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them; and the disciples on mats or hassocks at their and masters and scholars obliged to retreat beyond the feet. Thus St. Paul was said to have been brought up Jordan. at the feet of Gamaliel. (Acts 22.) It was on account Concerning the titles bestowed on these masters in of this custom that Mary sat at Christ's feet, to learn Israel, we may observe that the head of a school was his doctrine. (Luke 10. 39.) A Jewish injunction is called chacham, or sage. When aspiring to the dignity “Roll yourself in the dust at the feet of the wise,” of the Rabbinate he was called bachur or elou. When meaning, be diligent in frequenting the schools. The higher advanced he was called cabar of the rab, or schools are supposed by some to have been held in the masters' companion, (Our Lord alludes to this gradation synagogue, but they were distinct places, though in near in Luke 6. 40: “The disciple is not above his master, neighbourhood. The Jews call the synagogue s'd but every one that is perfect shall be as his master (i.e., NOD Beth Hakkenesith, House of Congregation; and his master's companion.)” The cabar of the rab was the school 'Beth Medraschith, House of next advanced to the dignity of the Rabbinate, and of Record. And they reverence the latter much more this there were three titles. The first is Rab, which was than the former.

the title of those who had taken their degrees in foreign The Rabbinical works have taken good care to incul- schools, such as that at Babylon, and is somewhat infecate an actually idolatrous veneration for the teachers. rior to that of Rabbi, the title of the doctors of Judæa, The Neveh Shalom says, that he who receives the dis- who were considered the most honorable; a still superior ciple of a sage into his house, does as much as if he title was Rabban, which was only conferred on seven offered daily sacrifice. The Berachoth says, that to eat persons, namely, Rabban Simeon, son of Hillel, and five in presence of a sage, is equal to partaking of divine of his descendants; and Rabban Jochanan, of another glory; and that he who salutes his master in the com- family. The exclamation of Mary Magdalene to Christ mon mode of ordinary men, or separates from his master, after his resurrection,“ Rabboni,” (John 20.16,) is “my or teaches what he has not heard from his master, pro- Rabban," or my Lord, for Rabban is Rabbon in the vokes the Divine Majesty to depart from Israel. The Syrian dialect. disciples were enjoined not to raise their eyes in their In Acts 19. 9, we read that when Paul met with master's presence, nor to name his proper name. It opposition in his teaching in the synagogue, he withdrew was on account of the intolerable pride and arrogance of to the school of one Tyrannus, of whom nothing is these teachers that Our Lord warned his disciples not to known; but it could not have been a Rabbinical school, be called “master” (Rabbi). (Matt. 23. 7,8.) Not as a where he would not have been tolerated, and the name command to discontinue the title and usage of common is not Jewish. It is thought he was a Gentile convert, civility; but as an exhortation against the “leaven,” the a friend of St. Paul, and was only a common schoolpride of the Pharisees, who were Rabbinists. For the master, and a man of no eminence, from his being same cause he desired them not to be called “father,” | mentioned merely as “one Tyrannus.” (Matt. 23. 8,9,) because the Rabbins were also called In the New Testament we find no account of schoAbba, father; and a book of Rabbinical decisions is lastic institutions or regular arrangements for a system called Pirke Aboth, the Sentences of the Fathers. For of instruction. But we can see in every part of it the the same reason Maimonides, who was one of the most zeal of the Apostles in teaching in all possible places rational of the later Jews, writes, “ Love the work (of and seasons. Besides them, their well-instructed disinstruction), but hate the Rabbin-ate (or the title).” ciples were zealous in teaching the less advanced. We

After the destruction of Jerusalem, the schools took learn from profane writers that the Christians were very refuge at Jamnia, now Jabneh, or Jafne. Thence they anxious concerning education; and established in variemigrated to Tiberias, a city on the south extremity of ous places schools for children, and also gymnasia, or the western side of the lake Gennesaret; where they academies for adults in cities, where persons who desired maintained a considerable reputation until the persecu- to become public instructors, were educated in different tions under Adrian; when the schools were broken up, branches of human learning, as well as of sacred know

