« FöregåendeFortsätt »
rection. They followed the Syrian Calendar, which are referred to in Isaiah 45. 14: “The labour of Egypt, called a week Sabbata, and named the days thus:
and merchandise of Ethiopia, and the Sabeans, (XD) One of the Sabbath . . Sunday
men of stature, shall come over thee;" and Ezekiel 23. Two of the Sabbath . . Monday
42, “And with the men of the common sort were brought Three of the Sabbath . . Tuesday
Sabeans (O'RD) from the wilderness ;” and in Psalm Four of the Sabbath.
Wednesday 72. 10,“ The kings of Sheba () and Seba (X2D) shall Five of the Sabbath .. Thursday
offer gifts;" where the descendants of Seba are particuSix of the Sabbath . . Friday Sabbath .
larly distinguished by the spelling from those of Sheba. . . Saturday
These Sabeans are said by old writers to have been men
of a majestic appearance; which is corroborated by SABBATH DAY'S JOURNEY, a distance com- | Isaiah 64. 14, above quoted. Seba, their founder, is puted by the Rabbins at 2000 cubits, or about two- I also said to have been father of a people called Jemamites thirds of an English mile. Journeying on the Sabbath so called from a Queen Jemama. (See Patrick, Com. on was strictly forbidden to the Jews: and the prohibition Gen. 10.) Or possibly, the name might be derived from in Exodus 16. 29, “Let no man go out of his place on Jemin, g'o' the south; and hence Yemen; and these the seventh day,” they understood as an injunction not | Jemamites, or Jeminites, were a people of Yemen. Sabe to remove from the town, or other such place of their was the capital of these Sabæans. habitation; except for the distance of 2000 cubits; which | 2nd. Sheba, son of Raamah, and brother of Dedan, space was allowed by the Rabbins because of the 2000 (Gen. 10. 7,) and grandson of Cush. He settled near cubits measured out on each side from the cities of the the Persian Gulf, neighbouring to his father and broLevites, (Numb. 35. 5,) and also the 2000 cubits left ther, who gave names to the cities of Raamah, or Rhegma, clear between the Ark and the people. (Josh. 3. 4.) and Dedan or Dadan. These Sabeans, as well as the
The Mount of Olives is said in Acts 1. 12, to have third and fourth races, are distinguished from the foregoing been a Sabbath-day's journey from Jerusalem, which | by being spelled with schin To them refers Ezekiel shows its distance from the city, before its destruction 27. 22: “The merchants of Sheba and Raamah, they under Titus, to have been less than an English mile. were thy merchants;" and Ezekiel 38. 13: “Sheba and COVERT OF THE SABBATH. (2 Kings 16. 18.) |
Dedan, and the merchants of Tarshish.” It is understood to mean a canopy under which Ahaz
3rd. Sheba, son of Joktan, who was fourth in deused to stand, at the entrance of the porch of the Temple,
scent from Shem. (Gen. 10. 28.) He settled in the when he attended the service; but which he removed south part of Arabia Felix; having the Indian Ocean to when he became an idolator, to show his contempt, and
| the south; the Sabeans, of the first race, immediately his intention of not resorting thither any more. So we
descended from Cush, to the west; the high lands of see in 2 Chronicles 28. 24, that “he shut up the doors of
Arabia to the north; and Dedan to the east. This part the house of God” that none might enter to worship.
included Hazarmaveth, afterwards Hadramaut, and the Sabbath is figuratively used for the eternal rest and
country of the Homeritæ, or Himyarites, descended from happiness of the just in Heaven. (Heb. 2. 9.) “There Himyar or Homeir, a descendant of Sheba. The name remaineth a rest for the people of God.” In the Greek
of Homeritæ has been sometimes used to express the the word translated “rest,” is oaßßatiouos, or sab
Sabæans generally; or rather those races of them that batizing; a rest from labour; and a dedication to the
settled in Arabia Felix. This region was rich in odoripraising of God. W.
