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SON OF GOD. A term applied in the Scriptures SOOTHSAYER, a person who pretended to foreto magistrates and saints, but in a more especial manner tel future events by inspecting the entrails of animals, to Jesus Christ. “Christ,” says Bishop Pearson, “has or inspecting such phenomena as the flight of birds, the a fourfold right to this title: 1, by generation, as be- aspect of the clouds, and other natural appearances. gotten of God, (Luke 1. 35;) 2, by commission, as sent The Hebrew name jiyo mehonen, is derived from in, by Him, (John 10.34;) 3, by resurrection, as the first- ain, “the eye,” and appears to have some connexion with born, (Acts 13. 32;) 4, by actual possession, as heir of the belief in fascination by the eye (called by the Italians all. (Heb. 1. 2-5.)” C.

| indocchiatura), which has from the earliest ages pre

| vailed in the East. C. SONG. Songs were generally used on occasions

SORCERER; SORCERY. See WITCHCRAFT. of thanksgiving and triumph; such as the song of Moses at the deliverance from Pharaoh and his host, (Exod. 15. 1;) the song of Israel at the well of Beer, (Numb.

SOREK, a village of the Philistines, where Deli21. 17;) the song of Moses, in Deuteronomy, chap. 32; that of Deborah, (Judges 5. 12;) that of David on

lah, the mistress of Samson, resided. (Judges 16. 4.) bringing up the ark, (1Chron. 13. 8;) of Ilannah,(1Sam. chap. 2;) of the Virgin, (Luke 1. 46;) of the four-andtwenty elders, (Rev. 5. 8;) of Moses and the Lamb,

SOUL, WO) nephesh; and in Greek Trevue, both (Rev. 15. 3.)

of which words also signify breath, is the name of that But a few, also, were sung on occasions of sorrow,

inward active principle in man which perceives, rememsuch as that of David on Saul and Jonathan, (2Sam. bers, reasons, loves, hopes, fears, desires, compares, re1. 18, &c.;) the Lamentations of Jeremiah; and the song

solves, adores, imagines, and aspires after immortality. he composed on the death of Josiah. (2Chron. 35. 25.) The opinions of the ancients respecting the nature of

It is said of Tyre, in Ezekiel 26. 13, as one mark of the rational soul were numerous and varied. The her desolation,

ancient Egyptians believed that the continuity of its I will cause the noise of thy songs to cease,

existence was in some mysterious way connected with And the sound of thy harps shall be no more heard.

the preservation of the body, and therefore they took Songs and viols were the usual accompaniments of

great care to preserve the corpses of deceased friends and sacrifices among the Jews and heathens. (Amos 5. 23.)

relatives. Among the Greek philosophers, the Stoics

were the most strenuous in insisting on the distinction Sacrifica, dulces tibia effundat modos,

between the body and the soul, maintaining that the Et nivea magna victima ante aras cadat.

Senec. Troad.

| latter was a species of flame, or portion of heavenly

light. The sacred writers use the word with some latiEccles. 11. 4, “And all the daughters of song shall

|tude of signification, sometimes for the vegetative, somebe brought low," i. e. all the organs which perceive and

times for the sensitive, but most frequently for the distinguish musical sounds, and those also which form

rational principle in man, which was created in the and modulate the voice; age producing incapacity of

image of God, and formed to find its happiness in felenjoyment, as old Barzillai remarks, (2Sam. 19.35;) and

lowship with Him. Thus Matthew 16. 26, “For what as Juvenal notices, thus translated by Dryden :

| is a man profited if he shall gain the whole world and What music or enchanting voice can cheer

lose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange A stupid, old, impenetrable ear?