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ledge. St. John founded a school of this kind at Ephe- | secretary of Hezekiah, is called his treasurer. (Isai. sus; another was erected at Smyrna by Polycarp, who | 20. 15.) The royal secretaries whose names are pre. was made bishop by St. John, and who is generally served in Scripture, besides Shebna, are Sheva, 'and thought to have been the angel of the church addressed Seraiah, and Shemaiah, the Levite, scribes to King Revelation 2. 8-10, in which address, unlike the David; Elihoreph and Ahiah, secretaries to Solomon; others, there is not a word of reproach; and the cha- and Shaphan, to Josiah. racter of the angel, or bishop, harmonizes with that of II. Military scribes or muster-masters of the army, Polycarp. There were schools at Seleucia, Rome, or secretaries at war, “ the principal scribe of the host Cæsarea, and Antioch; but none of them attained the which numbered the people of the land.” (2Kings reputation enjoyed by the school of Alexandria in 25. 19.) It was the occupation of these persons to keep Egypt, founded by St. Mark. It had a succession of the muster-roll and call it over. (2Chron. 25. 2.) eminent and learned teachers, amongst whom were the “Moreover Uzziah had an host of fighting-men that celebrated Clemens Alexandrinus, Pantænus, and Ori went to war by their bands according to the number of gen, and became a grand bulwark of Christianity. their account by the hand of Jeiel, the scribe.” And

in the Apoeryphal Book of Maccabees, (lbook 5. 42,)

we read that when Judas Maccabeus was going to fight SCIENCE. It was not until after the accession against Timotheus, “he caused the scribes of the people of David, that the Jews became remarkable for their to remain by the brook; 'unto whom he gave commandintellectual culture; but the patriarchs probably pos ment, saying, Suffer no man to remain in the camp, sessed a considerable knowledge of practical astronomy, but let all come to the battle;" which was manifestly an (9. v.) such as is still popular among pastoral tribes, order to muster the men and see that they answered to probably corrupting it by an admixture of judicial | their names, and formed in order of battle. Amongst astrology (9. v.). The literature of the Hebrews was the duties of military scribes we may naturally include chiefly limited to ethics, religion, the history of their keeping the accounts of the army; writing letters connation, and to natural history, on which Solomon wrote | cerning military business, &c. (Isai. 38. 18:) “Where several treatises no longer extant. If the phenomena is the scribe? Where is the receiver? Where is he that mentioned in Scripture had been described with the | counted the towers?" is understood as spoken triumphaccuracy of modern physical science, they would have | antly against the king of Assyria. “Where is the been unintelligible to the persons for whose use the scribe?" or muster-master of the host that threatened to Sacred Writings were originally designed. The most destroy, (and who, perhaps, was to write down the numbers numerous references to Oriental science occur in the and names of the anticipated captives.) “Where is the Book of Job; and the best summary of the physical receiver?” that was to collect the taxes from the conknowledge to which the patriarchs attained, and which quered and tributary land. “Where is the general the Hebrews while they existed as a nation, never who reconnoitred our towers and took note of our surpassed, will be found in the notes to Wemyss's places of defence? This passage of Isaiah has been translation. C.

made by St. Paul, (1 Cor. 1. 20,) the basis of a similar SCOURGE. See Whip, TORTURE, &c.

triumphant declamation against the enemies of Christianity. “Where is the wise? Where is the scribe?

Where is the disputer of this world? Hath not God SCRIBE, 700 sopher, a writer, clerk, notary, made foolish the wisdom of this world?” “The wise secretary, learned man, historiographer. The verb 790 man" is the chacham or sage, the teacher of the Rabsepher, which is the root, means to cipher, (which is | binical schools. “The scribe," the studier and transderived from sepher,) to relate or narrate, to number or lator of the law. “The disputer of the law" is the reckon. From this verb also comes the substantive “ lawyer,” the subtle casuist, they who from their own 790 sepher, meaning a book, (Exod. 20. 7;) a bill or carnal views expected a different Messiah from Jesus of document, (Deut. 24. 1,3;) a letter, (2Sam. 11. 14,15;) Nazareth, and rejected him in spite of the prophets and a deed or conveyance, (Jerem. 32. 10;) learning or lite- types of the old law: thus in Him and the preaching of rature. (Dan. 1. 4.) See Parkhurst.