ferous shrubs, frankincense, spices, &c.: even gold is mentioned among its products in ancient times, though none
is found there at present. It yields, however, the onyx, SABÆANS. There were four races comprehended | agate, and a species of ruby. To this race of Sabæans under the general name of Sabæans, though all of dif
(from Sheba, descendant of Shem,) refers Joel 3. 8: “I ferent descent. Three of their founders are mentioned will sell your sons and your daughters into the hand of in Genesis 10: Ist. Seba, son of Cush, whose name is the children of Judah; and they shall sell them to the begun with a samech, X20 (The names of the remain
Sabæans, to a people afar off." These Sabæans being at ing three commence with schin W) 2nd. Sheba, XIN
the very south of Arabia were farther than the others son of Raamah, and grandson of Cush. 3d. Sheba, son from Canaan. To them also refers Isaiah 60. 6: “All of Joktan, fourth in descent from Cush. The fourth they from Sheba shall come, they shall bring gold and founder of a Sabæan race is Sheba, son of Jokshan, a incense;" and Jeremiah 6. 20: “ To what purpose son of Abraham, by his second wife Keturah. (Gen. 25. cometh there to me incense from Sheba?" and Psalm 72. 3.) This. Sheba settled in that part of Arabia now 15: “To him shall be given of the gold of Sheba." known as Arabia Deserta, near Idumea, or Uz, the The capital of this country was Mareb. Above it, country of Job; and it was his descendants who carried between the hills, was constructed an immense dyke, off that patriarch's cattle. (Job 1. 15.) These were a which confined in a narrow valley all the precipitous predatory people, but the other three races of Sabæans mountain torrents which otherwise would have devaswere a mercantile people. It is most probably to these tated the plains; but which were then formed into a marauding Sabæans that ver. 9 of Job, ch. 6, alludes : large reservoir, from whence various channels conducted 6. The troops of Teman looked; the companies of Sheba water for purposes of agriculture, &c. This mound, waited for them.” The companies of Sheba are named however, in course of time, was suffered to decay; and in conjunction with the troops of Teman; which latter at length it burst; and the terrible destruction caused by was a district of Idumea named after a son of Ishmael, the inundation occasioned the dispersion of the Sabæans, (Gen. 25. 15,) whose descendants were generally of pre- the survivors emigrating northwards in different bands, datory habits.
(about 300 years B.C.,) whence has arisen much confuOf the other races of Sabeans, those who descended sion amongst writers of different times, concerning the fiom Seba, XID son of Cush, seem to have settled on position of the Sabæans, and concerning the application the south-east coast of the Arabian Gulf, about the part of the name. now called Yemen. They are distinguished in the | The Queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon,(1 Kings 10.) Hebrew Bible from the other Sabæans by their name was an Arab of this race of Sabæans. She appears to being spelt with samech like that of their founder. They have possessed extensive territories'; countries lying on SABÆANS-SACK.
1167 both sides of the Arabian Gulf, viz. Sheba, the south / in the ultimate pardon of the wicked, after nine thoupart of Arabia Felix; and on the opposite coast, African sand years of suffering; keep three yearly fasts, one in Ethiopia, including the country now known as Abys- | February of seven days, one in March of thirty days, sinia, with Azab, (Ussab or Saba.) Arabian writers and one in December of nine days; offer many burnt call her Balkis, and assert her to have reigned over offerings, or holocausts; adore the stars; teach that Sheba, or Sabæa above named; which is corroborated mediators live in the seven planets, whom they call by the kind of gifts she presented to Solomon-spices, lords and gods, but the true God they call Lord of gold, and precious stones; all productions of Southern lords; each planet, they teach, bas his distinct region, Arabia. Some historians say it was customary for the office, and objects of guardianship; they believe that an Sabæans to be governed by queens; and the Queen of intercourse is kept up between the planetary intelligences Sheba was evidently a queen regnant, not a queen and the earth, and that their influence is conveyed by consort. Josephus says she was Queen of Egypt and | talismanic mystic seals, made with spells, and according Ethiopia. The latter is a name of wide signification. It to astrological rules. They go