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should remain private) till the time of the end; till "An appointed, given, or limited time, is expressed by opened as in the Apocalypse.
the Chaldee word 19i zemon, as in Daniel 2. 16. In the second century after Christ, the Basilideans When the promise is made to Noah (Gen. 8. 22,) used gems, shaped and engraved after the manner of that the seasons shall succeed each other in due rotation, seals, for superstitious purposes, as amulets, and bearing without any interruption from destructive phenomena, their mystic devices. These seals, or engraved stones, such as the Deluge, six kinds of division of the year are commonly called Abraxean gems, from the mystical seem to be indicated, -seed-time and harvest, and cold word Abraxas, or Abrasax, which is frequently read on and heat, and summer and winter. Summer and winter them, and which is thought to be the name applied to alone have peculiar names appropriated to them. The their Supreme Being. The Greek letters of which it is word autumn never occurs in our translation, and spring composed, in their numerical value, make up the amount only once, in Ezekiel 17. 9, “ It shall wither in all the of 365; which they taught was the number of the spiri- leaves of her spring,” where it might be equally well tual powers, or angels, which proceeded in gradations translated, “branch," as “all the leaves of her branch," from the celestial regions (called Pleroma or Fullness), as the same word nay tzemach is in other parts of and governed the universe. The word abraxas was of Scripture rendered “branch.” Summer, in Genesis 8. Egyptian origin, and was thence adopted by the Basili- | 22, and the other parts of Scripture, is Yp' kilz, from deans. On their stones are also to be read the names the verb YP' jakatz, to awaken: literally, the awakening of Jao (abbreviated from Jehovah) Adonai, Sabbaoth. | season, which in this sense includes spring, being, togeBut these heretics had no veneration for the God of ther, that division of the year when the earth is awakened Moses; whom so far from considering to be the Supreme from its dormant winter state..
. God, they placed as the last and lowest of the angels The Jewish civil year began in our September. The first (whom they called Æons) as the creator of this inferior season in order to be noticed is seed-time, yn zero or world.
serang, so called from the verb yn zarang, to spread It was a distinguishing feature of these kind of here abroad. Its duration was from the last part of Tisri, sies, that they interwove some of the doctrines of Chris- | through all Marchesvan, and the first half of Chisleu; tianity with the mythology of the Egyptians; and some that is, from the beginning of October to the beginning interminglings of Greek mythology and philosophy. of December. During this time the Jews ploughed, Most of these Abraxean gems, or seals, bear inscriptions sowed wheat and barley, and gathered the latest grapes. in Greek, very difficult to be understood, on account of At this period they lighted their fires, and left their cool the cabbalistic and mysterious words which disguise the summer houses, or small country seats, to retire to the sense. On some of them are seen human figures, with warmer houses in the town. (Jerem. 36. 22.) the head of a cock; or a cock having other heads and In speaking of seed-time we may here remark, that figures incorporated with it; in allusion to the Greek the Jews were forbidden, in Leviticus 19. 19, and god of healing, Esculapius, whose symbol was a cock, to Deuteronomy 22. 9, to sow their fields and their vinebetoken the vigilance necessary to a physician.
yards with divers seeds. The cause of this prohibition, These gems were most probably medical amulets, used we learn from Maimonides, was, that the sowing of by these mystics in their pretensions to medico-magic, divers seeds together was an idolatrous custom of pagan to which they were much addicted, and by which they | people, such as the Zabians and Amorites, in honour of are accused of having imposed on the rich and credu some of their false deities, and attended with charms and lous. :
M. fumigations, and even with filthy rites. Maimonides men
tions the sowing together of corn and dried grapes, which SEAR. A Hebrew measure containing about a seems to be some old rite in honour of the ancient Ceres: gallon and a half, liquid measure, or about a peck, dry and Bacchus. Verse 9 above quoted in Deuteronomy measure.