the cross, the wisdom of which they boasted was made There were among the Jews different classes of scribes, | foolishness. having different occupations exemplified by the words III. Ecclesiastical scribes, who were generally of the above quoted.

tribe of Levi. They may be divided into two classes, I. Civil scribes, clerks, or copyists; men who would the business of the lower class being to transcribe the naturally find abundance of occupation among the copies of the law, to write out the bills of divorcement, children of Israel, in writing out for those who were | to keep the accounts, inventories and catalogues of unable to do so themselves, the verses of the Law | everything concerning sacred matters, as in Ezra 8, that were to be worn between the eyes as frontlets, when Ezra caused to be weighed the gold and silver, and bound upon the hand, (Deut. 6. 8,) and to be and the vessels belonging to the Temple, and had the placed on the posts of the doors. (ver. 9.) Also letters, numbers and weight written down. It is also highly deeds of civil matters, like the deed of Jeremiah's pur- probable that part of their business was to keep the chase of the field of Hanameel, (Jerem. 32. 9,10;) genealogies of the people, with registers of births, deaths, accounts, &c. It is highly probable that such persons and marriages: as the preserving of authentic pedigrees were employed, under Joab, in writing down the census, was a matter of such vital importance amongst the when David numbered the people of Israel. (2Sam. Hebrews. (2Chron. 31. 16,17.) They likewise wrote 20.4.) The tribe of Zebulon seem to have been famous anything pertaining to religious matters: like the solemu as scribes, (Juages b. 14:) "Out of Machir came down confession or covenant made in Ezra 9. 38, when we governors, and out of Zebulon, they that handle the pen | Levites proclaimed to the people God's goodness and of the writer.” And also the families of Shamlah, their wickedness; and then wrote down“ a sure cotedescendant of Caleb, who dwelt at Jabez. (2Chron. nant:" and the princes, priests, and Levites sealed it. 2. 55.) Of a very superior order of scribes were the | A very superior class of ecclesiastical scribes were king's secretaries, whom we read of, as reckoned amongst those who were learned in the Scriptures, and were emthe principal officers of state. Shebna, the scribe or ployed in expounding them; who transcribed prophecies