on pilgrimage to Harran, applies both to that part of Asia peopled by the descend- in Mesopotamia, respect the temple at Mecca, and veneants of Cush, (from whence a colony early emigrated to rate the pyramids in Egypt, which they believe to be the African Ethiopia,) and also to Ethiopia in Africa: but sepulchres of Seth, Enoch and Sabi; and they offer there it is evidently the latter which Josephus means by his a cock and black calf, and burn incense. See Sale's Koran. mention of Egypt. The Abyssinians claim her as their The name of Sabians is often given by the Mahometans sovereign; and affirm, that at Jerusalem she was con- and Eastern Christians to a sect in and about Bagdat verted to Judaism; and had by Solomon a son, Menilek, and Bassorah, whose proper appellation is Mendaites, or on whom she settled her crown, making at the same time Disciples of John: sometimes improperly called Chrisa law that it should never again descend to a female. tians of St. John, as they have in reality no pretensions This law must have been limited to the part of her to Christianity. The name of their founder is John, dominions now known as Abyssinia; for in Acts 8 we | but it is not quite clear that he is John the Baptist, as read of a Queen Candace (evidently queen regnant) of has been supposed by their using a kind of baptism. Ethiopia, whether that be Asiatic or African Ethiopia. Their sacred books are a ritual; the Book of John, and Whitby thinks it is the latter; and quotes Pliny, who the Book of Adam; the latter has been published, and says of Meroë, that Candace has been for many years the is extremely mystical and obscure. It sets out with the name of their queens. Her treasurer had been to Jeru- Gnostic tenet of two eternal, self-existent, independent salem to worship, (Acts 8. 27,) whence it appears he principles. It teaches that Jesus is one of the seven was of the Jewish faith, which had been introduced by planets, viz., Mercury; that he was baptized in Jordan Queen Balkis into her African dominions.
by John; but corrupted the doctrines of John, whereWith the Sabæans have been sometimes confounded fore the good genius, Anush, delivered him up to be the Sabians, a very ancient sect, said to be named after crucified. These Sabians pray at the seventh hour, and Sabi, son of Enoch, reputed to have been the founder of at sunset; assemble at the place of worship on the first their religion, in its original and purest form. Their day of the week, on which day they baptize their chilcreed comprehended the worship of one God, the Go- dren: they use extreme unction, decry celibacy, forbid vernor and Creator of all things, who was to be ad- | the worship of images, permit all kinds of meat, but dressed through a mediator, which office was to be abstain from meat dressed by infidels; sign their chilperformed by pure and invisible spirits; an admiration dren with a particular sign, and contemn all reverence of the heavenly bodies, and an undue idea of their for the planets. influence over earthly objects, soon produced an idola- | The Rev. Jos. Wolf mentions in his Journal having trous worship of the heavenly luminaries, in which they met with some of these Sabians, or rather Mendaites, conceived that the mediative intelligences resided. At about Bassorah; but they evidently wished to impose first the Sabians worshipped towards the planets, as the on him, and give a favourable impression of their docresidences of the mediating spirits between God and trines. They affected a great reverence for Christ, as man; hence soon arose star worship. Then they made the Messiah, and the Word of God; they professed to images to represent the stars, in which, after consecra- require the mediation of Christ and John, and to believe tion, they imagined the intelligences came to reside; that Christians would be saved, and to expect the they named the images after the planets, and hence second advent; and taught that sin was washed away by arose idolatry and its corruptions.
re-baptizing. Their remaining tenets, such as sealing They taught that the sun and moon were superior their children, abstaining from meats cooked by Mahodeities, and the stars inferior ones; that the souls of the metans, &c., are the same as have been before quoted. M. wicked were punished for nine thousand years, and then pardoned. They highly valued agriculture, and cattle, and that it was unlawful to kill the latter. The SACK, pusak, and the plural Opw sakim, principal seats of Sabianism were Harran, and “Ur of “sackcloth," is a pure Hebrew word, and has passed the Chaldees.”