for his soul?" † Psalm 68 describes the manner of Jewish musical The question of the soul's immateriality, which is festivities:

quite a different thing from that of its immortality, 15 2 The singers went before,

mere dispute about words, because it is impossible 10 The players on instruments after;

explain what matter is, and therefore equally impossible Among them were the damsels playing on timbrels. I to tell how it is to be distinguished from spirit. In Hosea 2. 15, singing implies the manifestation of The immortality of the soul may be inferred from its the divine favour, where the Targum says, “I will work vast capacities, boundless desires, great improvements, miracles for them, and perform great acts, as in the day dissatisfaction with the present state, and anxiety to pose when they ascended up out of the land of Egypt." sess some religion or other. It is also argued from the

In this sense, a song denotes a great deliverance and consent of all nations; the consciousness of sin; the a new subject of thanksgiving; so a new song, as in power of conscience, and the justice of Deity. But the Psalm 40.3; Revelations 5. 9, and elsewhere, implies a only sure foundation for this cheering belief is the relee new work of salvation and favour, requiring an extra- lation of the doctrine by Our Lord Jesus Christ, who ordinary return of gratitude and praise. A.

I“ brought life and immortality to light.” C.

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SOUTH. Three words were used by the Hebrews quently mentioned by that designation. But from to signify the south: 0177 darom, of which the deriva- Egyptians they may have learned the existence tion is uncertain; Tad neged, which literally means, “in nations living still farther to the southwards, for repic the presence of;" and on teman, properly signifying sentations of victories over the negroes, and of the “ that which lies to the right hand.” Egypt and Arabia captives, are not uncommon on the tombs in the lay south in respect of Canaan, and were therefore fre- l of the Nile. One which is here copied represents

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triumph of one of the Pharaohs over a negro chief, pro- | ancient writers. Spain was regarded as the only country bably designed to be the type of his nation. It is evi- | which was at once rich in metals, in corn, wine, oil, dent that the figure exhibits the usual characteristics of wax, fine wool, and fruits, which under its mild and the negro features as strongly as they are found at the benignant sky attain to the highest perfection. Their present day. C.

superabundance naturally suggested the invention of SOWER. The parable of the sower describes very

pickles and preserves. The trade in saltpetre was a Tccurately the mode in which that agricultural operation

branch of the earliest commerce of Spain.” There is is performed in Palestine. Great care is necessary to

frequent mention of the ships engaged in the Spanish preserve the seed from the flocks of starlings and other

trade by the sacred writers. “The ships of Tarshish birds, as it was not usually covered over by harrowing.

did sing of thee (Tyre) in thy market; and thou wast Isaiah mentions “ sowing beside all waters,” which pro

replenished and made very glorious in the midst of the bably alludes to the extensive cultivation of water

seas.” If Tarshish were situated in the eastern seas, it plants for fattening cattle in Egypt. Some, however,

is difficult to understand how its ships could have sailed are of opinion that he refers to the cultivation of rice. C.

into the port of Tyre, on the Mediterranean. The Bible itself, however, affords us direct proof that Tarshish was

