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is so clearly kept up, one word never being put for before the same, or very nearly the same, books were another, that the Hebrew scholar will readily admit acknowledged by the Christians of all countries. The that there is nothing like the original Scriptures,-no persecutions under which the professors of the Gospel writings of human skill can bear comparison with them. | continually laboured, and the want of a national estah
When Our Saviour proved the authenticity of the lishment of Christianity, prevented for several centuries Jewish Canon, of the Law, the Prophets, and the any general assembly of Christians for the purpose of Psalms, (Luke 24. 44,) he also proved its inspiration by settling the canon of their Scriptures.” Thus then the saying that all things written therein concerning Him reception of the canon of the New Testament has not must be fulfilled. Nothing could have been written of been dictated by any man or body of men, but by the Him before his incarnation, unless the writers had in unanimous consent, and the sincere conviction of the them the spirit of Christ, as it is said 1Peter 1. 12, Christian churches. The council of Laodicea did not “ The spirit of Christ which was in them, testified before decree what was the canon of Scripture, it only said. hand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should that no books save those of the canon (to which it follow."
alludes as pre-existing) should be read in the churches. The truth and authenticity of the New Testament is The first regular list that we have is by Origen, but all proved by the undesigned corroborations of many pro- the books are referred to as authentic by other and fane writers (not Christians) as to facts and persons earlier writers. Clemens Alexandrinus says they were mentioned in those Scriptures. Such as the corrobora received by all the churches up to his time. Tertullian tions of Josephus, Diogenes Laërtius, Pausanias, &c., referring to the Epistles, says, “If you wish to see the &c.; the admissions of the enemies of Christianity; ipsæ literæ authenticæ, the authentic letters themselves, Celsus, Porphyry, and Julian, confessed that the books (which seems as if he meant the autographs) go to of the New Testament were written by those persons to Rome, to Corinth, to Philippi, &c.," where these Epistles whose authorship they are ascribed. By the collation had been preserved in the churches. : Tertullian also of hundreds of MSS. of the New Testament Scriptures, says that the Revelations were received from the bewritten at different periods, in different, and often very ginning until his day. remote countries, by various persons: in none of which · As for the pseudo-Gospels and Apocryphal Epistles, has any variation been found affecting faith or doctrine. there is very satisfactory proof that they were never unaIndeed as to the latter, it has been wonderfully and nimously received. We have the testimony of the best mercifully arranged, so that no doctrine rests upon the writers in the second century, that the primitive Churches basis of any single text, but can be proved directly or never admitted any Gospels but those now in use, and inferentially from others: as is observed, (2Peter 1. 20,) that all the books of the New Testament were publicly that no prophecy of Scripture is of private interpretation. read in the Christian congregation; copies of them were By the working out in the person of Christ of the widely spread, and publicly appealed to in the controvertypes of the Law, and prophecies of the Old Testament, sies whether with Jews, Pagans, or the early Heretics. in the most full and clear manner: in fact, in such a As to the inspiration of the New Testament, we will manner as to prove that in Christ alone they could remark first, its high and unmixed and ever consistent be so clearly fulfilled, and in none after or before Him. tone of morality, and its sublime and pure doctrines,
Again, the New Testament is authenticated by the such as no human compositions have ever attained to. very extraordinary and uncommon professions made | Next the Prophecies contained in it, with their present by Our Saviour to his followers. What inducements fulfilment; such as the prediction by Jesus Christ of the does he hold out to them? Honour? Riches ? Ease ? death he should die, (John 13. 32,33,)—the destruction Any kind of advantage ? No! He promises them of the Temple, and the desolation of Jernsalem, (Matt. that they shall be delivered up to be afflicted, and 24,)—the prophecies in the Revelations concerning the they shall be killed, (Matt. 24. 9,) that they shall be Seven Churches,- Laodicea which was rebuked and put into prison, and betrayed by parents and breth- | threatened with destruction has fallen, and is a heap of ren, and kinsfolk, and friends, (Luke 21,) that, he ruins,-Ephesus threatened with the removal of its can: that killeth them shall think he doeth God service. I dlestick, viz., its ministry, has lost its ancient name, and (John 16). Does he promise his followers even fame | subsists only as a village, with a handful of Christians among men, for which many have been content to Sardis, which had left but a few that had not defiled their become hypocrites? No! He tells them even that they garments, has fallen to ruin, but a few Christians reside shall be hated of all nations for his sake, (Matt. 24). | in the village of Sart,— Pergamus, partly commended, Strange inducements whereon to found a falsehood! Yet partly reproved, exists but in part, having been over in spite of these repelling assertions, Jesus found many | thrown by the Turks, but partly rebuilt, and having a tole: followers even among the rich, who had every thing to rable congregation of Christians,—the same may be said lose! And, in a short time, the seed sown by a few sim- of Thyatira,—but Smyrna and Philadelphia, wbich wer ple fishermen and peasants grew to a mighty tree whose commended and encouraged, still exist in a prosperous branches crushed down to earth the lofty and sumptuous state, with large and flourishing Christian communities: temples of their opponents.
