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kokah , and in the plural ככב ,STAR -koka ככבים

on account of the place they hold in the evidence for the nomes into which the valley of the Nile was divided. immaculate conception.

We find Solomon alluding to this national custom when The bridal procession for bringing home the spouse addressing his Egyptian bride: “Who is she that looketh was a very joyous ceremony in consequence of the im- forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, portance attached to the probationary interval. It was terrible as an army with banners?” (Cantic. 6. 10.) The headed by bands of music, next to which came the rela- same custom was in use among the Jews, for David tions of the bride; then came her female companions, declares, “ In the name of God we will set up our bandressed in a simpler attire than that worn by the ners,” (Psalm 20. 5,) an expression which seems to intiespoused lady; thus we read of the Egyptian princess, mate that the standards were to whom Solomon was united: “She shall be brought consecrated by some religious unto the king in a raiment of needlework, the virgins ceremony. Isaiah (13.2,) noher companions that follow, shall be brought unto thee. | tices the setting up of the With gladness and rejoicing shall they be brought; they royal standards as a signal for shall enter into the king's palace.” (Psalm 45. 14,15.) the mustering of armies; and And here it may be remarked that the application of this Solomon (Cantic. 2. 4,) incivery psalm to the delineation of the union between dentally shows that soldiers, Christ and his Church is a clear proof of the great im- in ancient as in modern times, portance attached to the completion of a betrothal. The took a pride in being faithful spectators joined in the acclamations raised by the mem- | to their standards. C.

Egyptian Standards. bers of the procession; and if the persons married were of high rank, a general holiday was observed on the occasion. A canopy was held over the head of the bride during the procession, and this is still used at the mar

bim. Under the name of stars the Hebrews compreriages of the modern Jews, though the ceremony is now

hended all constellations, planets, and heavenly bodies, performed in a house. C.

with the exception of the sun and moon. A pastoral people must always possess some knowledge of astro

nomy. Tending their flocks by night, they must necesSPRING. See SEASON.

sarily be led to some observation of the heavenly

bodies, and to a speedy acquaintance with the constellaSPUNGE or SPONGE, a submarine substance of

tions which are visible above their horizon. These animal origin, being, like the corallines, the fabric and

luminaries also must have been observed as guides by habitation of a particular species of insect. The cellu

the navigators of the Red Sea, and by the Idumeans, lar structure, combined with the constituent matter of

who travelled over pathless deserts of sand before the sponge, renders it the fittest of all bodies to imbibe a

| use of the mariner's compass was known. The Psalmist, great quantity of any fluid, and give it out again under

to extol the power and omniscience of God, says, “ He pressure.

telleth the number of the stars, and calleth them by their SQUARE. See SCULPTURE.

names.” (Psalm 147. 4.) We have, however, no proof STACTE, a species of odorous gum, which distilled

that the stars were grouped into constellations, and

known by definite names, in the time of the patriarchs, spontaneously from some resinous tree. It is mentioned

or even of the Hebrew commonwealth, although such only once in Scripture. (Exod. 30. 8.)

names are used by the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and our STANDARD. The Egyptians were the first authorized version, in translating two passages in the nation that introduced the use of military ensigns. Every Book of Job, and one in the prophet Amos. In chapter battalion of their army had a particular standard or 9. 9, our translators, following the Vulgate, read, banner on which some sacred object or symbol was deli- “ Which maketh Arcturus (WY gnash) Orion (50) Deated; probably the crests or cognizances of the different kesil,) and Pleiades (72') kimah), and the chambers of

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the south.” Now in Job 4. 19, we have the word wy | variety of symbolic significations, which demand attengnash, signifying a moth, or any destructive insect, such tion. as cause the blights so fatal to the labours of the hus- | Stars are symbols of persons in eminent stations, and bandman in Eastern countries. The next term 'D) | very fitly so, from the height of their own position kesil, literally signifies " a fool,” and the Rabbins inform Thus, the star out of Jacob, in Numbers 24. 17. is us that it was vindictively applied to the dog-star, be- coupled with, or explained by, the sceptre out of Israel, cause its rising was the precursor of excessive heat; in | in Genesis 37. 2. Joseph's brethren are described as fact, that star is called “the little fool” by the Arabs at eleven stars, their subsequent renown as patriarchs justithe present day. Finally, 70') kimah, literally signifies fying the appellation. In Numbers 24. 17, just quoted. “ a heap," and is sometimes used to signify the agency | where the Hebrew and Greek have a slar, the Chaldee of destructive winds and rains. The passage then may expounds it, “A king shall arise out of the house of be rendered,