situated in the west, for when Jonah attempted to fly SPAIN, an important country in the south-west of to Tarshish, he embarked on board a ship bound thither, Europe. Anciently it included the kingdom of Portugal, at a noted sea-port on the Mediterranean: “But Jonah and comprehended the whole of the Peninsula; being rose up to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the Lord, and went down to Joppa; and he found a ship going south and east by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the to Tarshish; so he paid the fare thereof, and went down north by the lofty chain of Pyrenean mountains which into it to go with them unto Tarshish from the presence separate it from France. By the ancients Spain was of the Lord.” (Jonah 1. 3.) King Solomon, it is recalled Iberia and Hispania; in the Old Testament, how- corded, constructed “a navy of ships in Ezion-geber, ever, it is denominated Tarshish, from the city of that which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red Sea, in name in South-western Spain, on the banks of the the land of Edom;" and Hiram, king of Tyre, his ally Guadalquiver, which is termed by Aristotle, and other and personal friend, sent with the servants of Solomon ancient authors, Tartessus (TapTnooos). There has “shipmen that had knowledge of the sea,” to navigate been a great deal of controversy as to the true position them; but this fleet must not be confounded with the of the Tarshish of the Bible; but there appears to be combined Jewish and Phoenician navy in the western abundant evidence to support the hypothesis maintained waters, which is mentioned in the chapter following that by Heeren, Michaëlis, and some of the best British to which we have referred, (1 Kings 9. 26; 10. 22:) scholars and Biblical critics, that Spain was the cele- | “For the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish with the brated emporium to which the Hebrews and Phænicians navy of Hiram (sailing, we may presume, from the port traded. Spain was the richest country of the ancient of Tyre): once in three years came the navy of Tarshish, world in the precious metals; it is scarcely credible that bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, and peathe Phænicians, who colonized the northern shores of cocks." From the facts, then, that Tarshish was situated Africa, established settlements on various parts of the in the west, that the productions of Spain corresponded Mediterranean, and pushed their commerce beyond the with the commodities of Tarshish as described by the pillars of Hercules, could have remained ignorant of a Prophets, that Spain was certainly known for its valucountry equally celebrated for the various productions of able mines to the Phænicians and the Carthaginians, its teeming soil as for its mineral riches, “where fruits and that a lake, a city, and river, in the south of Spain, of fragrance blush on every tree.” It is related by near the Guadalquiver, were called Tartessus, we are Diodorus, that the Phænicians, taking advantage of the justified in concluding that Spain was the country deignorance of the Spaniards with regard to the immense scribed in the Old Testament as one of the great sources wealth which was hid in the bowels of their land, first of Tyrian wealth. took from them those precious treasures in exchange for Immediately after the foundation of Carthage by commodities of little value; afterwards the colonists Queen Dido, about 846 years before Christ, the colonists instructed the natives in metallurgy.

appear to have turned their attention to Spain, justly We are informed in Genesis 10. 45, that one of the called “the Peru of the ancient world.” They at first grandsons of Japheth was called Tarshish; and after the formed commercial stations there; by degrees they mention of his brothers Kittim and Dodanim, it is acquired territory; and it appears from the treaty con. added, “By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided cluded between the republics of Rome and Carthage, in their lands:" it is, therefore, probable that Spain was after the expulsion of the Tarquins (B.C. 509), that the originally colonized by emigrants from Cilicia, in Asia | Carthaginians were then the masters of the northern Minor, where, according to Josephus, the descendants of coast of Africa, and the island of Sardinia; possessing Tarshish had originally settled. The riches of Spain are the Balearic isles, besides considerable parts of Sicily and celebrated by Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah: “Silver Spain, from whence they drew recruits for their armies. spread into plates is brought from Tarshish.” (Jer. 10.9.) The Phænicians had built about twenty towns on the “ Silver," observes Heeren, “ was certainly the principal, coast of Spain, including Gades (Cadiz), Medina Sidobut could scarcely be the only object obtained. Gold, nia (named after Sidon), and Malaga; but their delead, and iron ore were discovered; and besides these, tin scendants, the Carthaginians, reduced the whole country mines were opened by the Phænicians on the northern to subjection, with the exception of the mountainous coast of Spain beyond Lusitania. All these metals are | districts of Biscay and Asturias. On the breaking out mentioned by the prophet Ezekiel as the produce of the of the first Punic war, the Carthaginians were obliged to Spanish mines: «Tarshish (Spain) traded with thee withdraw their army from Spain; but after its termina(Tyre), because of the multitude of thy goods; silver, tion the country was again conquered by the Cariron, tin, and lead it gave thee in exchange for thy thaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, the father of the wares. That, in addition to the mines, the Phænicians great Ilannibal. During the interval, the Romans had were attracted to Spain by the great fertility of the southern formed an alliance with the cities of Saguntum and part of the country, is proved by the direct testimony of | Ampurias; and Hasdrubal, the son-in-law of IIamilcar,

head, and iron opened by thisitania. All the produce Coast of Sd by the Propshish (sude of thy Lange for