into many languages. One of the old commentators Maimonides says that Abraham was originally a assigns a strange reason for its general prevalence; he Sabian, till he was converted and left Chaldea. Maimo- says that when the confusion of Babel took place, each nides also says that it was very prevalent in the time of of the builders of Babel shouted for his sack, in order to Moses. It is to Sabianism that Job alludes, (31. 26,27,) run away with his tools, and the word being frequently "If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon repeated, dwelt in the memory when the rest of the walking in brightness; and my heart hath been secretly primitive language was forgotten. enticed, or my mouth hath kissed my hand;" i. e., in Sackcloth was worn by the Hebrews, and indeed by token of salutation. Also in different parts of the second most nations of the East, as a token of mourning. The Book of Kings, and in Zephaniah 1.5; Jeremiah 19. 13, custom still exists in China, but is not accompanied by the idolatrous worship of the host of heaven is mentioned. the throwing of ashes on the head as was usual among
The Sabians of later times, when praying, turn the Jews. Sackcloth was also worn by ascetics and towards the north pole; pray at sunrise, noon, and penitents, and also by the prophets in token either of
penitents, and also by the p sunset; abstain from many kinds of vegetables; believe humility or of their sorrow for the sins of the people.
Hence Zechariah (13. 4,) declares that the false pro- | Baal, (1 Kings 18. 38); also, the supernatural fire that phets should no longer prophesy in sackcloth to deceive consumed Gideon's sacrifice at the rock. (Judges 6. 21.) the people.
That such supernatural mode of acceptance was by no We find (1 Kings 20. 31,) that persons anxious to means unusual in ancient times, we learn by a Hebrew deprecate the wrath of a king or a conqueror presented etymology; the verb which we translate “ to accept" themselves before him clothed in sackcloth for the pur relative to a burnt sacrifice is in Hebrew, “ to turn to pose of deprecating his anger. Oriental conquerors of ashes,” 707 dashan. So in Psalm 20.3, “The Lord modern times have frequently exacted similar marks of accept thy burnt sacrifice," is literally, “The Lord turn humiliation, and the refusal of the citizens to submit to thy burnt sacrifice into ashes." Abel's sacrifice would such degradation is stated to have been the chief cause not have been accepted if not of God's institution; for of Timur Lenk's sanctioning the massacre of Damascus. the whole tenor is distinctly opposed to "will-worship."
At Noah's going into the Ark, we read of animals SACRIFICE, an expiatory and vicarious offering, clean and unclean, (Gen. 7. 2;) as they were not for made to God upon an altar. There are strong argu- food, (animals not having been granted till after the ments adduced by several eminent authors, and more Flood, Gen. 9. 3,) they must have been thus distinespecially by Dr. Magee, who has collected the best, to guished as fit, or unfit, for sacrifice. prove that the institution of sacrifice was by Divine All nations have performed sacrificial rites, which authority, and was coeval with the circumstance which they could not have borrowed from the Mosaic law, caused the need of this expiatory service, viz.; the fall because they used them before the days of Moses; nor of man, and introduction of sin into the world. The could they have deduced them from their own reason, following is a brief summary of the principal arguments. because of the incongruity between the act, and the That the grand object of faith propounded to our first effect intended by it; besides, by the destruction of their parents, on their transgression, was the promise of a flocks and herds it was against their general interest; Deliverer to overthrow their enemy, and to rescue their nor could they have thus gratified any general instinct. posterity from the evils consequent on the Fall. That The universal prevalence, therefore, of sacrifices in the to perpetuate this fundamental doctrine amongst Adam's Heathen world is to be accounted for by deriving it descendants, some striking memorial of the Fall and the from the example of the antediluvian patriarchs; and Deliverer would be appointed; especially, if we admit tracing it from them to the immediate descendants of that the scheme of redemption was determined from the Noah, who all lived together as one nation, having one beginning; and that Christ was “the Lamb of God religion and one language, till the days of Peleg, when slain from the foundation of the world.” (Rev. 13. 8.) the earth was divided. (Gen. 10. 25.) Then they That nothing could be more appropriate for such memo- spread themselves abroad into various countries, carrying rial than animal sacrifice; exhibiting the death which with them the laws, customs, and religion to which they was the wages of sin, and typifying the death to be suf had been habituated. (Magee, vol. ii., part 1.) Of fered by the Redeemer and Expiator: “And the adoption course in process of time, and because of separation of this rite, with sincere and pious feeling, would at the from patriarchal teaching, the stream of tradition became same time imply an humble sense of the unworthiness turbid, and the application of the sacrificial rite corof the offerer; a confession that death which was in-| rupted. Still, the retaining of the rite shows an universal flicted on the victim was the desert of those sins which acknowledgement of human demerit and insufficiency, had arisen from man's transgression; and a full reliance and the need of some external means of propitiation upon the promises of deliverance, joined to an acqui before the acknowledged Deity. escence in the means appointed for its accomplishment.” The great and principal view of sacrifice under the Magee, On Atonement and Sacrifice, vol. i., p. 51. Mosaic law, was expiatory, and of vicarious import.