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from the dictation of the inspired person, as Baruch | the truth," (Mark 12. 32;) or “Master, I will follow wrote Jeremiah's prophecy, (Jerem. 36,) and who were thee.” (Matt. 8. 19.) In Luke 1]. 52, Our Lord uphistoriographers, or wrote the annals of the kings' reigns; braids the lawyers, i. e. scribes, that they had taken as Isaiah did the history of Uzziah, and Nathan the | away the key of knowledge : “ Ye enter not in yourprophet, and Gad the seer, the history of David; in selves, and those that were entering in ye hindered.” fact, to whose pens the records of the most important This is in allusion to the ceremony of installing the wise matters, particularly religious, were entrusted. The or learned into the dignity of doctors of the laws, which higher race of ecclesiastical scribes were the learned was by delivering to them a key, symbolical of their men, the “lawyers” as they were afterwards termed, unlocking the storehouse of knowledge. There is a who began by deeply studying, then refining upon and rabbinical treatise called Pelichtha Hachacmi, NON corrupting the law, in the later and worse times of 2000 “The Openings of the Sages” (i. e. the expoIsrael. It is of them that Jeremiah speaks (8. 8,9) sition of the sages): and in rabbinical books is it often when he says, “How do ye say, We are wise, and the written “Rabbi, opened,” instead of “Rabbi, explained law of the Lord is with us? Lo, certainly, in vain hath or taught.” Compare with Luke 24. 32, where the two he made it: the pen of the scribes is in vain. The wise disciples say, “ Did not our hearts burn within us while men are ashamed; they are dismayed and taken: lo, he opened to us the Scriptures?” which is an Hebraism. they have rejected the word of the Lord, and what wis Some persons have thought the officers mentioned in dom is in them? Of such as these were the scribes Deuteronomy 20, 5; 29. 10; 31. 28; Josh. 8. 33; and mentioned in the New Testament, who were always 23. 2, are scribes; but upon examining the matter, they found zealous against Christ; when, if they had not will be seen to be quite different. Those officers are perverted their own understandings, they would have named in Hebrew by a word entirely different from recognised him as the Messiah from their own scriptures. scribe, viz., now sholer, which does not anywhere occur In the New Testament they are called sometimes scribes, as a verb. It is explained by Parkhurst as an inferior sometimes “ lawyers;" the former because they were magistrate or officer, who attended on a superior magis transcribers of the law, and the commentaries upon it; trate or judge, to execute his orders; answering in some the latter, because they prided themselves on their skill measure to sheriff among us: the derivative noun from and casuistry in all difficult and subtle questions of the this word is our mishtar, ministerial authority or law. They were the persons who preached and ex power. (Parkhurst's Lexicon.) This word mishtar pounded the law to the people, while the priests were seems to be the original etymology of the Latin magister, occupied chiefly with sacrifice and the ceremonies of the and hence our magistrate. The letters are MSTR, the Temple; hence they were called scribes of the people. nucleus of our master. The word, too, 700 which That the lawyers and the scribes were synonymous in might be pronounced satar or shatar, is the original of the New Testament we see in Matthew 22. 35. The satrap, an oriental officer very different from a scribe lawyer who asked which is the great commandment in or penman. The functions attributed to those shoterim, the law, is called in Mark 12. 28, one of the scribes. or officers, have no connexion with that of the scribes. And in Luke ll. 39 to 43, when Our Lord reproaches In Exodus 5. 6, we see them along with the taskmasters, the Pharisees, he continues some time uninterrupted; over the children of Israel, as overseers or drivers to but when at verse 44 he joins the scribes to the Pharisees, keep them at work; and in connexion with this, Solomon then a lawyer takes it to himself and says, “ Master, commends the ants, (Prov. 6. 7,) for carefully working, thus saying thou reproachest us also," and Our Lord though having no shoter or overseer over them to (v. 46) indicates by his reply that he does include them compel them. In Deuteronomy 15. 18, they appear as lawyers in his rebuke. It is easy to perceive through- | as attendants on the judges in the courts; and Moses out the Gospels that the scribes were generally Pharisees; de Cotzi says that they attended to keep the people in and these were naturally the most vehement against Our order with staves ; and to execute the judge's decrees. Lord, and the most deaf to conviction; because they | In Deuteronomy 20. 5, they make proclamation to the were the most zealous adherents of the traditions and people before going into battle; and in Joshua 1. 10, glosses of Rabbinism added to the Scriptures. (Matt. 16. | they proclaim Joshua's orders to the people, to prepare 21 ; 22. 18; 21. 15; 25. 13; Mark 3. 22; 14. 1; Luke for crossing Jordan; and in this capacity Josephus calls 5. 20; 6. 7; 20. 2; 23. 10.) There were some scribes them the public criers; which office might well combine of the seet of the Sadducees, who rejected everything with the foregoing. In 2Chronicles 26. 2, the title is apbut the simple letter of Scripture; and they would be plied to Hananiah, who seems to have had some control more likely to give ear to our Saviour than the Pharisees. over the muster-roll, kept by the military scribe; but still Now we see in the Gospels that it did occasionally the shoter belongs to the army of Uzziah; he is a man happen, that a scribe in conversing with Our Lord seemed of the sword, not of the pen. approaching to conviction as in Mark 12, when one who In the other places where these shoterim, or officers, asks our Saviour concerning the great commandment of appear, it is in the train of the judges. the law, is so pleased with Christ's scriptural answer, There is a class of scribes whom it may not be supercommencing with a quotation from Deuteronomy 6. 4, fluous to notice, because they are connected with the that he says, “ Well, master, thou hast said the truth;" subject as transcribers of the Scriptures, though their and continues himself speaking in a scriptural strain, silent unostentatious and indefatigable labours have been without any of the quibbles and nice questions of the too much overlooked, too seldcm acknowledged. They Pharisees and their scribes ; and ends with a quotation are those industrious recluses who devoted their time, from Hosea 6. 6; so that Jesus replied to him: “ Thou in religious retirement, not to idle contemplativeness, but art not far from the kingdom of God." The scribes of to the useful task of preserving to posterity copies of the the Pharisees were the most numerous: their's was the sacred writings before the art of printing was discovered. triumphant party; their school, that of Hillel, had been In every great abbey there was a room called the victorious over that of Shammai, (see art. School), and Scriptorum, or Domus Antiquarii, where the brethren the scribes of the Sadducees were depressed and few. called the Scriptores were constantly employed in copying Whenever the scribes are mentioned as furious against the Scriptures, psalters, or church music, in profound Our Lord, they are many— the scribes.” It is not a silence. The beauty of the manuscripts was in many solitary scribe who says, “ Well, master, thou how caid instances extraordinary. The writing was so clear and

