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ner, it appears that God generally revealed himself to prophets, Deborah, (Judges 4. 4,) and a prophet whose the prophets, clearly, by oral communication or spiritual name is not given, (Judges 6. 8,) “The Lord sent a inspiration, and to the seers, chozah, (from chaza) more prophet unto the children of Israel.” The Jews fancy obscurely in visions, or dreams, and by shadowings of this was Phineas, which is very unlikely; as Phineas. types. We have said that God generally revealed him were he this prophet, must have been at least two hun. self orally to the prophets; for it sometimes occurred dred years old, an age which men did not attain to in that revelations were made to them also in visions, as in those days, besides, if he were such an eminent person, the case of Ezekiel, Jeremiah, Isaiah, &c., but most it is most probable his name would have been recorded. frequently by oral communication, which is marked by Whenever the Lord did then give prophetic revelations, such expressions as “The word of the Lord came to it appears it was not by vision, for 1 Samuel 3. 1, says, Hosea." (Hosea 1. 2.) “The prophet said in the word | “there was no open vision,” literally, “vision did not of the Lord.” (1 Kings 20. 35.) “Hear ye now what the break forth,” the revelation was oral; and that was very Lord saith.” (Micah 6. 1.) “I heard the voice of the rare, for the verse above quoted says, “ the word of the Lord saying.” (Isai. 6. 8.) “Now these be the last | Lord was precious in those days, there was no open words of David. The spirit of the Lord spake by me, vision.” Samuel was the first acknowledged prophet and his word was in my tongue.” (2Sam. 23. 12.) | that had been for a long time; and he was distinguished But the seers had their communications mostly by by the title of roeh, (seer or perceiver,) which appellavisions, either awake, as in a trance, or in ecstasy, or tion (and never chozah) is regularly applied to him, as asleep in dreams. The different ways in which the 1 Samuel 9.9,11,19; 1 Chronicles 26. 28; 1Chronicles 29. Lord made prophetic revelation is pointed out in Joel 29; 1Chronicles 9. 22. 2. 28, “And it shall come to pass afterwards that I The word nabi, translated prophet, was known before will pour out my spirit upon all flesh: and your sons | Samuel's time, and is applied to Abraham, (Gen. 20.7.) and your daughters shall prophesy: your old men shall bnt in those early times it signified properly an indream dreams: your young men shall see visions.structor, (which Abraham is said to have eminently

To the different kinds of prophetic inspiration, St. been,) a preacher of righteousness, a person who spoke Paul alludes (Heb. 1. 1,)“God who at sundry times in a remarkable manner. (See art. School.) In Exodus and in divers manners spake in times past unto the 7. 1, Aaron is appointed prophet, (nabi) i. e., spokesman, fathers by the prophets."

to Moses, as explained by Exodus 4. 14-16, “Is not The prophets were a higher class than seers; the Aaron the Levite thy brother? I know that he can manner of their inspiration was clearer and nobler; the speak well, and thou shalt speak unto him and put oral communication of the Lord : while that of the seers words in his mouth, and he shall be thy spokesman was necessarily a lesser and more obscure kind, by simi- (Hebrew, 77 deber, thy word,) unto the people.” Nabi, litudes, and by visions. A strong proof of the superi | prophet, also means a revealer or declarer of God's ority of oral inspiration over visionary is given in word; but it always implies oral communications; and Numbers 12. 6,7,8, “ If there be a prophet among you is applicable to Abraham, (vide supra) both because he I the Lord will make myself known unto him in a preached righteousness and communicated God's will; vision, and will speak unto him in a dream. My ser- and because God spake to him himself, as we read in vant Moses is not so, who is faithful in all my house; | several parts of Genesis. with him will I speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, Miriam is called a prophetess in Exodus 15. 20, both and not in dark speech." Prophets named in conjunc- because she was skilled in sacred poetry, in which she tion with seers are always mentioned first. (Deut. 13. 1,) probably instructed the Hebrew women, as she led their “If there arise a prophet or a dreamer of dreams." choir in their hymn of thanksgiving for the overthrow (Isai. 29. 10,) “The prophets and your rulers, the of Pharaoh, (Exod. 15. 21,) and also because she spoke seers hath he covered.“ (2Chron. 9. 29,) “Nathan the utterances by the inspiration of the Lord. (Numb. 12. prophet, and Iddo the seer.”