We know not how to conclude this article better than a Concerning the Canon of the New Testament, we the words of the learned and amiable Sir William Jones cannot do better than quote from Tomlin, Bishop of in his eight anniversary discourse. “The collectious Lincoln: “The Canon of the New Testament consists tracts which we call from their excellence “the Scriptures, of twenty-seven books, which were written by eight dif- contain more exquisite beauty, purer morality, a ferent authors, all of whom were cotemporary with our important history, and finer strains both of poetry a Saviour. These books were written at different times, I eloquence than could be collected within the same como and at places remote from each other; and when the pass from all other books that ever were compose latest of them was published, the Gospel had been any age or idiom. The two parts of which the preached, and churches founded, in many parts of Europe, tures consist are connected by a chain of compost Asia, and Africa. Different churches at first received which bear no resemblance in form or style to an different books, according to their situation and circum
coraing to their situation and circum- | can be produced from the stores of Greciadlo. stances: their Canons were gradually enlarged, and it | Persian, or even Arabian learning; the antiqu was not long, though the precise time is not known, these compositions no man doubts, and the umre
application of them to events long subsequent to their sarcophagi, afford full proof of the early advance of all publication is a solid ground of belief, that they were the arts of design in Egypt. One great cause of this genuine predictions, and consequently inspired.” M. progress is the abundance of stone suited to ornamental
architecture found in the mountain quarries near the
Nile. These supplied blocks of such enormous size SCROLL. See Book, WRITING, &c.
that columns and even colossal statues were usually
finished and polished in the quarries, from whence they SCULPTURE. The prohibition against the use were drawn on an inclined road, levelled for the purof images in the second commandment prevented the pose, to the Nile, and then conveyed in boats to their Hebrews from devoting much attention to the arts of place of destination. Few nations have equalled the sculpture and painting; ornamental details in architec- Egyptians in the art of giving a polish to granite; speture were similarly neglected until the erection of cimens of their pillars now preserved in the British David's palace and Solomon's temple; indeed, the prin- Museum exhibit a gloss and smoothness which has defied cipal artists employed in both these structures appear to the effects of time and exposure. In the first engraving have been brought from Phænicia and Egypt. The to this article three Egyptians are exhibited polishing a pyramids, the temples and palaces of Luxor and Karnac, pillar, and as the process was performed entirely by the “the trophied sepulchres of the kings,” and the graven hand, it must have been both tedious and expensive.