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on founding the new capital called Carthagena, or New for I trust to see you in my journey, and to be brought Carthage, signed a treaty, binding himself not to pass on my way thitherward by you, if first I be somewhat the river Iberus (Ebro), nor attack the Saguntines. | filled with your company. But now I go unto Jerusalem Hasdrubal having fallen by the hand of an assassin, to minister unto the saints, &c.; when therefore I have Hannibal was entrusted with the command; and the performed this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will violation of the treaty, by an attack upon Saguntum, was come by you into Spain.” We are left in ignorance the occasion of the second Punic war. During that whether St. Paul ever had an opportunity of carrying war, Spain was the battle-ground between the Romans his intention into effect. St. Denis, the Areopagite, and the Carthaginians. The Romans, who proclaimed sent one of his disciples from France into Spain, and themselves the liberators of the Spanish nation, were Eugenius was so far successful, that a Christian Church victorious on several occasions; but their army was cut was founded in Toledo, under his pastoral care. Ireto pieces near Tarragona, and the two Scipios slain. næus, bishop of Lyons, A. D. 184, alludes to the Three successive generals, who succeeded to the com Churches of Spain in his day; and among the fathers of mand of the fresh armies sent into Spain, were covered the primitive Church are reckoned Basilides and Martiwith disgrace. The younger Publius Cornelius Scipio, alis, bishops in Spain. The religion of Christ at length however, soon revenged his father's death, and restored spread over the Peninsula. the honour of the Roman arms. Spain was completely In the year 409, the Goths, who had poured in resistwrested from the Carthaginians, and from this time the less myriads from the forests of Germany upon the country was regarded as a province of Rome, divided Roman states, burst into Spain, and completely over-ran into Hispania, Citerior and Ulterior; Carthage being, at the country to the rock of Gibraltar. “The situation of the conclusion of the second Punic war, deprived of all Spain," observes Gibbon, in his history of the Decline her possessions out of Africa, and her feet being sur- and Fall of the Roman Empire, “ separated on all sides rendered into the hands of the victors, who soon after from the enemies of Rome by the sea, by the mountains, wards levelled Carthage to the ground.

and by intermediate provinces, had secured the long Under the Roman proconsuls several insurrections tranquility of that remote and sequestered country; and took place; but for some centuries after the contests we may observe as a sure symptom of domestic happibetween Cæsar and Pompey, it was a tranquil and pros- ness, that in a period of four hundred years, Spain furperous dependency. In the reign of Tiberius we find, nished very few materials to the history of the Roman from the writings of Columella, a native of Gades, that empire. The footsteps of the barbarians, who in the the mines and fisheries of Spain furnished an inex- reign of Gallienus had penetrated beyond the Pyrences, haustible source of wealth; flax and hemp were produced were soon obliterated by the return of peace; and in the in large quantities; cordage was made from the fibres of fourth century of the Christian æra, the cities of Emerita the genista, or broom; the wool of its sheep was uni- or Merida, of Corduba, Seville, Braxara, and Tarragona, versally esteemed; and honey and wax of the best were numbered with the most illustrious of the Roman quality were obtained in abundance. Spain was at this world. The various plenty of the animal, vegetable, and time divided into three governments:—Lusitania, com the mineral kingdoms was improved and manufactured prising Portugal; Bætica, to which Grenada and Anda by the skill of an industrious people; and the peculiar lusia now correspond; and Tarraconensis, which included | advantages of naval stores contributed to support an the remainder of the Peninsula. Originally the language extensive and profitable trade. The arts and sciences spoken in Spain was a branch of the Celtic; the Phoe flourished under the protection of the emperors. As nicians and Carthaginians introduced their tongue, long as the defence of the mountains was intrusted to which was cognate to the Syriac; but at the fall of the the hardy and faithful militia of the country, they succommonwealth, the Latin language, which forms the cessfully repelled the frequent attempts of the barbarians. basis of the modern Spanish, had obtained nearly general | But no sooner had the national troops been compelled to diffusion. The Romans, too, abolished the worship of resign their posts to the Honorian bands, in the service Moloch, which they found there, and established in its of Constantine, than the gates of Spain were treachestead the religion of Italy.