That animal food was not granted to Adam, but only That it was expiatory, for the forgiveness of sins, may a vegetable diet, (Gen.1.29,) and therefore the beasts in be seen from the tenor of the whole Book of Leviticus. whose skins we find him clothed, (Gen. 3. 21,) were And before the Mosaic dispensation Job offered up sacrificed; not having been slain for food or clothing expiatory sacrifices for his children, (Job 1. 4,5;) and expressly, as the wool and hair would have answered his friends were divinely commanded to offer up expiaequally well; or even vegetable materials.
tory animal sacrifices for their rash and uncharitable That Adam could not by his unassisted reason invent judgments. (Job 42. 7,8.) That sacrifice was vicarious the rite; for he would not have perceived any congru- is plainly shown in Leviticus l. 4: “He shall lay his ity between killing an innocent creature and obtaining hand on the burnt-offering, and it shall be accepted for pardon of sin; on the contrary, he might rather have him, to make atonement for him." In fact, this verse expected God's displeasure for an act of gratuitous shows sacrifice to have been both expiatory, and of vicacruelty. The sacrifices of Cain and Abel are not men- rious import. Also in 2Chronicles 19. 23, the sacrifice tioned as if the rite were then first instituted; but offered by Hezekiah for all Israel was both expiatory spoken of in general terms as a thing customary. Abel's and vicarious; indicated by the laying of hands on the sacrifice was appropriately a lamb, and offered in faith, victim; which ceremony expressed, “Let the evils that (Heb. 11. 4,) wherefore it was accepted. Cain's was in justice should have fallen upon my head light upon offered in a spirit of scepticism; it was not an animal the head of this victim.” (Magee, vol. i., p. 368.) The or bloody offering ("without shedding of blood is no Mosaic sacrifices were but types and figures to show remission," Heb. 9. 22,) as if he doubted the efficacy, the Lord's death till He should come. “The sacrifice of or appropriateness; but was merely of fruits, and was Christ was a true and effectual sacrifice, whilst those of rejected. Abel's was accepted by fire coming down the Law were but faint representations, and inadequate supernaturally from heaven and consuming it, as is the copies intended for its introduction.” Magee, vol. i., p. 7. general opinion of commentators; a mode of acceptance It is expressly said, that the Law had but “a shadow that was granted to other sacrifices in later times; see of good things to come, and not the very image of the Solomon's sacrifice at the dedication of the Temple, things," (Heb. 10. 1,) and that Christ came “an high(2Chron. '7. 17); Moses's burnt offering, (Levit. 9. 24); priest of good things to come," and “neither by the David's at the threshing-floor of Ornan, (1 Chron. 21. blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he 26); Elijah's when he contended with the priests of entered at once into the holy place, having obtained
eternal redemption for us." (Heb. 9. 11,12.) That the libation typified the anger of God poured out on the Christ's death was a sacrifice expiatory, and of vicarious vicarious offering, in place of the sinner who offered it import, is shown, (John 1. 29,) “ The Lamb of God, in expiation. The animal was immediately slain by which taketh away the sin of the world;" (Eph. 5. 2,) cutting the throat; the blood was caught in a vessel, * Christ hath given himself for us, an offering, and a and sprinkled round the altar; and this was the grand sacrifice to God;" (1John 4. 10,)“ God sent his Son to expiatory type, the blood being considered the life of be a propitiation for our sins;” (Rom. 8,) “He that | the animal; (Gen. 9. 4,) “ The flesh with the life spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all;" thereof, which is the blood thereof; (Lev. 17. 11,) (Rom. 5. 11,) “ Jesus Christ, by whom we have now “ The life of the flesh is in the blood, it is the blood received the atonement;" “all which, and several other that maketh an atonement for the soul.” Round the passages speak of the death of Christ in the same sacri altar was a trench to receive the rest of the blood, ficial terms that had been applied to the sin-offerings of which was thence conveyed to the brook Kedron, old." (Magee, i. 222.)