Among the numerous monumental portraitures of the it was to occupy in the building. Bishop Heber alludes building art found on the walls of the Egyptian sepul- to the previous preparation of the stones for the building chres are some which explain to us a curious circum of the Temple in the following beautiful lines:stance mentioned by the sacred historian in the account
In awful state of the building of Solomon's temple. It is recorded The Temple rear'd its everlasting gate, that “the house, when it was in building, was built of No workman's steel, no ponderous axes rung, stone made ready before it was brought thither; so that Like some tall palm the noiseless fabric sprung. there was neither hammer, nor axe, nor any tool of iron The walls of the palaces were inlaid with precious heard in the house, while it was in building.” (1 Kings metals, ebony and ivory, elaborately carved. This cus6. 7.) This previous squaring and preparation of the tom was imitated by the Jews, for in the 45th Psalm, stones is delineated frequently; the blocks are shown which prophetically refers to the union between Christ accurately measured under the superintendence of a and his Church, but which primarily is a hymeneal ode principal architect, the shape into which it is intended on the marriage of Solomon with the daughter of the that they should be cut being marked on the rough Egyptian Pharaoh, we find a reference to “the ivory stone with a dark line so as to form an accurate guide palaces” prepared for the reception of that princess. to the stonecutter. When the block was finished it (Psalm 45. 8.) Menelaus, who visited Egypt on his received a mark or number which pointed out the place return from Troy, is said by Homer to have decorated
his palace at Sparta after the Egyptian fashion; hence Rich as some fane by lavish zealots rear'd,. Telemachus, who was only accustomed to the less luxu
For the proud banquet stood the hall prepared ;
Thick golden plates the latent beams infold, rious edifices of Ithaca, could not restrain his admiration
And the high roof was fretted o'er with gold ; when he beheld the splendid walls and ceilings of his Of solid marble all the walls were made, Spartan host. He thus addresses Pisistratus,
And onyx e'en the meanest floor inlaid; View'st thou unmov'd, O ever honour'd most,
While porphyry and agate round the court These prodigies of art and wondrous cost ?
In massy columns rose, a proud support; Above, beneath, around the palace shines
Of solid ebony each post was wrought, The sumless treasures of exhausted mines;
From swarthy Meroè profusely brought; The spoils of elephants the roofs inlay,
With ivory was the entrance crusted o'er, And studded amber darts a golden ray.
And polish'd tortoise hid each shining door ; Such, and not nobler, in the realms above,
While on the cloudy spots enchased was seen My wonder dictates is the throne of Jove.-Odyssey, iv.
The lovely emerald's never-fading green.— Pharsalia, L' According to Lucan, the Ptolemies revived all the The art of sculpture was governed by very strict rules: ancient splendour of the Pharaohs in their palatial edi- there were fixed proportions established for every figure, fices. His description of the banqueting-hall of Cleo which the statuary was not permitted to violate; and patra gives us some very interesting information respect- hence arises the great sameness in the Egyptian statues, ing the extent to which these expensive decorations were and the stiffness for which they are all remarkable. carried, and it will serve to give some notion of the Isaiah describes the process of idol-making very migorgeous palace erected by Solomon which was built nutely. “The carpenter stretcheth out his rule; he after the model of the Egyptian Pharaohs.
marketh it out with a line; he fitteth it with planes, and
he marketh it out with the compass; and maketh it after statuaries always went to reside for a time in Egypt, as the figure of a man, according to the beauty of a man; modern artists do in Italy, to study the principles of their that it may remain in his house.” (Isai. 44. 13.) art. He particularly mentions Telecles and Theodorus,