rously betrayed to the public enemy about ten months before the sack of Rome by the Goths.” The Goths once more introduced Paganism into Spain; but the energy of the Christian religion vanquished the victors, and in three centuries we find the Goths among the champions of the Cross.

In the year A. D. 632, the impostor Mohammed died; before the end of the century his followers had conquered all Arabia, Persia, Syria, Egypt, and Northern Africa to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. In the month of July, 710, a Saracen army of fifteen thousand men landed at Tarifa, the ancient Tartesium; Spain baving been described to the caliph Walid as “Syria, in soil and

air; Yemen, in climate; India, in spices and flowers; Medal of Spain.

Hedjaz, in fruits and grain; Cathay, in mines; and

Aden for useful coasts; full of cities and magnificent Spain was one of the countries to which the Apostles monuments of its ancient kings, and of the Greeks, that at an early period of the preaching of Christianity wise people.” Spain, which had in turn been condirected their attention. It is perhaps doubtful whether quered and occupied by Carthaginians, Romans, and Spain was actually visited by an Apostle; but the Gos Goths, now fell into the hands of the Saracens, or Moors: pel was certainly published there in the apostolic age. the faith of Jesus was almost superseded in the country; St. Paul, in the 15th chapter of his Epistle to the the Christian worship having been altogether abolished Romans, twice expresses his fixed determination to about the twelfth century, in the kingdoms of Cordova, travel into Spain: writing from Corinth, he says, “When- and Seville, of Valencia, and Grenada. The Christians soever I take my journey into Spain, I will come to you: | at first were confined to a small portion of the north-west;

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but by the successful struggles of the kings of Leon, and Spain himself, Christianity has been scandalized by the afterwards of the kings of Castile and of Arragon, they establishment in that country of one of the most deteswere enabled to extend their territory and maintain table institutions that barbarism, bigotry, and fanatical some degree of independence. The Arabs, it must be cruelty ever devised: on the plea of upholding the cause admitted, created “the most prosperous æra of the of God, the Spanish Inquisition, between the years 1481 riches, the cultivation, and the populousness of Spain:” and 1808, tortured no less than 341,021 persons, 39,912 the Christians, on the contrary, living in a constant state of whom were publicly burnt. P. of apprehension, or hostility, to maintain their existence, sunk into the lowest state of ignorance and superstition. The power of the Mohammedans in Spain began to

SPAN, a measure of three hand-breadths, or nearly decline in the fourteenth century; they were beaten in eleven ind several battles; some important towns were recovered from them, and a Grenadian fleet was taken and burnt

SPARROW, 7103 tzippor, otpovolov, strouthion. by the Castilian admiral. On the union of the crowns The

The Hebrew word is used by the sacred writers in a very of Castile and Arragon, in the reign of Ferdinand and

vague and indeterminate sense, including all the small Isabella, strong efforts were made to overturn the Arab

birds which were “clean," that is, wbich could be eaten kingdom of Grenada; Ferdinand taking advantage of

without violating the precepts of the Levitical law, the dissentions of the Moslems, pressed with vigour the

Rabbi Kimchi, indeed, asserts that 7193 tsippor is a siege of Grenada, and, in 1492, Abdalla, the last Mo

name for birds generally, or at least for such as make hammedan king in Spain, surrendered to the Christian

the chirping noise which the Hebrews call 9393 monarch, who guaranteed to the Moors liberty of con

tzitzip. The sparrows of Palestine are even more rescience and worship, the enjoyment of their mosques with the revenues attached to them, as well as of their own laws. On the 22nd of September, 1609, the memorable Ban was published, in compliance with which, the remnant of the Moors, about one million in number, were utterly expelled from Spain.