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regular that it could hardly be imagined to be manu | 3.15), because containing a holy law for life and docscript; and they were ornamented with flourished capi- | trine; the Sacred Scriptures, because given, or dictated, tals, and exquisite paintings and miniatures; often with by the inspiratiou of the Spirit of God; and the Canonthe capitals executed in silver or in gold; and in some ical Scriptures, from the word Canon (q.v.), because when instances they were wholly written in gold : the more their authenticity was once established and recognised, ancient were stained purple or violet, on which the an authorized catalogue was formed of them, which silver or gold letters had a splendid effect. Some of became a fixed rule for the guidance of the Churches. them, on account of the care with which they were The whole body of Scripture collectively is called the executed, took many years in completing. Some inte- | Bible (q. v.). resting descriptions of these beautiful manuscripts will The Jews call the body of Scripture in the Old be found in Townley's Illustrations of Biblical Lilera Testament xpo Mikra, “the Reading," i.e. that which ture.

is especially to be read. The grand division of the Scriptures into the Old and New Testament was made according to St. Paul's distinction, which he gave in 2Corinthians 3. 6, when, speaking of the Apostles, he says: “Our sufficiency is of God, who also hath made us able ministers of the New Testament." Then, in ver. 14, speaking of the Jews, he says: “for their minds were blinded, for until this day remaineth the same veil un. taken away in the reading of the Old Testament.". The Greek word Alanan, here rendered “testament," is either testament or covenant, and is analogous to the Hebrew word nnberith, covenant; and St. Paul means the Old Covenant made by God with his people under Moses, and the New Covenant made under, and through, Christ. The Latin translation, however, renders the word Testamentum, and the name begun early to be applied to all the sacred writings, as the Old Testament to those before Christ, and the New to those after him. Bishop Mant thinks it was thus used as early as the second century. The Western Churches,

or those European nations that acknowledged the Modern Eastern Scribe.

Roman. see, followed the Latin version, and called

the divisions “the Testaments.” But the Sclavonic SCRIP. Notwithstanding the great hospitality of nations divide the Bible into the Old and New Law. the Orientals, travellers cannot always calculate upon St. Augustine (de Civitate Dei) calls the Old Testament obtaining a supply of food in their cottages, for most of

Vetus Testamentum." The Jews divide the Old Testathe peasants are so poor that they can rarely afford to

antora to ment into three grand divisions: I. The Law, or 1770 keep more provisions than will meet the immediate

| Torah, i.e. the five books of Moses, called by Christians wants of their families. Pedestrian travellers and shep- the Pentateuch. from TEYTE. five. and TEUKOS, a herds are therefore accustomed to take with them a bag, volume. The Jews sometimes give it the synonymous or wallet, in which they carry some dry food and other

appellation of Won Chomesh, The Five. II. The Prolittle articles likely to be useful on a journey. It was in

phets, O'M2) Nebiim, containing Joshua, Judges, such a bag that David carried the pebble with which he Samuel (as one book). Kings (as one book), Isaiah, smote the boasting champion of the Philistines. When Jeremiah Ezekiel and the twelve minor Prophets, Christ sent forth his Apostles, he forbade them to pro

from Hosea to Malachi, in one book (minor from their vide themselves with these bags, or, as they are rendered | brevity, not from being of inferior importance). Joshua in our translation, scrips; and nothing can more forcibly and Judges are reckoned among the Prophets, because show the completeness of their dependence on Divine believed to have been written by the Prophet Samuel. Providence while executing their mission, than their neglecting to supply themselves with what all other phels (Joshua, Judges. Samuel, Kings), and the Laler travellers would have regarded as an indispensable