through subterranean channels. The slain victim was Here it may be remarked, that in all these passages of flayed, disembowelled, split 'open, and quartered. The the Old Testament, where anything disparaging of sacri cutting of the victim in pieces was a type of covenant; fices seems to be expressed, as in Psalm 13, “ Will I eat for sacrifices were also of a federal nature. When a the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?" &c., we sacrifice was offered for ratification of an agreement have a rule given us by Mede to understand them in | between two parties, the victim was divided, and a space three senses: 1st., as when men preferred them before | left between the parts, and the contracting parties passed the greater things of the Law: 2nd., overvalued them as between them. So when God made a covenant with an antecedent duty, or imagined their efficacy to be in Abraham; the latter offered a sacrifice, and divided the the naked rite, as if thereby God were in any sort bene. | animals in pieces; and a smoking flame and burning fited. It is against these insufficient, erroneous, and lamp, as a representation of God's presence, passed low views, that any text, seemingly disparaging of sacri between the pieces; (Gen. 15. 9,10,17,18, see also fice, is directed.
Jerem. 38. 18,) “The men that have transgressed my During the patriarchal times, before Moses, it appears covenant, which have not performed the words of the that any private person might sacrifice for himself, or covenant which they made before me, when they cut others, (like Job for his children,) when and where it the calf in twain, and passed between the parts thereof." might be most convenient to himself. But under the After the sacrifice was cut up, it was “salted for the Mosaic dispensation the laws of sacrifice became strict fire," and laid on the altar to be consumed. No sacrifice and defined. The office of sacrificer was limited to the was permitted to be offered without salt, by God's high-priest, of the house of Aaron; and the place was express command. (Levit. 2. 13.) The salt was not prescribed to be the door of the Tabernacle till the brought by the offerer, but was provided at the public Temple was built; and then the sacrifice could be only expense; there being, as the Jewish doctors tell us, in legal at the Temple. And the kind of sacrifice, and the court of the Temple, a chamber for storing it, called the manner of sacrificing, were definitely laid down by the Chamber of Salt; one of the three rooms on the law. It is true, that after Moses, we read of some kings north side of the court. Salt was a type of friendship and prophets, not of the house of Aaron, who yet offered in the East, and, by its incorruptibility, it was also a sacrifices, such as Solomon, David, and Elijah, and also type of purity; and thus in the sacrifices it symbolized Samuel; but it has been explained that then they were friendship, or reconciliation with God, and purification acting as prophets, under the influence of a special inspi- from sin. Frankincense was used in the sacrifices ration and direction, which, in extraordinary cases, because they were to be as a sweet savour unto God, a permitted a dispensation with ordinary rules. And we type of his complacency; so in Ephesians 5. 2, “Christ read in the Books of Samuel of sacrifices offered in other hath given himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to places besides where the ark and tabernacle were; but God for a sweet smelling savour.” The sacrifice was that was while the sanctuary was desolate, when the burnt either whole, or in part, as the case might be, i.e., tabernacle was without its ark, and the ark removed whether it were a holocaust or other kind of offering. from God's (figurative) dwelling, the tabernacle.