22, countenances the conjecture that the prohibition to
the Jews was on account of idolatry; for it gave as a SEASON. A season of the year is expressed in reason, “ Lest the fruit of the seed which thou hast Hebrew by the word tyo moad or magnad. It is sown, and the fruit of thy vineyard, be defiled,” i.e., derived from the verb 7. joad or jagnad, to appoint. God would not accept the offering of the first-fruits of In some parts of Scripture, as in Numbers 10. 4, and what had been sown contrary to his law and his honour, 14. 35; Joshua 11. 5, it signifies to meet by appoint- and then the whole would be unclean, and unfit for the ment: and thus the idea is beautifully marked of the use of man. heavenly bodies meeting at appointed times in their set Winter, 200 choreph, from the verb 900 charaph, conjunctions, and arriving at their due place in the to strip: literally, the stripping time, when the trees are firmament; and thus bringing about what we call the stripped of leaves, and the earth of flowers. The same seasons.
root signifies to reproach: figuratively, to strip of honour; This nyo moad, is the word used where we have it ren hence winter is also called 900 choreph, as it were the dered." set time" in Genesis 17.21; because it refers to reproach of the earth. This season was the last part of the season of the year at which Sarah was to bear Isaac; Chisleu, all Tebet, and the beginning of Shebeth, i.e., and for the same reason the word hyo moad is used, from the beginning of December to the beginning of (2Kings 14. 16,) alluding to the season of the year at February. In Judæa it is extremely cold, with vehewhich the Shunamite's son (an only one, and a child of ment storms of wind and rain, which do great damage; promise, like Sarah's,) was to be brought forth. Also hence Our Lord's parable of the house that fell when the in Hosea 2. 9, “I will return and take away my wine in rain descended and the winds blew. (Matt. 7. 26.) The the season,” because referring to the vintage season, cold season, 737 kor, is the end of Shebeth, all Adar, which was in July. And in Deuteronomy 16. 6, “Thou and beginning of Nisan, i.e., from the beginning of shalt sacrifice the passover at even, at the season that February to the beginning of April. The commencethou camest forth out of Egypt," i.e., in the Spring. ment of this season is very cold, but soon becomes
Where “ season” in our translation means any inde- warmer. Then by the melting of the snow formerly finite time, it is expressed in Hebrew by ny oat or the Jordan used to overflow its banks so much as to gnat, as in Exodus 18. 22; Jeremiah 33. 5; Ezekiel 34. constitute an era in the times, (1 Chron. 12. 15,) “ These 26; Deuteronomy 28. 17. . .
are they that went over Jordan in the first month, when
Fermatt, * i.e., in the Sprang inde
warmy ordan used
it had overflowed all its banks.” This “first month” | The next star, SD2 Cesil, which our version renders Orion is Nisan, which was the beginning of the ecclesiastical (“ or loose the bands of Orion,") is thought by Dr. Hales year. This inundation was so great as to drive the for astronomical reasons, to be Antares in Scorpio, which wild beasts from their lairs. Jeremiah, in chap. 49. 19, / was the cardinal constellation of the autumnal equinor and 50. 44, speaks of the lion coming up from the swel- in Job's time. “Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in lings of Jordan. This river is now so shrunk that it his season?" What star or constellation is meant be is scarcely perceptible, particularly in summer, till the Mazzaroth has not been ascertained. The most probable traveller approaches close to its channel, the sides of Hebrew verb from which the word could be derived which are closely veiled by thickets. The barley at seems to be 778 azar, to bind, to girdle; whence it has this time was usually ripe.