Jacob," which interpreters apply first to David, and afterWho maketh the insect blight, and the scorching heat,

wards to the Messiah. In allusion to this prophecy, the And the heaping rains, and the clouds of the south.

infamous Jewish impostor Bar-cocab, or, as the Romans In chapter 38. 31,32, 5ood kesil, and i s kimah,

called him, Barchochebas, who appeared in the reign of occur with two other words, which bave been rendered |

Adrian, assumed the pompous title of “Son of a star," by the names of constellations: “Canst thou bind the

as the name implies, as if he were the star out of Jacob; sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion?

but this false Messiah was destroyed by the emperor's Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season, or canst

| general, Julius Severus, with an almost incredible numthou guide Arcturus with his sons?"

ber of his deluded followers. 011mazaroth is derived from 77 zarah, “to

| Stars were the symbols of a deity: “The star of your scatter, disperse, and cast away;" it therefore most pro

god Chiun.” (Amos 5. 26.) Probably the figure of a bably describes the simoom, whose pernicious blasts are

star was fixed on the head of the image of a false god. so often felt in Arabia and Idumea. Wy gnaish, ren

A Greek scholiast on the place says, Erat simulachrum dered Arcturus, is only another form of VY gnash, which,

Moabitarum cum gemma pellucida et eximia in summa as we have already seen, signifies blight. We may,

fronte ad figuram Luciferi. Chiun was a name for therefore, render the passage,

Saturn, as Spenser affirms.

Plutarch, de Isid. et Osir., tells us the Egyptian priests
Canst thou restrain the influences of the rains,
Or relax the parching powers of the dog-star;

affirm of their tutelary deities, not only of those that are Canst thou bring forth the simoom in its season,

immortal, but likewise of their deified heroes, that their And direct the blight with its children (viz., insects)? souls illuminate the stars in heaven. A star, therefore, On the other hand, it must be confessed that the stars,

was often used in the Egyptian hieroglyphics as a as Moses has declared, have, from the earliest ages, been

symbol of their men-gods: this, as well as rays of light, “ for signs and for seasons," and that in the East, they

was their common insignia all over the world. (LUCAN, are frequently employed to designate the physical phe

vii. 458.)

Fulminibus manes radiis ornabit et astris. nomena which are expected about the time of their heliacal rising. Thus“ the dog-days” is a phrase popularly

With rays adorn’d, with thunders arm’d, he stands; used in England to designate very hot weather. The

And man's prayer and sacrifice demands. names, however, given to the constellations in the ordi

When Joseph said, (Gen. 37. 9,) "I have dreamed a nary versions are obviously derived from the Greek

dream, and behold the sun, and the moon, and the elever mythology, with which it would be absurd to suppose

stars made obeisance to me," his father, understanding that Job was acquainted. Whatever solution of the dif

his words in their symbolical and true meaning, reficulties in the use of the terms we have examined may

buked him, and said to him, “Shall I, and thy mother, be adopted, the exegetical meaning of the passages will

and thy brethren, indeed bow down ourselves to thee?" be the same; an assertion that man cannot regulate the

But, as the heavenly bodies mentioned by Joseph could seasons, the temperature, and the various physical agen

not appear, even in a dream, as making obeisance to cies of the universe at his pleasure, so as to prevent the

him, we may believe that he saw in his dream, not the destructive effects of some, or secure the genial influ

heavenly bodies, but a visionary representation of his ences of others.

parents and brethren making obeisance to him; and One reason may be added to show the improbability of

that, in relating this to his father, he chose from moJob having used the names of stars as symbols of phy

desty to express it in symbolical, rather than in plain sical agency. It was the belief that they exercised such

language. Besides, as there never was any collection of a power which led to Sabaism, or the adoration of the

stars called the eleven stars, the application which Jacob celestialluminaries, the first form of idolatry, and the preg

made of that appellation to Joseph's eleven brethren nant source of all the subsequent corruptions of paganism.

