was With regard to the change of the Sabbath from the carried abroad by the different tribes when the earth seventh to the first day, intelligent Jews who have em- | was divided, in the days of Peleg. And thus the idea braced Christianity are of opinion that it is in reality of a seventh day, in some sort sacred, was to be generally only a restoration to the original Sabbath of the Patriarchs, 1 traced among them. It has been confidently affirmed by which was at first kept on the same day as our Sunday. various authors, that there was no nation that did not in One of their arguments is taken from the admission of some way observe it. Philo-Judæus says, it was not a their Rabbins, that the world was created on the first festival to one country alone, but to all. Hesiod called day of the month Tisri (September,) deduced from the seventh day, “the illustrious light of the sun *,” and Genesis 1.12, that the herbs were gone to seed, and the Homer terms the seventh day “holyt." But this was trees bearing fruit, having its seed in itself, which they the day on which the Heathens worshipped the sun; understand as ripe; and this day they say, could not fall and it does not appear that they permitted it to interfere on Sunday: they calculate it to have been Monday, the with their usual and necessary occupations; or with seventh day from which is Sunday. They further argue, their amusements and public games. It was for this that the memory of the particular day, and the obser reason that the peculiar sanctity of the Mosaic Sabbath rance of it, became obliterated in Egypt, which caused was appointed as a distinctive sign. the re-institution in Exodus: and that the modern Jews The observance of Sunday as the Sabbath, was first cannot now affirm with certainty, that such re-instituted passed into a law (according to Eusebius) by Constantine day was Saturday, on account of the confusion of time the Great, A.D. 321, and made general throughout the that must have occurred to them from the miraculous Roman Empire. In England, as early as Athelstan's prolongation of the day in Joshua 10. 12, and from the time, a statute prohibited all kinds of merchandizing on going backwards of the hours in Hezekiah's time. that day: and a law of Henry the Sixth forbids any fair (2Kings 20. 10; Isai. 38. 8.)
or market to be held on any Sunday, except the four The Sabbath is kept by the modern Jews as a great Sundays in harvest. festival with every demonstration of joy; taking the The Preparation for the Sabbath, is a name given by idea from Isaiah 18. 13,14: “ If thou turn away thy the Jews to Friday, because on that day they are foot from the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my required to prepare the food and everything else that holy day, and call the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the may be wanted on the Sabbath. Lord, honourable ... , then shalt thou delight thyself in | The Second Sabbath after the First (Luke 6. 1,) is the Lord, and I will cause thee to ride upon the high explained by some Commentators, thus: that the Jews places of the earth," .... &c.
had two grand Sabbaths in the year, viz., the first The Sabbath is held from evening to evening, (Levit. Sabbath of their civil year, which began in the month 23. 32,) but they begin it half-an-hour before sunset on Tisri; and the first Sabbath of their ecclesiastical year, Friday, and prolong it till half-an-hour after sunset on commencing in the month Nisan (March); and that the Saturday, for the benefit of the souls of the damned, who, Sabbath in the text before quoted meant the second of they believe, are allowed on that day, suspension of their those two grand Sabbaths. sufferings. On Friday afternoon, they prepare all the
But the opinion most commonly followed is, that the food, &c., that may be wanted, and lay out their best “ Second Sabbath after the First," was the first Sabbath clothes to wear in honour of “Queen Sabbath.” Some after the first day of unleavened bread, that day on opulent Jews keep magnificent dresses to be worn on which the wave-sheaf was to be offered up; and from the Sabbath alone. As soon as the Sabbath commences, which the fifty days to the Pentecost, or Feast of Weeks, the mistress of the house lights the Sabbath lamp, which was to be reckoned. (Levit. 23. 15,16; Exod. 34. 22; is filled with pure olive oil, and has from four to seven Deut. 16. 10,16.) The Jews reckoned the Sabbaths wicks; and lays on the table the Sabbath bread, shaped from the Passover to Pentecost, thus: i. The second like a twisted plait, made of the finest wheaten flour, after the first; i. e., the first Sabbath after the second day and sprinkled with poppy seeds.
of unleavened bread. ii. The second after the second, They go to the synagogue; and after their devotions ise. the second Sabbath after the second day of unleawish each other “a good Sabbath.” At supper, the vened bread. iii. The third after the second, &c., and master of the house repeats the commemoration of the soon to the seventh, which immediately preceded Sabbath out of Genesis 2, “Thus the heavens were Pentecost. (See Lightfoot, Horæ Hebraicæ, on Matt. finished,” &c.; thanks God for the Sabbath, blesses the 12, and Luc. 6.) The word Sabbath is used in the wine, and passes it round. They rise later than usual Greek Testament by the Evangelists to signify a week; on the Sabbath morning; and at the synagogue they use as in Luke 18. 12, “I fast twice in the week, græcè, some additional devotions; with a commemoration of tou oaßBatov, twice in the Sabbath.” And “one of the dead. They think it right to eat at least three the Sabbath,” ula oáßßatwv, i. e., first day of the week, meals on the Sabbath, because the word “to-day” is used by all the Evangelists for the day of the Resurrelating to the Sabbath, is repeated three times in
* Esdomarn d'avõis lauapov paos nediolo.—Hesiod. Exodus 16. 25. And so convinced are they that one + EBdopaln 8 ntrecha karnivoer icopov nuap.- Homer.