The mode of proceeding will easily be understood by a the sons of Rhæcus, who made the celebrated statue of reference to the accompanying engraving. When a the Pythian Apollo at Samos, after, what he calls," the proper block of marble or granite had been procured by Egyptian fashion.” He explains this fashion to be the sculptor, the surface was first smoothed, and parallel the separate execution of the parts, for the statue was lines drawn from top to bottom; other lines were then divided into two parts, at the groin: one half was cut drawn, at equal distances, from side to side, so as to by Telecles at Samos, and the other by Theodorus at divide the whole into a series of squares. The size of Ephesus; yet, when they were joined together, they these squares was proportioned to the size of the figure, fitted so exactly that the whole seemed the work of one but the number of them was invariable, whatever might hand. And this seemed the more admirable, when the be the dimensions of the figure : nineteen of these attitude of the statue was considered, for it had its bands squares, according to some authorities, and twenty-one extended, and its legs at a distance from each other, in and one-fourth according to others, were allowed for the a moving posture. height of the human body: when smaller figures, or 1 We thus see that Egyptian sculpture was almost ornaments, were introduced, the squares were subdivided wholly a mechanical process; the laws of the country into smaller squares, proportioned to the less figure. prohibited the intervention of novelty in subjects conThe outline was then traced, and its proportions were sidered sacred; and the more effectually to prevent the invariable: this, which to moderns would seem the most violation of prescribed rules, it was ordained that the important part of the process, required no great exertion profession of an artist should not be exercised by any of skill in the Egyptian artist. It was then inspected by common or illiterate person. Mr. Wilkinson, indeed, the master-sculptor, who wrote on various parts of it, in has shown the great probability of the higher artists hieratic characters, such directions as he thought it having been included in the ranks of the priesthool.... necessary to give to the inferior artists who actually cut some instances, however, we find reason to believe that the figure. The colossal statue on which the workmen the Egyptian artists broke through these trammels. In the in the accompanying engraving are engaged, appears so two granite statues of lions presented by Lord.mn far advanced towards completion that the instructions of to the British Museum, we perceive a boldness and tre the master-sculptor have been chiselled away. We are of execution scarcely compatible with a strict ad informed by Diodorus Siculus, that the most eminent to mechanical rule. This rejection of the rigid Egypt
standard may, perhaps, be ascribed to the fact of these they were probably known by the names Gog and statues having been sculptured in Upper Egypt, where Magog. From the remotest ages hordes of these fierce the conventional rules of caste appear to have been less barbarians have been accustomed to migrate from their strictly observed than in the vicinity of Thebes and steppes and deserts into the more fertile regions of the Memphis. The earlier statues of the Egyptian artists, south; and hence they were usually regarded with equal so far as their age has been ascertained, seem to possess fear and hatred by civilized nations. Their principal more freedom, though less minute finish, than those of a military strength was in their cavalry; the horses and more recent date.
men were covered with a kind of scale-armour, made of One great impediment to the progress of Egyptian the sliced hoofs of horses, which, we are told, was so art was the preference shown for colossal statues, some strong as to turn aside an arrow, or blunt a sabre. This
of which were of so stupendous a size, that was more particularly the costume of that division of the even in the present day, with all the mecha | Scythian race called Sarmatians. St. Paul uses the word nical contrivances of modern ingenuity, we “ Scythian” as synonymous with “barbarian;" and from RC should view the transport of such | the way in which he alludes to the people, we may con
clude that the doctrines of Christianity were preached to some portion of these wild tribes so early as the Apostolic age. C.
SCYTHOPOLIS. See BETHSAN.
Colossal Statue drawn to its place.
SEA. The Hebrews gave the name of sea to all masses as a difficulty that could scarce be surmounted.
great collections of water, such as lakes, and even rivers. But, from the representation we have copied in the
Thus the Lake of Tiberias, or Cinnereth, in Galilee, accompanying engraving of a colossal statue removed
was called the Sea of Galilee, Gennesareth, or Tiberias; from the place in which it was wrought to that which it
the Lake of Sodom, the Dead Sea, &c. Isaiah (11. 15) was destined to occupy, it appears that the Egyptians
calls the Delta, at the mouth of the Nile, “ the tongue of used human force only, and supplied their want of me
the Egyptian Sea." The only seas, properly so called, chanical facilities for transport by employing a vast
mentioned in Scripture, are the Red Sea and the Medinumber of labourers.