shows clearly that the word star, in common speech, was Astronomy does not appear to have been much cul

used to signify the father of a tribe. (MACKNIGHT, tivated by the Jews, and there is only one distinct allu

vol. iii. p. 496.) sion to astrology: “The stars in their courses fought

In Daniel 8. 10, the stars seem to denote the princes against Sisera.” These luminaries are chiefly mentioned

and nobles of a kingdom, who were thrown down and as illustrations of the power and greatness of God; as

stamped upon by a power designated by the te the poet has it,

horn.” In Revelations 8. 10,11, the star is said to i

from heaven, by which, in all probability, some king i The spacious firmament on high, With all its blue ethereal sky,

to be understood as rebelling against another power. And spangled heavens, a shining frame,

This star is called Wormwood, on account of its bites Their great Original proclaim.

consequences. Daubuz supposes this star to mean

Attila, king of the Huns, who, in A.D. 442, laid Waste In reason's ear they all rejoice,

several provincestof the Roman empire. And issue forth a glorious voice;

Rev. 9. 1, “I saw a star fall from heaven to take For ever singing as they shine,

earth," i. e. an inferior power revolting against a su “ The Hand that made us is divine."

perior, and this in order to his own aggrandizemes. Stars, however, are very frequently employed in a Daubuz affirms this to be Mahomet, who in 622 beza

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to take the sword in behalf of his own imposture, and lusion with the debtors, (Luke 16,) the illustration is became successful. Bishop Newton gives the same confined to the policy of the conduct pursued, and no interpretation.

inference can be drawn respecting its moral propriety. Rev. 11. 28, “I will give him the morning-star," i, e., The exhortation which follows is merely advice to I will bestow on him pre-eminence.

manage worldly goods with such liberality and generosity Job 38. 7,

as will promote the cause of true piety, Christian chaWhen the morning-stars sang together,

rity, and enlightened benevolence, and not to exercise And all the sons of God shouted for joy.

the rights of property too harshly. C. Perhaps this may refer to an opinion that the stars are under the direction of guardian angels. But why the

STING. This word is usually employed as an morning-stars? Because it was at the time of the Creation, the morning of the first day.

equivalent for the poison which serpents, scorpions, and

other venomous creatures convey by their sting. The Rev. 1. 20. The pastors of the seven churches are

scorpion was very abundant in Palestine, where it somecalled the seven stars, on account of their office. Jude, verse 13. The false teachers are described as

times attained the size of an egg, and its sting occasions

the most intense pain, sometimes even causing the loss “ wandering stars,” in allusion to those meteors arising from electrical matter in the air, which blaze and are in

of life. To this a reference is made in Revelations 9. 3-10,

where mention is made of “the torment of a scorpion motion for a time, but are suddenly extinguished.

when he striketh a man.” Mention of this animal has Rev. 6. 13, “The stars of heaven fell upon the earth,”

been deferred to this place as the apy gnakrab, or i. e., some principal ruling powers fell from their autho

scorpion, is the animal to which reference is most comrity into a state of subjection.

monly made when mention is made of a sting without Bishop Newton considers this to signify the downfall of the pagan Roman empire, when the great lights of the

any further specification. C. heathen world, the sun, moon, and stars, the powers civil and ecclesiastical, were all eclipsed and obscured, STOICS. A sect of heathen philosophers menthe heathen emperors and Cæsars were slain, the heathentioned Acts 17. 18. They were the disciples of Zeno, priests and augurs were extirpated, the heathen officers and derived their name from the stoa, or portico, under and magistrates were removed, the heathen temples were which he was accustomed to give lectures to his disdemolished, and their revenues were appropriated to ciples. The distinguishing tenets of the Stoics were, that better uses.

God is underived, incorruptible, and eternal; possessed Rev. 12. 4, “His tail drew the third part of the of infinite wisdom and goodness; the efficient cause of stars of heaven," i.e., the power here alluded to would all the qualities and forms of things, and the constant subdue the governments in the third part of the then preserver and governor of the world. They held known world. Here, as Daubuz observes, the decorum that matter, in its original elements, is also underived of the symbol is followed, crocodiles and some great and eternal, and is by the powerful energy of the Deity serpents seizing their prey with their tails. T.

impressed with motion and form; that, though God and matter subsisted from eternity, the present regular frame

of nature had a beginning, originating in the gross and STATUTE. See Law.

dark chaos, and will terminate in a universal conflagraSTEEL, Jen nechushah. The word occurs

tion, that will reduce the world to its pristine state of a

chaotic mass. From this, however, the world will again twice, (Job 20. 24; Jerem. 15. 12,) but in both in

emerge by the energy of the efficient principle, and be stances, it should be rendered copper or brass, for it is mentioned as a metal wholly distinct from iron.

restored in all its organic forms. O.