1,2,) Miriam and Aaron rebelled against Moses, and · The inspired persons of eminence, such as Isaiah, said, “ Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses? Ezekiel, Amos, Zechariah, &c., and Nathan, who was Hath he not spoken also by us?" In process of time, conspicuous in David's time, are called prophets. Those when prophecy both by word and by vision became of minor note, of whom only the names are preserved to | more usual, the application of titles to the persons us, as Heman, (1Chron. 25. 5,) Iddo, (2Chron. 12. 15,) | favoured with it became more distinct, and more fixed. Asaph, (2Chron. 39. 30.) Jeduthun, (2Chron. 35. 15,) | Roch for seer, became in a manner obsolete; and nabl, are seers : see also Amos 6. 12; when Amaziah opposes prophet, was applied to persons whose inspiration was Amos, he calls the latter - Thou seer," not, thou prophet, chiefly oral, and chozeh, seer, to persons visited by as if giving him an inferior title in scorn. Prophets visions. In 2Samuel 15. 27, David says to Zadoc the also were teachers, and were the heads of colleges of priest, “ Art not thou a seer?" which is thought by good divinity, or schools for instruction in every thing relating | critics to be a faulty translation; as it does not appear to religion, and the service of God. (See art. SCHOOL.) that priests were ever called seers, but were a superior Seers did not fill this office; we never read of the sons class of men; that instead of the noun, it is the verb of the seers, as we do of the sons (i. e., disciples) of the that should be used, (particularly as the words “art not prophets, nor the schools of the seers. Originally, in do not appear in the Hebrew,) and that it should be very early times, the word seer was used instead of “Behold! return thou into the city in peace.” This prophet. (1 Sam. 9. 9,) “He that is now called a pro view is taken by the LXXII, who render it Idete phet (nabi), was before time called a seer.” But the overloTpeDELS EIS TYY Tolv ev Elpnun. Hebrew word thus used was not Tin chozah, as above, In the New Testament, the characters of seer and but 1987 roeh, from 1787 raah, to see, to perceive men prophet are combined with, and merged in, the more tally, as well as corporeally, as we say, “I see the glorious one of Apostle, (the inspired messenger of meaning of such a thing." The original meaning of the Christ,) whose office as much exceeded that of prophet word roeh is a perceiver, a man who had prophetic and seer, as the Christian dispensation does the Mosaic; perceptions. From the death of Moses to the era of as the Gospel exceeds the Law. The Apostles, besides Samuel, the gift of prophecy was very scarce in Israel. | their special characters as Ambassadors of Christ, were During all the time of the Judges, we read but of two prophets in the widest manner, not merely foretelling

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events relative to one or two nations, and to be shortly In 2Corinthians 2. 1,2,3,4, St. Paul tells us of his fulfilled, (like the Jewish prophets,) but pouring forth, remarkable ecstasy, when he was “caught up into Parain the most catholic spirit, predictions concerning the dise, and heard words which it is not lawful for a man whole world, and extending so widely through time, to utter.” St. Peter saw in a trance the admission of that some of them still remain unfulfilled. The Apostles the Gentiles into the covenant of grace. (Acts 10.) were seers also. (Acts 16. 9,) “A vision appeared to | And the limited visions of the Jewish seers fade (like Paul in the night, there stood a man of Macedonia, and the light of the stars in that of the sun,) before the vast prayed him, saying, Come over into Macedonia and and splendid Apocalypse of St. John. M. help us.”