terranean. See the articles enumerated. C. We see that the Colossus was mounted on a sledge and drawn along a species of railroad, previously levelled, by mere human force. A man stands on the front of
SEAL or SIGNET, Oni chotam. The substanthe sledge pouring oil, or water, on the rails, to facilitate
tive Seal is derived from the verb DNN chalam, which sigthe transit, while another, standing on the knees of the nifies to close up as with some glutinous substance. Pliny statue, beats time with his hands, in order that all the says that seals were not known among the Greeks as workmen should pull togeiher. On these occasions | early as the Trojan war; but that they closed their letters there was a general holiday along the road by which the | by rolling thread or flax round them, and securing the statue passed; crowds of priests and warriors formed a string with several knots. Seals, however, were known procession in front, shouting and waving branches of to the Hebrews at a much earlier period. Judah, who palm; while relays of labourers followed behind, ready lived before the founding of the kingdom of Troy, gave to take the places of those who might become weary. his signet as a pledge to Tamar (Gen. 38. 18.) From The whole representation gives a very vivid impression the derivation of the substantive, it is evident that seals of the perverse idolatry of the Egyptians, and adds fresh
were used to close up, to obstruct from free access, by force to the prophet's denunciation: “ Thus said the | setting some peculiar mark on some adhesive substance, Lord God; I will also destroy the idols, and I will cause such as bees'-wax, pitch, gum, or some resinous matter, their images to cease out of Noph (Memphis); and placed over a fold, tie, or opening. there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt: Letters and other documents were anciently written and I will put a fear in the land of Egypt." (Ezek. as scrolls, rolled up, a string passed round them, the 30. 13.) T.
adhesive matter placed on the tie, and then stamped with the signet. The seal, or signet, was worn on the finger set in a ring, (Jerem. 22. 24,) or on the arm set in a bracelet. (Cantic. 8. 6.) This verse of the Canticles also says, “ Set me as a seal on thine heart," which is generally understood to be an allusion to the engraved pectoral of the high-priest, who wore the names of the twelve tribes engraven, like signets, over his heart. Others think that it means a jewel engraven like a signet, with the name of the beloved person, and hung round the neck, as engraved stones or gems were worn as amulets in later times. Before the engraving of gems was known, or much practised, the seal was made of metal, either silver or gold: sometimes the ring was of iron, and the signet part of gold. In the early times, such as in the days of Judah, it is most probable that the word or device, which was the distinguishing mark of each particular signet, was raised or embossed in the
metal in alto relievo. Afterwards, in the time of Moses, Scythian Cavalry.
when the engraving of jewels, “as the engraving of a SCYTHIAN. The tribes inhabiting Northern signet," is spoken of, such engraving is plainly "cutting Europe and Asia were called, in a very vague sanse. into," as may be understood from the words used, which Scythians, by the Greeks and Romans; to the Her
| are On cheresh, signifying also to plough, to make
furrows; and nn palach, signifying to open, scil., by pressed with the great seal of the writer. The tassels incision.
sometimes contain in a knot a slip of paper, inscribed - Stiff adhesive clay of the nature of mortar seems to with the name and principal title of the writer. This have been used sometimes for the purposes of sealing; sealed bag is put finally into another bag of fine muslin, see Job 38. 14, “ It is turned as clay to the seal.” The and is then ready for the messenger. word here translated clay, 12 chomar, is used (Gen. 11. | The seal or signet was sometimes used for the sign 3,) as mortar for building. It was probably with this | manual (as the seals of Mahometans are often to this that the chief priests and Pharisees sealed up the stone day in the East), by inking the engraved part, and imof Christ's sepulchre; closing the parts that came toge- pressing it upon the substance written on. It was prother with mortar, and impressing it while fresh with bably in this manner that Jezebel used Ahab's signet, their signets. In the same manner might be sealed up when she wrote letters in his name concerning Naboth. the wells or fountains, as alluded to in Canticles 4. 12, “A garden inclosed is my sister, my spouse, a spring shut up, a fountain sealed.” Springs and fountains were covered over with a large stone (Gen. 29. 3,) to preserve them from dirt, and might be sealed to pre
KEIT serve the ownership of them, as they were valuable possessions, and sometimes occasioned disputes. (Gen. 21. 25, and 26. 20.) The double allusion, both as to covering from injury and preserving the right of possession, is applicable to Solomon's spouse, allegorically a sealed fountain. On this verse Bishop Patrick remarks, “Coto