It deserves to be remarked, that “the ships of Tarshish,” so celebrated in the days of Phænician and Hebrew splendour, became equally renowned in modern times: a Spanish fleet, under the command of Columbus, boldly put to sea in search of a new world, and had the honour of discovering the great American Continent on the 12th of October, 1492. Notwithstanding the enterprise excited by the maritime discoveries of Spain in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the country has occu

Sparrow of Falestine. pied a low position in the scale of nations. Blest by nature with all the elements of prosperity, it has been blighted markable than those of Europe for pertness, boldness, by ignorance and the grossest superstition. Although the and familiarity; it is rare to see a cottage without several Apostle of the Gentiles contemplated the publication of of their nests not only under their eaves but even on the the elevated and benevolent principles of the Gospel in inside of the roof. C.

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Battalion of Spearmen. SPEAR. The spear, or pike, was the distinguish- | diers piled arms; and this explains the circumstance of ing weapon of the heavy-armed infantry among the Asahel's slaughter by Abner: “And Abner said again to ancient nations; it was used very early by the Egyptians, Asahel, Turn thee aside from following me, wherefore with whom the manufacture of smooth spear-handles should I smite thee to the ground? how, then, should I was a very important trade, great care being bestowed hold up my face to Joab thy brother? Howbeit he reon smoothing and polishing them. The head was of fused to turn aside: wherefore Abner with the hinder metal, and double-edged, as was usual also among the end of the spear smote him under the fifth rib, that the Greeks. Warriors of gigantic strength prided them- spear came out behind him; and he fell down there and selves on the length and weight of their spears. We died in the same place; and it came to pass that as read that “the staff of Goliath's spear was like a many as came to the place where Asahel fell down and weaver's beam.” (1Sam. 17. 7.) Among the Jews and died, stood still." (2Sam. 2. 22,23.) G reeks the butt of the spear was shod with iron for the The usual length of an Egyptian spear was under six convenience of sticking it in the earth when the sol- feet, head and shaft included; hence it would be

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wielded with one hand when occasion required. The ladies are still called spinsters. In Egypt, spinning was pikes of the Greek phalangites were longer, but it ) a staple inanufacture, large quantities of yarn being is doubtful whether they were more effective weapons. exported to other countries, as for instance to Palestine In the time of the Trojan war they must have been

war they must have been in the time of Solomon. The spindles were generally of shorter than the Egyptian spears, for we are told that the same weapon was used indifferently as a javelin and a pike.

The Egyptian spearmen were regularly drilled and taught to march with steps measured by sound of trumpet. The prophet Jeremiah (ch. 46,) intimates that the Libyans and Ethiopians formed the strength of the Egyptian heavy-armed infantry; but the spearmen represented in the preceding engraving belong to a native corps. See ARMS.

Edyptian Spinning. SPICE, SPICERY. Any aromatic drug possessed of hot and pungent qualities, as ginger, pepper. | wood, and they increased their force in turning bv nutmegs, cinnamon, cloves, cassia, frankincense, calamus,

having the circular head made of gypsum or some spemyrrh, &c. The ancients seasoned their meats with

cies of composition; in some instances, the spindles spices, a circumstance to which Ezekiel alludes in his

appear to have been of a light plaited work, made of prophecy against Jerusalem, (Ezek. 24. 10;) they also

rushes or palm-leaves, stained of various colours, and used them to flavour their wine: thus the bride declares | furnished with a loop of the same materials for securing that Solomon should drink of “spiced wine," (Cant.

the yarn after it was wound. In Homer's pictures of 8. 2;) they employed them to perfume their beds and

domestic life, we find the lady of the mansion superinclothes; thus the tempter says, “I have perfumed my

tending the labour of her servants, and sometimes using bed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon.” (Prov. 8. 17.)