This belief in a succession of dissolutions and renewals STEPHEN. The first Christian martyr, and the was held by the ancient Hindús, and was revived in the head of the seven deacons appointed by the Apostles. last century by some astronomers, who mistook a periodic As his name is purely Greek, it is probable that he was perturbation of the planetary motions for a continuous an Hellenistic Jew, and therefore well suited to allay the approximation of the planets to the centre of the system, jealousies which caused the institution of the order of where they must be crushed and consumed. Darwin deacons. His martyrdom was an illegal act, perpetrated has immortalized this erroneous belief in the following by a fanatical mob in a moment of violent excitement; magnificent lines, which are perfectly consistent with the and the early Fathers assert that many of his murderers theory of the Stoics, though refuted by the discoveries of were converted by witnessing the faith, resignation, and modern science:courage which he displayed when exposed to their rage. Roll on, ye stars, exult in youthful prime, St. Paul mentions another Stephen, or Stephanus of Mark with bright curves the printless steps of Time; Corinth, whose whole family was baptized, and “ad

Near and more near your beamy cars approach,

And lessening orbs on lessening orbs encroach. dicted themselves to the ministry of the saints.” (1 Cor.

Flowers of the sky! ye, too, to age shall yield, 1. 16.) C.

Frail as your silken sisters of the field;

Star after star from heaven's high arch shall rush; STEWARD, one who manages the affairs, or

Suns sink on suns, and systems systems crush; superintends the household of another, as Eliezer of

Headlong, extinct, to one dark centre fall,

And Death, and Night, and Chaos mingle all. Damascus did that of Abraham. (Gen. 15. 2.) Great

Till overhead, emerging from the storm, confidence was reposed on those who held such an office, Primeval Nature lifts her changeful form, and hence St. Paul describes Christian ministers as the Mounts from her funeral pyre on wings of flame, stewards of God over his church and family. (Titus 1.7.) | And soars, and shines ;-another, and the same. Believers also are described as stewards of God's gifts Those among the Stoics who maintained the existence and graces, to dispense the benefits of them to the of the soul after death, supposed it to be removed into world. (1Pet. 4. 10.) Our Lord frequently uses the the celestial region of the gods, where it will remain responsibilities belonging to the office of a steward for until absorbed into the Deity. But many imagined the purpose of illustrating his reasoning. In the parable that, before they were admitted among the divinities, of the unjust steward, who defrauds his master by col- they must purge away their inherent vices and imper

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fections, by a temporary residence in some aërial region over the Jordan. To the continuance of this practice between the earth and planets !

the prophet alludes:According to the general doctrine of the Stoics, all And Jehovah their God shall save them, things are subject to a stern irresistible fatality, even the

In that day shall he save his people as sheep, gods themselves. Some of them explained this Fate as

When sacred stones shall be erected for a standard in his

land.—Zech. 9. 16. an eternal chain of causes and effects; while others, more approaching the Christian system, describe it as

| In trials it was the custom for the judges to be furresulting from the divine decrees, the fiat of an eternal

| nished with a white and black stone each; the former Providence. Considering the system practically, it was being dropped into the urn was a symbol of acquittal, the object of this philosophy to divest men of their pas

| the latter of condemnation. Hence in the book of sions and affections. They taught, therefore, that a wise Revelation, 2. 17, the giving of a white stone is menman might be happy in the midst of tortures, and that | tioned as a mark of favour; it may, however, possibly

to him indifferent. Their virtues | allude to the Greek custom of giving a white stone to all arose from and centred in themselves; and self those who were victors at the Olympic games. approbation was their great reward. C.