been supposed that Mazzaroth means the whole zodiae · The harvest, 7933 katzir, from the verb 737 katzar, or girdle of the heavens, with its signs, but it is not to mow and reap, lasted from the latter end of Nisan, certain that the zodiac was known in Job's days. Derived during all Jyar or Ziv, to the first half of Sivan; that is, from 18 azar, to girdle, it would appear very strikingly from the beginning of April to the beginning of June. that Mazzaroth is Orion, a constellation most remarkable The wheat and barley harvest took place at this time, for his brilliant belt of stars. Ancient nations calculated the barley being the first. During harvest time rain their seasons by the heliacal rising of certain stars and very seldom falls; the weather is delightful, and the air constellations, i.e., their rising just before the sun. Orion's is serene. Where, in 1 Samuel 12. 17, the prophet says, heliacal rising is in July, and was formerly in the middle “ Is it not wheat harvest to-day? I will call unto the of June: this would make him the fit constellation to Lord, and he shall send thunder and rain, that ye may mark the summer in this passage of Job. True, among perceive and see that your wickedness is great,” the classical writers we find Orion considered under a storing occurrence of thunder and rain at this season is made | aspect. Anacreon (Ode 17,) calls him ovyvov Splova, use of as a miracle, so that when it took place," the sad Orion; and Horace, (Epode 15,) “Nautes infestus people greatly feared." So Proverbs 26. 1, classes rain Orion," Orion hostile to sailors; but that is in his acroin harvest with snow in summer, as equally strange and nycal rising, (i. e., rising about sunset,) which was in injurious.
November. Then, when he is visible at nigbt, is the Summer, 'Tp kitz, or the awakened season, is the season of storms, whence his appellations among the latter half of Sivan, all Thammuz, and the beginning of Greek and Roman writers. Wherefore in the 4th book Ab; that is, from the beginning of June to the begin
of the Æneid, Anna persuades Dido to detain Æneas, ning of August. The weather is then so warm in while winter and watery Orion vex the sea : Judæa, that the people live very much upon the roofs of 1 Dum Pelago desævit Hyems, et aquosus Orion! their houses. (See art. Roop.) Those who had summer L “ Canst thou ..... guide Arcturus and his sons? residences in the country, repaired thither, or to their It is pretty generally received that wy Gnish means “summer parlours, well ventilated and artificially Arcturus in the constellation Bootes, formerly Arciocooled. (See Amos 3. 15; Judges 3. 20-24.) This was phylax, the bear-ward. “His sons," alludes to the group the time of the vintage.
of Boötes and his greyhounds (the Canes Venatici) The hot season, Di chum, or the great heat, is the and the Great Bear, which is close to him. These latter part of Ab, all Elul, and the beginning of Tisri; northern constellations represent winter in opposition to i.e., from the beginning of August to the beginning of Mazzaroth. The heliacal risings of Arcturus begin in October. During this time the heat is intense in most October. It was considered a stormy star: “Sers parts of Judæa, and the face of the country is burnt up, impetus Arcturi cadentis," (Hor. Ode 1, book in.) in and the fountains and brooks dried away.
the note to which are quoted the following lines:Throughout the Scriptures, the seasons most com
Increpui hybernum et fluctus movi mantimos, monly alluded to are summer and winter, making, as it Nam que Arcturus signum omnium sum accerrimum, were, the year into two principal divisions, the awakened, Vehemens sum exoriens, cum occido vehementur. Y'p kitz, and the stripped, 700 choreph, the spring “I have chidden (or vexed) winter, and moved the being included in the former, and the autumn as the ocean-floods. For I am Arcturus, the most stern siga commencing part of the latter, when the first leaves of all; I am vehement when I rise, more vehement when begin to fall off, and when the flowers have dropped, I set." but are succeeded by fruits. So Job 29. 1-4, “O that I The former and the latter rains are seasons olter I were as in months past, as I was in the days of my mentioned in Scripture, and answer to autumnal and youth.” (In the Hebrew, “ As I was in the days of my vernal periods. These rains are called by the den winter.") Job could not mean winter, that dreary season 777 jorah, (sometimes 7710 moreh,) and upro midi which is symbolical of age and desolation; but his kosh. The Rabbins, and most of the commentators, autumn, when his judgment was matured, and when its agree that jorah, which we translate " the former fald, fruits had succeeded to the flowers of his spring and was the rain of autumn; and malkosh, (which we summer. So in Isaiah 18. 6, when the prophet foretels render - the latter rain,") was the spring rain. the destruction of the Ethiopians, and that the birds Jews began their civil year in autumn, this " and beasts shall have a year's food on them, he says, natural order to them. But Calmet and others “The fowls shall summer upon them, and all the beasts that jorah is the vernal rain, and malkosh the autum of the earth shall winter upon them.”