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SEIR is the name employed in various parts of the that head. Mount Hor formed part of the range of Seir. Old Testament Scriptures to designate the mountainous When the Edomites refused the children of Israel a range that extends from the south of the Dead Sea passage into Canaan, the latter, who had proceeded nearly to Akaba, on the Elanitic branch of the Red Sea; northward, on the western side of Seir, as far as Mount running through the land of Idumea, or Arabia Petræa. Hor, retraced their steps to Ezion-Geber, now Akaba; It is also applied in a more general sense to the whole from thence they took a north-eastern course, and, passtract of country occupied by the Edomites:-“ Ye are ing to the eastward of Seir, “ compassed the land of to pass through the coast of your brethren, the children Edom.” The mountains of Seir are called by the Arabs of Esau, which dwell in Seir.” (Deut. 2. 4.) Seir, the Djebel Hesma and Djebel Sheraz. P. Horite, from whom the district took its appellation, must have lived at a very remote period; for in the days of Abraham, when Chedorlaomer made war upon the SELAH, So This word occurs seventy-one kings, his descendants were a powerful tribe. The only times in the Psalms, and thrice in Habakkuk; but account of this patriarch of which we are in possession commentators have not agreed respecting its signifiis contained in Genesis, ch. 36, from the 20th to the cation. In the Septuagint it is rendered diay arua, 30th verses : “These are the sons of Seir, the Horite, which, according to Suidas, means a change of music or who inhabited the land: Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, tune. It occurs for the most part in the Psalms which and Anah, and Dishon, and Ezer, and Dishan; these have the title 71012 Mizmór, a name indicating that are the dukes of the Horites, the children of Seir, in the | they were sung to an instrumental accompaniment. If, land of Edom.” The mountains and adjacent country as is most probable, 750 be derived from 550 salal, “ to were held by Seir's posterity till they were expelled or | exalt,” its formation must be from the noun 50 seel, extirpated by the Edomites: “ The Horims also dwelt “exaltation," with it as an adverbial suffix; it consein Seir before time; but the children of Esau succeeded quently signifies “in a higher or louder tone," and is them, when they had destroyed them from before them, probably addressed both to the musicians and the singers. and dwelt in their stead.” (Deut. 2. 12.) Reference is Gesenius is of opinion that it intimated a direction to frequently made by the prophets to Idumea under its repeat the preceding verse in a louder strain, so as to ancient name: “Son of man, set thy face against Mount direct the attention of the congregation to some imSeir, and prophesy against it; and say unto it, Thus saith portant prayer, sentiment, or assertion.” The Targum the Lord God, Behold, O Mount Seir, I am against thee, explains “selah” by 119y5 le-hilmon, “ for ever;" and a and I will stretch out mine hand against thee, and I will Rabbinical commentator adds, that it gave notice for the make thee most desolate, and thou shalt know that I congregation to join in a choral interruption of “for ever am the Lord.” (Ezek. 25. 3,4.) The prophecies against and ever,” similar to the “in sæcula sæculorumof the Seir, however, properly belong to Idumea, and for infor- Latin Church. It is remarkable that the word is mation as to their literal accomplishment, we refer to altogether omitted in the Vulgate translation. T.

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verted it in many passages. In fact, no Biblical scholar should neglect the study of the Septuagint; it furnishes important corrections of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, and is the best guide to the peculiar Hebrer and Syriac idioms used by the writers of the New Testament. T.

SENATE. See SANITEDRIM.