In particular cases it was consumed by fire from heaven, The Jews under the Law had three kinds of bloody (vide supra,) but in general was burnt by the fire on the sacrifices. I. The holocaust, or burnt-offering. II. The altar. This fire, the Jews tell us, was in fact celestial offering for sins, or piaçular sacrifice. III. The peace- fire, being a continuation, by the perpetual addition of offering, or thank-offering. In all sacrifices it was fuel, of the heavenly fire which fell to consume the first requisite that the victim should be clean. Of quadru- sacrifice offered by Aaron. (Levit. 9. 24.) This fire peds, only oxen, sheep, and goats were allowed; but all was to be always kept up by the priests; “ And the fire clean birds; the dove and pigeon, however, were the shall be for ever burning on the altar," (Levit. 6. 13;) most frequently used. The victim was to be perfectly and for this reason a quantity of wood was always kept free from any blemish whatever, which was a beautiful at the Temple, and at a certain appointed time the people type of the perfect sinlessness of Christ, the “ Lamb were obliged to bring a large supply of that fuel to the without blemish, and without spot.” (1 Pet. 1. 19.) The Temple-stores, which was a kind of festival, called the victim was led to the altar by the person offering, who Feast of the Wood-carrying. (Josephus, Jewish Wars, laid his hand heavily on it, and said some particular lib. ii., cap. 31.) In Leviticus 1. 7, it is said, “ The sons prayers. If several persons were united in the offering of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar;" but of the one victim, each laid his hand upon it in succes the Hebrew is, “give fire,” i. e., stir the smouldering sion. The priest then received the victim from the fuel, and dispose it to burn more quickly. In the offerer, or offerers, prayed for the divine acceptance; Babylonish captivity, however, this continuation of the and poured wine on the head of the victim, which act celestial fire was lost, and thus, according to a common was called the libation. The wine appears to have been tradition of the Jews, the want of the sacred fire, was symbolic of the anger of God, (see Psalm 60. 3.) “Thou | one of the things, the absence of which rendered the hast showed thy people hard things: thou hast made second Temple inferior to the first. To return to the them to drink of the wine of astonishment;" (Jer. 25. sacrifices: in public sacrifices, for the congregation, or 15,)“ Take the wine-cup of this fury at my hand;" and people in general, only animals were allowed; it was
but in private offerings that birds were admissible. The The sin offerings were for sins of commission, will victims were to be slain by day light, and the blood | sins: but there was a branch of them, called the trespass sprinkled before sunset.
offering, DWX asham, which was for sins of omission The holocaust, or burnt offering, was the most solemn and sins of ignorance. This differed but little from the of all. It was called in Hebrew 75y aalah, (or olah,) sin offering. The sin offering might be offered for a from a verb signifying to ascend, because it ascended in whole congregation; the trespass offering was only for smoke to heaven. This offering was wholly devoted to individuals. If a man could not offer an animal, he God, and was entirely consumed, all but the skin, which might present two doves, one for a burnt offering to be was given to the priest. The Rabbins say the holocaust consumed whole; the other for the sin, or trespass was in expiation of evil thoughts, and the breach of offering: the blood to be shed at the altar, and the desh affirmative precepts. The animal offered could only be given to the priest. If fine flour was offered, it was to a male, and must be offered at the north side of the be without oil to render it savoury, or frankincense to altar. (Lev. 1. 11.) If the offerer could not afford a make it sweet and grateful. In sin offerings the blood bullock, he might offer a sheep, goat, lamb, or kid, was put on the horns of the altar; in trespass offerings according to his ability. The burnt offering, being only sprinkled at the foot. The trespass offering was wholly consumed, was a type of Christ's full and com- used in purifications from legal pollutions; in rash vous; plete sacrifice of himself. If the offerer was too poor to and in cases where a man was doubtful whether he had present an animal, a dove or pigeon was accepted, but offended against the ceremonial law or not. the bird was not divided like the beasts, being too » The third kind of bloody sacrifice was the peace-offersmall: the crop was removed, and the feathers stripped ing, or thank-offering. It was called Dyw shelem, and off, like the beast's skin. The bird-sacrifice, the Jews was offered as a token of thanks to God for benefits say, was the most difficult of all others for the priest to bestowed, or to entreat a favour from Him, or merely perform duly, on account of its small size.