because jorah is always mentioned first in the Scriptura The four seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and win- spring being naturally the beginning of the per ter, seem to be indicated in Job 38. 31,32, by reference to the Jews, however,) and because malkosh, to remarkable stars. “Canst thou bind the sweet influ- from wps lakash, a verb signifying to make the ence of Pleiades?" These are seven stars in the constel
to crop, to gather; also because Joel 2. 23, says
malkosh.) in lation of Taurus, which rise with the sun about the will cause to come down to you the rain (malko. vernal equinox, generally accompanied by rains, harmo
the civil rear nox, generally accompanied by rains, harmo- | the first month," which first month of the nizing with the latter rain or spring rain of the Hebrews. | would be Tisri (October). But it is to be remes Dr. Hales produces astronomical proofs that Taurus
a proors that Taurus that the prophets always spoke of the eccitada was the cardinal spring-constellation in Job's time. See
the first month of which is Nisan (March), according Horne's Introduction,
which malkosh would be the March and Apa
ause malkosh is derived
Psalm 84. 7, says, “The rain (jorah) filleth the pools,” | which the dignitaries of the court and nobles may sit is which seems to indicate that jorah was the autumnal regulated by the strictest etiquette. The same particurain, that filled the pools after the summer's drought. liarity is observed in every department of public and As for the derivation, we may understand malkosh to be private life, in the formal divan, in the social feast, and derived from wps lakash, to gather, or make the vin- even in the retirement of the domestic chamber. To tage, because that rain coming in spring caused the crops this peculiarity there are many allusions in Scripture: to grow, and prepared them for being gathered. 77 thus “the seat of Moses," in which the Scribes and jorah, is derived from 7' jarah, to cast forth like darts, | Pharisees sate, expresses metaphorically the dignity also to guide, instruct, regulate. Jorah seems derived which belonged to their office as teachers or expounders from this yerb, because falling in October and Novem- | of the Law; “the seat of honour” to which allusion is ber, after the seed was sown, it prepared the earth for made in the Apocrypha, was the highest seat in the casting it forth. The Septuagint, indeed, translates synagogue so much coveted by the Pharisees. Thrones jorah (which the Jews consider the autumnal rain,) as are mentioned only in reference to deity or sovereignty; mpwipov, the early, and malkosh, oyupov, the late every other kind of dignity is determined by the seat. rain; but as the Seventy-two were translating into a It was usual for persons who were greatly respected to Gentile language, it is natural to suppose they might use be employed as judges or arbitrators; and for such seats the Gentile order of nature.
were provided in some public place, round which the The two rainy seasons in Judæa are in the latter part people respectfully stood, paying the most respectful of October and beginning of November, and latter end reverence to the person deemed worthy of occupying the of March and beginning of April. Rain at any other seat. Job alludes to this interesting characteristic of time is very rare. The autumnal rains are not without ancient simplicity. intermission, but fall in frequent and heavy showers. When I walked early through the city, The weather during the day is warm, but at night cold.
And a seat was set for me in the streets; The spring rains are violent, and accompanied by chilly
The young men saw me and made way for me;
The aged ranged themselves around me; weather.
The rulers restrained themselves from talking, There is a tradition that before the fall of man the
And laid their hands upon their mouths. globe was not placed obliquely as at present; that there
Wemyss's Translation. was no variation of seasons, nor twilight; and that had A similar custom prevailed in ancient Greece, and is man continued innocent the earth would have been mentioned by Homer in his description of the shield of blessed with one perpetual spring or mild summer. We | Achilles. find nothing corroborative in Scripture, except that it
The appointed heralds still the noisy bands, appears from Genesis 2. 5,6, that before the fall, at least,
And form a ring, with sceptres in their hands; there was no rain : “the Lord God had not caused it to
On seats of stone within the sacred place
The reverend elders ponder'd o'er the case. rain upon the earth, but there went up a mist from the
Iliad, xviii. earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.” To
Among the Romans a chair of a particular form was this tradition of the change of the position of the earth
used by the magistrates when administering justice, and at the fall, and the introduction of the different seasons,
this is "the judgment-seat" so often mentioned by the Milton alludes, Paradise Lost, book x.
writers of the New Testament. C.