Signet of the present Sultan. vicus, in his Itinerary, says, that there is a fountain three miles from Bethlehem southward, called by the (1 Kings 21.) Sentences, as texts or maxims, were name of Fountain Sealed; to which he went, and was engraven on seals (as is still done in the East), and to told that water still runs from thence in pipes to the this custom alludes John 3.33, “He that hath received place where Solomon's temple stood. But he himself his testimony, hath set to his seal that God is true;" i.e., intimates, that herein he follows an uncertain report." | John, who hath received Christ's testimony, has made This spring, however, which is even yet called the “Sealed the text, “God is true,” his maxim, as though he enFountain,” still supplies with water the three remarkable graved it on his signet, in the manner of what we now reservoirs, called Solomon's Pools, about an hour's dis call mottos. Similar is the allusion in 2Timothy 2. 19, tance from Bethlehem. It arises under ground, and “The foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, there is no access to it but by a hole like a narrow well. The Lord knoweth them that are his.” This latter senAfter descending this for about four yards, Maundrell | tence is represented as the text, or motto, of the seal says, the traveller comes to a vaulted room, forty-five (figuratively speaking) impressed upon " the foundation feet long and twenty-five broad, adjoining which is a of God," which means here believers, built up in relisimilar room, but of smaller size. Both are covered gious truth. with handsome and very ancient stone arches, supposed The New Testament writers use the symbol seal, to to be the work of Solomon. Here are four sources of denote the marking out of God's people from the wicked, the water, which flows into a kind of basin, and thence by impressing them, as it were, with his peculiar signet; by a subterranean channel down to Solomon's pools. whereby also they are sealed up, or the access of evil The friars at Bethlehem point out this spring as the to them obstructed, as in Revelation 7, where the sersealed fountain to which Solomon compared his bride. vants of God are sealed in the forehead before the woes They have a tradition that he shut up this spring, and are let loose on the earth. In the parallel passage, sealed the mouth of the well with his signet, to preserve (Ezek. 9. 4,6,) a mark is set on the foreheads of the the water pure for his own drinking. The tradition mourners for the iniquity of the city, which mark Parkharmonizes very well with the epithet he chose for his hurst understands to mean the impression of a seal bride.
made with ink, as above stated. Deeds, covenants, and other writings of consequence, The Talmudists say the mark was the Hebrew letter were sealed up, and placed in a vessel, having a seal on m tau, which was symbolical of life, and was anciently its mouth for security. (See Jeremiah 32.) So the Greeks written as a cross. used to keep important documents closed up in vessels 1 Seal is also used figuratively for a confirmation, as the of brass or earthenware. The Jews also put them into | seal confirms a deed or covenant. So St. Paul sars of sealed bags; leathern bags most probably, for greater the Corinthians (1Cor. 9. 2,) “ The seal of mine apostledurability. To this custom Job alludes, chapter 14. 17, ship are ye in the Lord:" because their conversion and .6 My transgression is sealed up in a bag," as if it were instruction was the confirmation of his mission. In a testimony or evidence against him. So Deuteronomy John 6. 29, God is said to have sealed Christ, because 32. 34, Moses, speaking in the Lord's name, of the | in his incarnation he confirmed his divine mission by divine displeasure against iniquity, says, “Is not this the voice from heaven (Matt. 3. 17,) and by miraculous laid up in store with me, and sealed up among my powers. treasures ?"
Sealing is also used for the operation of the Holy Letters of consequence or from persons of rank are Spirit, as the impression of a seal upon the converted, still inclosed and sealed up in bags in the East. In Moor's and no longer hardened heart of man, (Eph. 1. 13,14.) Oriental Fragments is a description of such inclosing. | “In whom (Christ) also after that ye believed, ye were The letter being folded, sealed, and directed, is put into sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise which is the a bag wf fine muslin, which is placed within another earnest of our redemption, &c." bag, larger, and made of very rich silk, thickly em- A parallel text is in 2Corinthians 1. 22. broidered in flowers of gold or silver. The top of this The seven seals which John saw (Rev. 5. 1.) on the bag is tied, about two or three inches down, with a long sealed up book of prophecy are a mark of its importstring of silk and gold twist, with tassels at the ends; ance. This seems to have been the book of Daniels and the string is passed through a mass of red wax, im- vision which he was commanded to seal up (that it