Prophets (the remaining books), which division is requisite.

thought to be derived from Zechariah, 1.4: “Be ye not The scrip is usually made of hair-cloth, and is gene

| as your fathers, unto whom the Former Prophets cried." rally of much greater depth than breadth. In the south

Another subdivision is the Greater Prophets (Isaiah, of Spain, where many of the usages introduced by the Jeremiah, and Ezekiel), and the Lesser Prophels (the Mahommedan conquerors are still retained, the scrip is

twelve minor Prophets).. usually of goat-skin, and is generally carried over the

iş generally carried over the III. Cetubim, or the Holy Writings (called by the shoulder. The purse, which some inaccurate commen- | Greeks the Hagiographa), viz., Psalms, Proverbs, JOD, tators have confounded with the scrip, was always sus

The Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, pended from the girdle. A kind of sanctity is attributed

Esther, Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah (as one book), and to the scrip by some of the Eastern Jews, as it preserves

Chronicles (as one book). The Jews do not place their food from being polluted by being brought into

Daniel among the other Prophetic writings, because he contact with those whom they are taught to regard as I dwelt among the luxuries of a court, and did not leau unclean or profane. C.

an ascetic life, like the rest of the Prophets. The Song

of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther SCRIPTURE, WRITING: from the Latin scrip- are by modern Jews called the Megilloth, or Chomest tura, applied solely to the sacred writings contained in | Megilloth, i.e. the Five Rolls (because read out from the Bible, as the writings of all others of paramount rolls, and even printed in that form, and are placed importance, and entitled to the highest degree of respect. immediately after the Pentateuch. The Jews, who are They are called the Holy Scriptures (Rom. 1. 2; 2 Tim. fond of making words out of initials (like acrostics),

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call the Books of Job, Proverbs, and Psalms, by the Though the Temple was burned by Nebuchadnezzar, it name of Truth, nox Emeth, from the collected initials does not appear that the MSS. were burned, for none of 218 Job; suo Mashal, Proverbs, and ban of the succeeding sacred writers allude to any thing of Tehillim, Psalms. These three books are also called the kind, which they certainly would, as a matter of the Poetical Books, and differ in their accentuation deep lamentation. During the captivity, Daniel from the rest of the Hebrew Scriptures. Christians (Dan. 9. 11,13) alludes to the written Law as in reckon the Song of Solomon and Ecclesiastes among existence; and Ezra (Nehem. 8. 5,8) read the Book of the Poetical Books, and place Daniel ainong the Great the Law to the people on their return from Babylon. Prophets. From the initials of these three great divi- About the time of Ezra, inspiration closed; the Spirit sions of Ton Torah, the Law; O'X']] Nebiim, the departed from Israel with Malachi, the last of the Prophets, and O'lind Cetubim, the Holy Writings, the Prophets, or as the Jews call him, the seal of the Jews make another name, TIN Tenach (consummation), | Prophets. Then the canon was formed by Ezra; and which they apply to the whole body of the Old Testa- the Jews never dared to add, or allow any thing to be ment.