SEBA. The son of Cush and grandson of Ham;
the genealogists say that he was the progenitor of the As might affect the earth with cold and heat
tribes on the west of the Euphrates. Scarce tolerable; and from the north to call Decrepit winter, from the south to bring
SEBAT. The fifth month of the Jewish civil year,
and the eleventh of the ecclesiastical year.
SECRET. We may perceive throughout the whole Oblique the centre globe; some say, the sun
tenor of Scripture, that there are two classes of secrets: Was bid turn reins from the equinoctial road,
Ist, A secret, utterly and entirely such, which is not Like distant breadth to Taurus, with the seven
intended to be revealed; which the understanding of Atlantic sisters, and the Spartan twins,
man is incapable of comprehending; or of which the Up to the Tropic Crab: thence down amain By Leo, and the Virgin, and the Scales,
existence may be made known; but not the nature and As deep as Capricorn; to bring in change
manner. 2nd, A secret hidden from the world in geneOf seasons to each clime; else had the spring
rel, but which may be revealed at some fitting time, to Perpetual smil'd on earth with vernant flowers,
selected persons; in fact, a secret less absolutely such Equal in days and nights.
than the foregoing. The same tradition is alluded to in Ovid's Metamor
| At the head of the first class are those secrets belongphoses, book i.; after the golden age, Jupiter shortens the
ing to the Almighty, which are sometimes called the spring, and divides the year into four seasons, summer,
deep things of God; those ineffable depths into which winter, unequal autumn, and short spring; then first
we are unable to look. The essence and nature of God, was ice and burning heat.
his eternal duration without beginning or end, his omniJupiter antiqui contraxit tempora viris,
potence, omnipresence, and omniscience; all these are Perque hyemes, æstusque, et inæqualis autumnos, Et breve ver, spatiis exegit quatuor annum.
deep and secret things which our finite minds cannot Tum primum siccis aer fervoribus ustus
contain; and even the faint idea of which caused the Canduit; et ventis glaciis astricta pependit.
Psalmist to exclaim, (Psalm 139. 6,) “Such knowledge M.
is too wonderful for me, it is high, I cannot attain unto
it.” In Deuteronomy 29. 29, such unfathomable secrets SEAT. The place in which a person is seated are put in opposition to those things which would have regulates, in Eastern nations, the degree of rank or pre been secrets but for Revelation, but which are made cedence which he claims for himself, or receives from known at fitting times to fitting persons: “ The secret others. In Persia, the distance from the throne thin things belong unto the Lord our God; but those things
which are revealed belong unto us and to our children | ters says, “ Where are their gods? Let them rise me for ever, that we may do all the words of his law.” and be your protection," (700 seter, secret place,) i. e...
Of the second class are things not generally known, your hiding-place from my vengeance. but revealed at fitting times to fitting persons, such as In Proverbs 9. 17, it is used for a theft, which of those revelations of God's will and his ways as he has course the perpetrator would closely conceal. “Stolen been pleased to make known from time to time, though waters are sweet, and bread eaten in secret is pleasant." not generally; and also his secret and inward commu. Prov. 21. 19, the “ gift in secret” that“ pacifies anger," nion with, and influence on the spirit of man.
suggests the idea of a bribe, a common Oriental mode In the Hebrew Scriptures this distinction is more of pacification to this day. In Judges 3. 19, the secret obviously made than in our version, by the use of two errand Ehud pretended to Eglon, appeared from the use different words, 720 seter, applied to the first class, and of this word to be so profound a secret that none but 710 sod to the second. D seler (or its form and Eglon himself should know it, wherefore all persons were nesterath,) derived from the verb 700 satar, to hide or sent out from his presence. It must be observed, how. conceal, is the word used in Deuteronomy 29. 29: ever, that the use of the word 770 seter in the absolute “The secret things belong to the Lord our God," i.e., sense of secresy is limited to the substantive and adjechis unapproachable depths, or the secret things reserved | tive. The verb 700 is used in the general senses of for himself alone, as contradistinguished from the to hide, to conceal. " things revealed” in the latter part of the verse.