SENNACHERIB, Hebrew, 2'90D Greek, (Herod. 11. 141,) Xavaxápißos. A king of Assyria, who flourished about the close of the eighth century before the Christian æra. In the reign of King Hezekiah, he invaded Judæa and laid siege to Jerusalem, but an angel of the Lord smote the Assyrian camp by night, and destroyed such multitudes that the monarch abandoned his enterprise in despair. The Egyptians arrogated this miracle to themselves, declaring that Sennacherib had been compelled to raise the siege of Pelusium by their god, Phtha, who sent a multitude of rats into the Assyrian camps, which gnawed their quivers, bow-strings, and shield-straps to pieces. From the statement of the prophet Nahum, however, it appears certain that Sennacherib penetrated very far into Egypt, and sacked some of its principal cities. His disappointment at Jerusalem produced such an effect on the ferocious Sennacherib that his tyranny became intolerable to his subjects; at length his own sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer, assassinated him in the temple of Nisroch, but their parricide was so odious to the people that they were obliged to fly into the land of Armenia; and their younger brother, Esarhaddon, was placed upon the throne. C.

SEPTUAGINT CHRONOLOGY. The chronology of the Septuagint version differs from that of the Ilebrew text in some important particulars; it reckong fifteen hundred years more from the creation to the birth of Abraham. Dr. Kennicott assigns very plausible reasons for preferring the numbers and dates of the Septuagint. He says that the Hebrew Scriptures, during the two first centuries of our era, were exclusively in the hands of the Jews, the early Christians preferring the Septuagint, and that the Rabbies may have taken advantage of this circumstance to introduce changes which would flatter the national vanity. This, however, is a very improbable supposition; it is much more likely that the imperfection of the system of numeration in use among the Hebrews, who, like the Greeks, the Romans, and the modern Arabs, used letters to express numerals, may have caused this discrepancy, which, after all, is not greater than what is found in many other ancient histories. T.

SENTENCE. See COUNCIL, TRIAL, &c.

SEPULCHRE. The Hebrew sepulchres were of SEPHARVAIM. A district in Assyria, the pre- | two classes; the common or vulgar, and the noble. cise locality of which cannot now be identified.

The former were in a general cemetery, which was always to be without the city, because the poverty of

the persons whose kindred were buried there did not SEPTUAGINT. The name given to the most permit them to raise durable distinguishing marks ofer ancient Greek version of the Old Testament, from its their burial places, by which passers-by might learn being supposed to be the work of seventy-two learned they were near a grave, and avoid the legal pollution Jews, who were engaged to perform this task by Ptolemy that among the Jews would be occasioned by contact Philadelphus, king of Egypt, B.C. 284. The transla- | with it. The Jewish doctors made the following protors are usually called the Septuagint, or Seventy, either hibitions concerning them, viz., that no water course because seventy is a round number, or because it was a should be led by the cemetery, nor any public way be number to which peculiar sanctity was attributed. (See run through it, nor sheep should graze there, nor wood SEVENTY.) Though the fables which the Jews relate of be collected in it; nor should it be lawful to walk there the miraculous origin of this version are utterly un- with phylacteries on the forehead, or the Book of the worthy of credit, it must be considered as a wonderful | Law hanging to the arm. Strangers were buried in providence in aid of the progress of Christianity. It this public cemetery; wherefore the chief-priest bought created an expectation of the coming of the Messiah the potter's-field to bury strangers in, with Judas re among the Gentiles, who could not have become turned bribe. (Matt. 27. 7.) The widow of Nain was acquainted with the writings of the Hebrew prophets a poor woman whose son was to have been buried in except through the medium of the Greek language. It the public cemetery without the city. (Luke 7. 12.) has also been, with great propriety, observed, “That | These common burial places, in all probability, conthere are many words and forms of speech in the New sisted of nothing more than a field, or inclosure, with Testament, the true import of which cannot be known excavations or graves like ours. The synagogue of but by their use in the Septuagint. This version also each city also provided two places of public sepulture preserves many important words, some sentences and for persons who were degraded by having suffereul several whole verses, which originally made a part of capital punishment; one for those strangled or slan the llebrew text, but have long ago entirely disappeared. | with the hand, the other for those stoned or burnelle This is the version, and this only, which is constantly (For the punishment of burning, see SENTENCE.) used and quoted in the Gospels and by the Apostles, and If our Lord had been executed by sentence of the which has therefore received the highest possible sanc Sanhedrim, instead of that of the Roman governor tion which any version can receive.”