added to it. The canon of the Scriptures, as collected The authenticity of the Old Testament is abundantly by Ezra, is attested by Josephus in his book against proved by the unintentional testimonies of profane | Apion, wherein he mentions the number of the books, authors, who speak in a corroborative manner of the the arrangements, and the contents; and adds, that persons and facts mentioned in it; such profane authors after a long lapse of time, no one has dared to add, being unquestionably proved to have lived at a later diminish, or alter; and that it is implanted in all Jews period than the sacred writers whom they corroborate, from their birth to consider these books the oracles of such as Diodorus Siculus, Longinus, Porphyry, &c., who God, and, if need require, cheerfully to die for them. corroborate Moses. By the fact testified by Grotius, | Five hundred years after Ezra, a complete copy of that there does not appear in any genuine ancient the Canon of Hebrew Scripture was preserved in the record any testimonies that contradict those produced Temple, with which all others might be collated. And in the Old Testament. By the corroboration of many though Christ often reproached the Scribes and Pharitraditions preserved among different and remote nations. sees for their erroneous glosses on Scripture, he never By the collation of many hundreds of MSS. of the Old said that they had in any way falsified the Scriptures. Scriptures, written at different periods and by various St. Paul (Rom. 3. 2) reckons among their privileges, persons, in all of which MSS. the most wonderful simi- that “to them were committed the oracles of God,” larity is to be observed, the only variations being some without implying that they ever abused their privilege, trifling ones, easily accounted for and explained, and by corrupting them. not of the slightest consequence as to doctrine or fact. The Jewish canonical division of Scripture into three Dr. Kennicott collated 700 Hebrew MSS., without great parts, the Law, the Prophets, and the Holy finding one various reading of any actual importance. Writings, (which commence with the Psalms,) is authoBy the agreement of ancient writings, such as the rized by Our Saviour, (Luke 24. 44,) when he alludes Samaritan Pentateuch, with the Hebrew, which, from to this threefold division : “All things must be fulfilled the violent enmity between the Jews and Samaritans, which were written in the Law of Moses, and in the could never have been by collusion. And the old Chal- Prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning me." dee Targums, or Paraphrases, which agree so remark- With regard to the plenary inspiration of the Old Testaably with the Hebrew as to be more properly trans- ment, i. e., that every word was directed and dictated by lations than paraphrases. By the extraordinary candour the influence of the Holy Spirit on the writers, we shall of the Hebrew writers, who detail simply the frailties first remark the universal consent of the Jews themof their great men and their own national crimes, in selves. The labours of the Jewish doctors called the stead of seeking to exalt themselves and their nation, Masorites, tend both to preserve the genuineness of the like other historians.

Hebrew Scriptures, and to prove their belief in their At a very early period the Old Testament began to be plenary inspiration. They have been at the pains to “Scripture, or writing.” In Deut. 31. 26,27, Moses com count every word, nay, every letter, in each and all manded to " take a Book of the Law," i. e. of the Pen- of the books; so that not the least alteration can tateuch, and“ put it in the side of the ark of the covenant possibly take place. And so convinced are they, that of the Lord your God, that it may be there for a witness even the situation of every letter has been directed by against thee, for I know thy rebellion and thy stiff neck. | inspiration, for the preservation of some doctrine or Behold, while I am yet alive with you this day, ye mystery, that even where a letter would appear by the have been rebellious against the Lord, and how much rules of the language to be wrongly written, they dare more after my death.” And this, by the way, is a very not alter it. One case in point from many others, is the unusual, and not very flattering reason to give to a celebrated text, Isaiah 9. 7, “Of the increase of his nation for preserving a document, viz., to be a testimony government and peace there shall be no end;" lemarbeh, against themselves; and surely their consenting to keep “the increase," is written with a closed Mem D in the such (as we know by the after Scriptures they did), beginning, thus, n2705: this closed Mem according to is a proof that they believed not only in its authenticity, rule is never written but at the end of a word, but the but in its inspiration, and dare not reject it.

Jews dared not in their copies, alter this, or deem it an Joshua read all the words of the Law (not recited, error of the scribe; on the contrary, they regard it as an but read from some written copy), before all the congre express symbol to typify by the closed Mem that Christ gation of Israel.

was to be born of a pure virgin. This first Scripture, the Pentateuch, was kept in a To persons acquainted with Hebrew, the plenary sacred place, the tabernacle, both in the wilderness and inspiration of the Scriptures will prove itself at each in the land of Canaan; and the successive sacred line. Every word has such a deep and forcible meaning, writings that were produced before the building of the that it seems to express the sense of an entire sentence. Temple of Jerusalem were committed to the same safe Every word is chosen with such a superhuman sagacity, custody; but when the Temple was built, Solomon that the reason of employing that word instead of any removed into it these writings, and commanded that all other, appears so wise and so beautiful, the distinction of succeeding Scriptures should be there words which we at first sight would think synonymous,

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