The second class of secrets, things less absolutely hidPsalm 31. 7, “Thou calledst in trouble, and I de- den than the first, not universally known, but revealed livered thee; I answered thee in the secret place of at fitting times to fitting persons, is marked by the use thunder:” the unknown dwelling of God which we of the word 710 sod, which occurs only as a noun in cannot conjecture, knowing only that the “heaven of Hebrew; there is no verb whence it is derived. The heavens cannot contain him.” (1 Kings 8. 27.)
highest sense of it is in its application to those operaA parallel passage is in Psalm 27. 5: “In the secret tions and counsels of God which he is pleased to reveal of his Tabernacle shall he hide me,” used here as a at his own time; and also his secret communion with highly figurative expression for the extreme security of the spirit of man. So in Job 29. 2,4, " () that I was a hiding place undiscoverable by enemies.
as when the secret (710 sod) of God was upon my Isaiah 65. 19. The Lord says, “I have not spoken tabernacle,” i. e., the peace of God which passeth general in secret places, in a dark place of the earth.” He did worldly understanding. Psalm 25. 14, “The secret of not keep his law an unapproachable secret from Israel; the Lord is with them that fear him; and he will show but made it publicly known, as at Mount Sinai. Daniel, them his covenant;” not only the peace of God, but in chap. 2, ver. 22, speaking of God, says, “ He re- gracious revealings of his will and his way, uncomprevealeth the deep and secret things,” (X17Da mesete- hended by the wicked. A parallel passage is John rata, formed from and seler.) At first sight this may 7. 17: “If any man will do his (God's) will, he shall appear to mean God's revelation to Daniel of the secret know of the doctrine whether it be of God, or whether of Nebuchadnezzar's vision, which did not remain a I speak of myself.” Amos 3, “Surely God will do secret, but was publicly explained. But on looking at nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto his prophets." the original text, we shall find that these “ deep and | Here 710 sod, a secret that will be revealed is used secret things” do not relate to the explained vision; instead of 70 seter, an incomprehensible secret; such throughout the whole chapter, wherever the secret of the as is alluded to in Deuteronomy 29. 29; TID secret, here, dream is mentioned, as in verses 18,19,28,30,47, the is that which God resolved in his privacy to do, which word used is XIV raza, 147 razin, plural, clearly distin-| remained a secret till revealed at a fitting season to fitguishing it from the “deep and secret things” above, which ting persons, the prophets. This word, TID sod, secret, thus appear to allude, not to the explained dream, but is sometimes translated counsel, and applied to the deto those deep things of God's nature, the existence of terminations of God, private till the proper time of their which he has given us to know, but not the manner of revelation. Jerem. 23. 18,“ Who hath stood in the counthem, such as his attributes of omnipotence and omni. | sel (secret) of the Lord;" i. e., what prophet can prescience, &c. Thus Daniel blesses God that he had re- tend to announce God's will, of his own knowledge, vealed such knowledge of those attributes as (without before it has been revealed to him? Hence comes a understanding the manner of them,) gave him (Daniel) lower sense of the word as counsel, private conference, and his companions faith, to seek assistance in their (Gen. 49. 6,) “O my soul, come not into their secret, straight from God, as able to hear them and to aid them. I i.e., into the private counsel wherein they plotted And the prayer of faith being answered, Daniel thanks cruelty. T1D sod, not 770 seter, is used, because it was and praises God accordingly. (Psalm 30. 12.) “Who not an absolute secret, but known to a few. Job 19. 19, can understand his errors? Cleanse thou me from my “All my inward (or secret) friends abhorred me," i. l., secret faults,” (1990) nester, from 770 seter,) particularly the confidants of my private counsels. Prov. 11, 13, appropriate here as meaning those sins which are actu “A tale-bearer revealeth secrets,” (T1D sod;) what he ally a secret to ourselves; which we have forgotten, has heard in private conference. or are not conscious of, and are known to God alone. The distinction pointed out in the classes of secrets This meaning is evident from the beginning of the verse, expressed by 70 seter, and TID sod, is proved by 6 Who can understand his errors?" We shall see infra, observing what Hebrew words are used for secret in a that secret sins, i, e., sins of which we are conscious, general and indefinite sense, merely as something rebut which we hide from the world, are expressed by a served or hidden from public knowledge. The usual different Hebrew word.