(which would have been the case, had he not been The Rev. Dr. Wall, of Trinity College, Dublin, has apprehended on a high festival), he would have been recently discovered the source of many important varia- | stoned as a blasphemer, according to Jewish law, (beru. tions between the Septuagint and the Hebrew text. 24,) and would have been buried ignominiously in due When the Jews began to have an extensive intercourse of these sepulchres for the degraded, and the propue? with the western nations, and when, at the same time, of making his grave with the rich in his death (1> their native language ceased to be spoken in its original 53. 9,) would have remained unfulfilled. Then purity; they tried to vocalize their words, which, for sepulchres were those that belonged to private fam the most part, was composed of consonants by freely or illustrious people; they were in the private proper using the quiescent letters ("978 ahevi,) instead of of the family, as that of Abraham and his family w vowels, but as these letters have a grammatical signifi- | purchased field of Machpelah, and that of Joseph, na cance, their introduction, though it facilitated the sound, Shechem, in the parcel of ground bought of ! had a tendency to alter the sense, and has, in fact, per- . of Hamor (Josh. 24. 32); or in gardens, as

gardens, as those of

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the kings Manasseh and Amon (2Kings 21.), and the fix the 15th of February for the performance of this sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathea (John 19.); or in work. To this custom Our Lord alludes in Matthew some part of the house, as that of Samuel. (1 Sam. 26.) 23. 27: “Woe unto you, scribes and pharisees, hypo

crites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness.” At the funerals of persons of rank and wealth, quantities of spices and aromatics were used; some were burned, others buried with the body. (2Chron. 16. 14.) “And they buried him (Asa) in his own sepulchre ........ and laid him in the bed (the niche), which was filled with sweet odours and divers kinds of spices prepared by the apothecaries' art, and they made a very great burning for him.” This custom probably arose from the embalming of Jacob in Egypt. (Gen. 50.)

Thus, though Our Lord had been executed as a criminal, he received after death the funeral honours of the illustrious, for Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea placed a quantity of spices round his body (John 19.40); and the pious women who believed on him brought

spices on the morning of his resurrection, to burn in his Sepulchra! Vaults.