the distaff herself. Her spindle, made of some precious The bodies of the dead were embalmed with spices; of

material, richly ornamented, her beautiful work-basket, which we find examples in 2Chronicles 16. 14; Jere

or rather vase, and the wool dyed of some bright hue to miah 31. 5; and Mark 16. 1. We learn from the Book render it worthy of being touched by aristocratic fingers, of Genesis, (37. 25,) that the Arabs were the principal

are ordinary accompaniments of a lady of rank, both in traders in spices, and that their merchants supplied

the Egyptian paintings and Grecian poems. This shows Egypt. C.

how appropriate was the present which the Egyptian

queen Alcandra gave to the Spartan Helen, who was not SPIDER, WODY accabish. This well-known insect

less famous for her beauty than for her skill in emis only twice mentioned in Scripture: Job describing the

broidery. After Polybius had given his presents to state of the wicked, says (8. 14),

Menelaus, who stopped at Egypt on his return from
His confidence shall deceive him,

And his house prove weak as a spider's web.

Alcandra, consort of his high command,

A golden distaff gave to IIelen's hand; Not unlike this is the sentiment of the Persian poet,

And that rich vase, with living sculpture wrought, quoted by the Turkish conqueror on the capture of Con Which heap'd with wool the beauteous Philo brought, stantinople:

The silken fleece empurpled for the loom,
The spider holds the veil in the palace of Cæsar,

Rivall’d the hyacinth in vernal bloom.-Odyssey IV.
The owl stands sentinel on the dome of Afrasiab.
Isaiah (59. 5,) merely alludes to the inutility of the

SPIRIT. See Soul, and HOLY GHOST. spider's web for the purposes of manufacture: “ They weave the web of the spider; of their webs no garments SPOUSE, sponsa, “ promised” or “betrothed." In shall be made.”

Palestine, the ceremony of betrothal preceded the marriage A different word, Toow shemamah, has been rendered by several months, but the vows then interchanged were as “spider” by our translators in Proverbs 30. 28, “ The legally binding as those pronounced when the union was spider taketh hold with her hands, and is in kings' completed. During the interval between betrothal and palaces;" but most commentators are agreed that the marriage, the future bridegroom sent presents of various animal to which reference is made in this passage is a kinds to the lady, while she and her family are underspecies of lizard very common in Oriental houses. T. / stood to be engaged in preparing various articles of fur

niture, dress, and ornament for the bridal. The Jews SPIKENARD, 72 nard. The nardostachys, a

allowed a longer interval between the two ceremonies highly aromatic plant, growing in the East, supplied the

than any other ancient nation; but, at the same time,

showed a greater anxiety for the consummation of the extract, or unguent, called spikenard, which was highly valued by the nations of antiquity. It is mentioned in

nuptials after promises had been once interchangel. Canticles, and was probably first brought to Palestine

Any one whose marriage was thus pending was free during the reign of Solomon, the only one of the Hebrew

from the obligation of military law: “What man is

there that hath betrothed a wife, and bath not taken sovereigns who patronised foreign commerce. Accord

| her? Let him go and return unto his house, lest he die ing to St. John (12. 3,) a pound of ointment of spikenard, in the time of Christ, was worth three hundred

in the battle, and another man take her.” (Deut. 20. 15) denarii, a clear proof that it could not have been a

It was considered the greatest possible disgrace it a native production of Syria. C.

woman refused to fulfil her final engagement, or prored unchaste during the probationary period. On the other

hand, if the bridegroom repudiated his bride before the SPIN. The task of spinning was a favourite do- | day of marriage, her character would be ruined for ever. mestic occupation with the ladies of antiquity, as it was These circumstances are very strongly set forth in the once with those of our own islands, where unmarried lst chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel, and are important

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