word is 75y gnalmah or almah, from by gnalam of From this first and high sense of the substantive 70D alam, to hide, cover up; it is used Psalm 90. 8, “Thou seter, the word comes to be applied to inferior things, I | hast set our iniquities before thee: our secret sins in the but always in the sense of profound secresy, as in light of thy countenance;" i. e., our conscious sins which 1 Samuel 19. 2. A hiding-place, not to be made known we covered up from the world. So in Psalm 64. 21, to any one, (Deut. 32. 38,) translated in our version “God knoweth the secrets of the heart;" all the private “protection,” but meaning a place of refuge not to be thoughts of the heart in an indefinite sense. So also in approached or found out. The Lord reproaching idola- | Ecclesiastes 12. 14, “For God shall bring every work
into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be doubtless increase in knowledge of divine things will be good or whether it be evil." Job 11. 16, Zophar says one of the joys of the glorified state. We cannot expect to Job, “O that he (God) would show thee the secrets that all the secrets of God himself will be laid open to of his wisdom," i.e., those things concerning the state us; such expectation would be a presumptuous lowerof his soul which Zophar thinks he might have known, ing of his dignity. But we may reasonably hope that were he not deficient in religious knowledge, because he all things connected with our salvation, and with the had ignorantly and presumptuously (as Zophar re- vindication of God's ways to man, will be no longer mysproached him,) justified himself on account of his for- teries, but will be cleared up to us, that our joy may be full. mer innocence. Job 28. 2, “ He bindeth the floods The second or inferior class of secrets is never exfrom overflowing, and the thing that is hid (original pressed in the Greek by uvotnplov, but by less definite 1701yn tagnalumah, from any gnalam,) bringeth he words, such as kputta, Kekpuupeva, &c. forth to light.” As Job in the foregoing verses of this | N.B. The verb Kpu TW with its participles, like the chapter has been speaking of nature, or natural history, Hebrew verb 770 salar, is used in the indefinite and it is most probable that by the hidden things he means general sense, to hide, to conceal. the seed or corn hidden in the ground, which God We may here remark that when in Judges 13. 18, the brings to light.
angel that appeared to Manoah and his wife refused to Another word for secret is OnD setem, from DND tell his name, because it was secret, as our version rensatam, to obstruct, hinder, used in Ezekiel 28. 3, ders it, the Hebrew word used is not any of those men“ There is no secret that they can hide from thee.” tioned 'in this article, but is 'n properly wonderful, This we may certainly understand as in the light of something beyond mortal capacity or experience. It sciences, or the secrets of science and worldly know- harmonizes with what is said in the following verse, ledge which are obstructed or hindered from the world that the angel did wonderfully, i. e., that he did some in general by the difficulty and labour attending their extraordinary things of the nature of miracles. His acquisition. The following verse favours this view, as name was something not to be uttered by mortal lips, it manifestly alludes to worldly knowledge and acquire- as his deeds were not to be imitated by mortal powers. ments. “ With thy wisdom and with thine understand-In Isaiah 9. 6, where the name of the Messiah is to be ing thou hast gotten thee riches."
called wonderful, it alludes to the ineffable name JeThe same distinction is to be traced in the Greek of hovah, which is considered by the Jews too holy to be the New Testament between deep and incomprehensible pronounced, and indeed the true pronunciation of which things, and secrets of a less absolute nature.