honour in the outer court, for they could not expect to These sepulchres were either caves, or excavations in penetrate into the actual tomb, knowing it had been the ground arched and lined with stones, or caves cut closed by the chief-priests. out of the rock. All these sepulchres had in front an Our Lord's sepulchre was hewn in a rock, and inclosed court, within which was the cave, which, if appears to have been intended by Joseph of Arimathea intended for a family burial place, contained niches for himself alone, and not for a family vault, for only hollowed within the sides, to contain the bodies at full the one receptacle or niche has been found in it. Mary length; these niches the Rabbins called 1 D12 kokin. Magdalene was in the outer court when she perceived The mouth of the tomb or burial cave within the court that the stone had been rolled from the tomb or cave in was closed by a large stone, which fitted in, and was which the body had lain. (John 30.1.) John came to closed up with mortar. In the outer court the bier the sepulchre, but only went to the door of the tomb was set down, and the body carried through the mouth, (not inside), and looked into the grave, or receptacle, or narrow entrance, into the tomb, and placed in its which seems to have been below the floor of the court niche. In the Greek New Testament, the words uvnua where he stood, for he stooped down. (John 19. 5.) and uvnualov express the sepulchre in general, in- Peter, however, went through the no longer closed cluding the court and the inner burial place; tapos is entrance into the tomb, in which he saw the linen used by St. Matthew to designate the tomb wherein the clothes lie, empty; then John came in to him from the body was placed. Marks were placed over sepulchres, court, and witnessed the same, and they retired. Mary not only as monumental, in memory of the dead, but Magdalene stood without, in the court, weeping, and, also to warn passengers of their vicinity, that they might stooping down at the entrance to the tomb, saw the two avoid pollution. There are two words in the Scriptures angels sitting, one at the head, and the other at the feet to designate these sepulchral marks; the first is nya of the grave, or kok, who announced to her the resurmatzab, or matzbah, from 33 jalzab, to place; it signi rection. fies a memorial set up. This word is used to express The burial place of Lazarus was a cave. (John 11.38.) the pillar set up by Jacob over Rachael's grave. (Gen. It does not appear in St. John's account of the raising 35. 20), and also the pillar set up by Absalom in his of Lazarus that Christ went farther than the court, own life time, as a memorial of himself; “for he said, where standing, he ordered the stone to be removed I have no son to keep my name in remembrance.” from the tomb, and cried out to Lazarus, who was (2Sam. 18. 18.) This word is also used by modern enabled to come out of the kok, or niche, as far as the Jews to indicate their monumental stone and epitaph, mouth of the tomb, or entrance into the court; but and it is rendered in the Septuagint otninu, a pillar. being clothed in grave-clothes, and with the customary The other word used in the Hebrew Scriptures for | cloth, or sudarium, over his face, Jesus commanded the the mark over graves is 7993 ziun; this expresses bystanders to loose him, and let him go at large. merely a mark or sign, indicating that a grave, or | The sepulchre of Our Lord as now existing is a kind something belonging to a dead person, lay there; it is of grotto in the natural rock. The part in which is the word used in 2 Kings 23. 17, and in our version this grotto was insulated from the rest by the workmen rendered “title:” “Then he (Josiah) said, What title of the Empress Helena. The tomb-chamber is nearly (siun) is that I see ? and the men of the city told him, shaped like a horse-shoe; its height is eight feet one It is the sepulchre of the man of God which came from inch; breadth, fifteen feet ten inches; the entrance is Judah.” The Septuagint here renders it okomelov, a four feet high, and two feet four inches wide. The sign, or something elevated.

place where the body lay is now raised above the floor, The Hebrew word ziun. It is used in Ezekiel 39.15, by the alterations of time; the whole has been incrusted to signify a mark to show where the remains of a car with white marble. A magnificent church was built case lay: “ When any seeth a man's bone, then shall over the whole, which has been burnt more than once; they set up a sign by it till the buriers have buried it in but the IIoly Sepulchre itself remains uninjured. the valley of Hamon Gog." In Jeremiah 31. 2), it is | The sepulchres near Jerusalem called the Tombs of used for a way-mark. It was usual annually to refresh the Kings, but which are more properly the sepulchres and beautify the monumental marks, and also to white of the sons of David, exhibit the remains of a magwash them, in order to render them more conspicuous, nificent edifice. The approach is through a passage cut that men might know and avoid them. The Talmudists in the rock into an open square (the usual outer court)

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of rock, in the west side of which is excavated a porch, dialects, wn) nachash, is used to signify “brass;" and with beautiful sculpture of fruits and flowers; on the that it is difficult to assign a satisfactory reason for this left is the entrance to the inner chamber, which has connection in etymology between the compound metal three doorways and three different sides leading to the and serpents; two causes have been assigned,-1, the outer chambers, in which are hewn niches, and in the similarity of colour; and 2, the use made of both in floor of one are sunk quadrangular niches. The doors divination. appear from the accounts of early travellers to have It is of more importance to remark that in the tra. been of stone, highly polished, and the panels beauti ditions of most Pagan nations, which have been embodied fully cut. The doors turned on tenons of one piece in their mythology, the serpent appears as the enemy of with themselves, resting on sockets in the rock. man, and a triumph over this enemy is usually described

According to Josephus, great treasures were buried as the greatest achievement of a popular deity. The in David's sepulchre, which Hyrcanus opened and took Egyptian Horus is frequently represented piercing the out 3000 talents of silver. And afterwards Herod | head of some terrific serpent with his spear. From this making search there for money found none, but some source the Greeks and Romans adopted the fable of golden vessels, which he took away. It is probable that Apollo and the serpent Python, which is thus narrated sepulchres might have been used for treasuries, as places by Ovid. of particular safety, on account of the religious opinions

Of new monsters Earth created more held concerning them. M.