from a feeling of private devotion. They were comMeat offerings of fine flour, and drink offerings of pletely voluntary offerings, and might be offered whenwine, always accompanied the animal burnt offerings, ever the individual pleased, except on some particulu but not the bird-sacrifices. The next in rank to the occasions, such as at Pentecost, (Levit. 23,) at the holocaust, or burnt offering, was the sin offering accomplishment of a Nazarite's Fow, (Numb. 6,) and at
chalaah. It consisted of animals, or birds, the consecration of the priest. (Exod. 29.) The sacriaccording to the ability of the offerer. The victims fice was divided into three parts, one to be consumel, were offered in the same manner, but with this differ one to be given to the offerer, who might eat it as a ence, that the sin offering was not wholly consumed, but feast with his family and friends, provided it was not a part reserved for the priest. When the sacrifice was kept till the third day; for then it was considered aboa bird, the blood only was offered to God, and the flesh minable, and was to be burnt. The sacrifice might be was the priests' portion. If the offerer were too poor either bullocks, sheep, or goats, male or female, so that to afford even birds, he might present a cake of fine they were clean, and without blemish. But birds were wheaten flour, with oil, but the bread must be unlea- not allowed, because they could not be divided into vened. Leaven was strictly forbidden, being a type of three without making the portions contemptibly small. spiritual pride, hypocrisy and wickedness (1 Cor. 5. 8; 1 The offerer brought the victim to the door of the taberMatt. 16. 8,) also because leavened bread was used by nacle, as it was slain with the usual ceremonies. When the Heathens in their sacrifices: and for this same cut up, the priest put into the offerer's hands the parts reason honey was prohibited. (Lev. 2. 11.) The cakes to offer them before the presence of God, by lifting them were divided, and a part allotted to the priest. The up, and waving them to and fro. The suet and kidneys bread offering was a striking type of Christ the living were burned on the altar; and if the victim were a goat bread. From the very poor an offering of flour (fine or sheep, the tail (which in the East is very fat) was wheaten flour) was accepted in commutation for the burned also; the breast and right shoulder, called the bread. Oil and frankincense were offered with it. Of wave-breast and heave-shoulder, were the portion of the the oil and flour, only a small part were consumed, but priest, and the rest was returned to the offerer. Cakes all the frankincense. In common sin offerings, the fat of fine flour and oil were offered with the peace-offering, only of the victim was burned upon the altar; and part both leavened and unleavened; the latter were to be of the blood put on the horns of the altar, and part offering on the altar, but not the leavened, which were poured out at the foot of it: and the flesh eaten by the only a gift or fee to the priest. Burnt-offerings and sin. priests in the court of the Tabernacle, during their offerings implied some guilt contracted by the offerer; period of attendance. On solemn occasions, such as the but peace-offerings indicated the offerer to be at peace sin offering for the whole people, or for the high-priest with God. The peace-offering was also a type fulfilled himself, no part of the offering was to be eaten. Part of in Christ: “He is our Peace who hath made both One, the blood was brought into the sanctuary, put on the and hath broken down the middle wall of partition horns of the altar of incense, and part sprinkled seven between us. Having abolished in His flesh the enmity, times towards the veil of the sanctuary; the fat and | even the law of commandments contained in orut kidneys burned on the altar; and the rest of the animal, nances; for to make in Himself of twain one new mall, not dissected, carried without the camp (or city) to the so making peace.” (Eph. 2. 14,15.) place where the ashes from the altar were thrown, and | The bloody sacrifices may be classed under two beads, there entirely burned upon the ground. These burnings the public and private. Of the first were the daily of the sin offerings without the camp, or city, are sacrifice, or continual burnt-offering, a lamb momey thought to be typical of Christ having suffered outside and evening, (Exod. 29. 42;) the Sabbath-day's offering, of the gates of Jerusalem, a sin offering for the world, four lambs, (Numb. 28;) the sin-offering at every in including the Gentiles who were without the pale of the moon, or beginning of the month, (Numb. 20. 2); Jewish Church. See Hebrews 13. 11,12: “The bodies the feast of unleavened bread and first fruits, (N1 of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanc- 28. 19-27;) the feast of trumpets, great day of en tuary by the high-priest for sin, are burned without the tion, and feast of tabernacles. (Numb. 29.) çamp; wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the sacrifices were stated, as the paschal lamb, OT. people with his own blood, suffered without the gate.” sional, on the occurrence of any sin or legal pollution