they say is lost. M. The first class, deep incomprehensible things, or things only partially revealed, of which we know the existence, SEED. The prolific principle of future life, whether not the mode of existence, is expressed by uvotnplov, in animals or plants, is properly called “ seed," and hence translated mystery, and harmonizing with the Hebrew | in Scripture the term is frequently used to signify pos
700 seter, which is, in fact, the original root from terity or descendants. When the word is used emphatiwhich uvotnplov, mystery, is derived. The radical letters cally, “The SEED" implies some conspicuous descendant, are s. T. R., to which the servile m being prefixed, immediate or remote, of the person mentioned; thus, gives M. S. T. R., and with the usual vowel e interpolated “the seed of the woman,” “the seed of Abraham,” “the in the Hebrew pronunciation without points, we have seed of David,” are used to point out the Messiah, who Me ste Re, mystery. In 1 Timothy 3. 16, the incarnation was descended from Eve, and remedied the disasters of of Christ, in which state he was justified in the spirit, the Fall,—from Abraham, and fulfilled the prophecy that seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on “in him all the families of the earth should be blessed;" in the world, received up into glory, is called the mystery -and from David, whose kingdom, in a spiritual sense, of godliness, because the manner of the union of the he restored. It may be remarked that many commentahuman and divine natures is beyond our comprehension. tors, with great probability, assert that Christ is called Therefore is the atonement called a mystery in 1Corin “the seed of the woman" in allusion to his having been thians 2. 7; and the resurrection, 1Corinthians 15. 51; born of a pure virgin, as foretold by the prophet Isaiah. the mystical union of Christ with his Church. (Ephes. | Both in ancient and modern times, the Jews have 5. 32.) In brief, all those great dogmata of religion, vauntingly styled themselves “ the seed of Abraham," and the fact of the existence of which is revealed, but not have boasted of the spiritual privileges attached to their the manner, essence, and nature; and which are thus descent; it was for this reason that they were reproved touchstones of faith, that, seeing them, not with eyes of by Our Blessed Lord, when he told them that God “from perfect understanding, we yet believe; walking by faith, these stones (that is, the Gentiles) could raise up childreu and not by sight. Faith and mystery are inseparably unto Abraham.” C. connected; for faith is the evidence of things not seen, (Heb. 11. 1;) if clearly seen through they could be no SEER, Tin chozah, a Beholder of Visions; from longer objects of faith; "faith cometh by hearing,” | Din chaza, to gaze or look steadfastly; also, 787 roeh, (Rom. 10. 17,) not by seeing. When Our Lord (Matt. | from 787 raah, to see or perceive mentally, but less 4. 2,) tells his disciples that to them it was given to frequently used than chozeh. Though the Seer was a know the mystery of the kingdom of God, the text does Prophet to whom the Lord revealed his will in visions, not mean that all things were to be wholly opened up to and by types, which the Seer was commissioned to them; but that they were the fitting persons chosen to announce and explain, and thus foretell coming events, be taught the facts of the existence of things hitherto yet there is a distinction made in Scripture between unknown to them, and still hidden from “ those who Seers, and Prophets properly and especially so called. were without,” such as the incarnation, atonement, re (2Kings 17. 13,) “ The Lord testified against Israel and surrection, &c. We say the fact of the existence of against Judah, by all the prophets and all the seers.” such things, not the mode of their existence, which (Isaiah 30. 9,) “ This is a rebellious people which say remained a mystery still. The mysteries of the Gospel, to the seers, See not, and to the prophets, Prophesy not of the kingdom of God, we see now but “through a unto us right things.” By the derivation of the name glass darkly,” (2Cor. 13. 12;) “but when that which is prophet, X'JJ nabi, which comes from Xa) nibba, to nerfect is come,” we shall see “ as face to face," and foretell, to speak, in an eminent and extraordinary man
comeb. 11; fects of l by seeing to the God, topened up to