Unwillingly, but yet she brought to light
Thee, Python, too, the wondering world to fright
And the new nations with so dire a sight:

So monstrous was his bulk, so large a space SERAPAII. A proper name belonging to several Did his vast body and long train embrace. persons mentioned in the Old Testament, but none of Him Phæbus basking on a bank espied,

And all his skill against the monster tried; any note.

Though every shaft took place, he spent the store
Of his full quiver, and 'twas long before

The expiring serpent wallowed in his gore. burn;" and hence Kimchi interprets it by VN-850 malakey-esh, “angels of fire,” in allusion to the 722 | Lok, one of the favourite heroes of the Northern kabód, or “glory,” which surrounded angelic beings; but, mythology, is represented as a destroyer of serpents; and as this glory was common to all angels, the explanation, a legend, similar to the classic story just quoted, repre. though generally received, is not quite satisfactory. sents him as destroying a monstrous serpent with his 70 sar, in Hebrew, and seraph in the cognate Semitic | hammer or mace. The similarity of all these accounts languages, such as the Arabic and Ethiopic, signifies “a to the Scriptural narrative is obvious; but a still mora chief or noble," and was applied to the higher order of striking parallel has been discovered in the Mexican archangels. The seraphim described by Isaiah (6.2) mythology by Baron Humboldt; he says, had each six wings; with two covered the face; with two the feet, and with two they flew. They also cried one to another and said, “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Hosts! the whole earth is full of his glory!” See ANGEL. T.

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SERPENT, UTI) nachash. The verb from which this noun is derived signifies literally “to augur or predict from the appearance of serpents,” a mode of divination common among the ancient nations, to which they gave the name of bolouavteia. The late Dr. Adam Clarke having thought fit to oppose all preceding translators and commentators in his explanation of the circumstances recorded in the third chapter of Genesis, and having thus unwarily given new strength to the sceptical cavils raised against the Scriptural account of the Fall, it becomes necessary to enter at some length into an examination of the Biblical narrative, and to point out some singular confirmations of its veracity derived from the records of profane antiquity. It is

From a Mexican Painting. stated that “the serpent (WN) nachash) was more subtle “ The groupe represents the celebrated serpent-woman than any beast of the field;" and, in allusion to this Chinacohuatl, called also Quilaztli, or Tonacacihua, declaration, Christ advises his disciples “to be wise as “Woman of our flesh;' she is the companion of Tona. serpents.” Dr. Adam Clarke, however, chooses to deny | catenetli. The Mexicans considered her as the mother that the serpent is conspicuous either for subtilty or of the human race, and after the god of the celestial wisdom; to this we may answer, that the extraordinary paradise, Ometenetli, she held the first rank among the power of fascination exerted by various kinds of serpents divinities of Anahual; we see her always represented is a display of subtilty, and of a powerful instinct which with a great serpent. Other paintings exhibit to us ? may be well called “animal wisdom,” superior to any feather-headed snake cut in pieces by the great spirit other portion of the animal creation. In fact, the Tezcatlipoca, or by the sun personified, the god TonaVishnu Purana, clearly alluding to their great intelli- tiuh. These allegories remind us of the ancient tragence, declares that serpents sprung from the head of ditions of Asia. In the woman and serpent of the Brahma. There can, however, be little doubt that the | Aztecks we think we perceive the Eve of the Semitie term wn) nachash is applied in Scripture, like the nations, in the snake cut in pieces the famous serpent generic phrase "reptile,” to a great variety of animals, Raliya, or Kalinaga, conquered by Vishnu when he took but chiefly to those of the serpent-tribe. It must also the form of Krishna. The Tonatiuh of the Mexicans be observed, that in the Hebrew, and in other Semitic appears also to be identical with the Krishna of the

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