Daniel (2.34,) compares the kingdom of the Messiah to a stone cut out of a mountain, which struck the feet of

the colossal image seen by Nebuchadnezzar in his dream, STONE. The erection of pillars or heaps of stone and having overturned that emblem of pagan power, into commemorate any remarkable event was universal

creased in size until it filled the earth. This symbol before the introduction of writing or inscription, and it may be supposed to allude to the origin of Christianity, is still employed for that purpose by many savage na- |

at first taken from Judaism, but so rapid in its growth tions. Some sanctity in process of time was attributed

that it soon exceeded Judaism in extent, and will evento these memorials, and they began to be regarded with

tually overshadow all the nations of the earth. religious veneration. But other circumstances contri

es contri- “The head stone of the corner," is that put at the buted to make stones an object of worship. Such phe

angle of a building to unite the two main walls together, nomena as the rocking stones worshipped by the British |

and which is therefore one on which the stability of the Druids would naturally excite the astonishment of an

edifice in a great degree depends. Many allusions are made to it in Scripture, as in Psalm 18. 22; Matthew 21. 42; Mark 12. 10; Luke 20. 17; and Acts 4. 11. The metaphor is applicable to Christ in a double sense; first, as the most important and leading personage of the Church, “without whom all else were nought;" and secondly, as the stone that unites the believing Jews and Gentiles in one bond of faith. The Rabbinical writings show that this metaphorical use of the word stone is familiar to the Hebrews, for they apply it not only to kings and princes, but even to God himself.

Stoning was a punishment much in use among the Hebrews; and the Rabbins assert that all crimes are subject to it, which the law condemns to death, without expressing the particular mode. They say, that when a man was condemned to death, he was led out of the city to the place of execution, and there exhorted to acknow

ledge and confess his fault. He was then stoned in one Druidical Rocking Stone.

of two ways; either stones were thrown upon him till be

died; or he was thrown headlong down a steep place, ignorant people, and many commentators are of opinion

and a large stone rolled upon his body. To the latter that the niwo jax eben mashkith, which the Jews mode it is supposed that reference is made in Matten were forbidden to erect, (Levit. 26,) was one of those

21. 44. T. bowing or rocking stones, especially as the phrase is used in opposition to 723 matsebah, which signifies

STORK, 77'DN chasidah. The Hebrew name of “a standing pillar.” Those rare phenomena, aëroliths,

this bird signifies “the kind or benevolent;" its English still more easily became objects of idolatry; they were

name, derived secondarily from the Greek OTOPY": generally of a similar kind to that mentioned by Hero

storgè, “natural affection," equally testifies to the amiable dian, as being consecrated to the sun under his name of Eralayabalos, Elaiagabalos, and preserved in his magnificent temple at Syria; “in which," says the historian, “there stands not any image made with hands, as among the Greeks and Romans, to represent the god, but there is a very large stone, round at the bottom, and terminating in a point of a conical form, and a black colour, which they say fell down from Jupiter.” Sacred pillars or stones were indeed frequently worshipped instead of statues by idolatrous nations, and traces of this preposterous veneration may still be found in various countries.

The erection of monoliths or monumental pillars was forbidden to the Israelites, but it appears that they were permitted to erect cairns or piles of stone to preserve the recollection of great events, as Joshua did at Gilgal, that it might be a memorial of his miraculous passage

The Stork

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character attributed to the stork. It is a bird of the passing of travellers and caravans. When rocks and same species as the crane, from which indeed it differs stones are placed in these tracks, riders are exposed to only in a few particulars. The body of the stork is great danger from the stumbling of the horses; and more corpulent than that of the crane, its colours are hence Isaiah, (63. 13,) describing God's glorious deliverwhite and brown, the nails are flattened like those of a ance of the Israelites from Egypt, says, “He led them man, its beak is very long and furnished with jagged through the deep, as a horse in the wilderness, that they hooks, and its red legs are of a disproportioned appear should not stumble." Robbers and plundering hordes ance. It feeds on serpents and frogs, which was proba frequently placed huge stones and branches of trees bly the reason of its being classed by Moses among the across the roads, as stumbling-blocks to check and perunclean animals, but from the same cause it is regarded plex caravans, in order that they might attack them as a sacred bird in all marshy countries.

during the confusion which such impediments would It has been long believed that the young stork, unlike necessarily create. Thus, (Jer. 6. 21,) “Therefore thus all other birds, retains a love for its parents after having saith the Lord, Behold, I will lay stumbling-blocks quitted the nest, and that it feeds and cherishes them before this people, and the father and the sons together when they have become too old to provide for themselves. shall fall upon them: the neighbour and his friend shall This belief is well pourtrayed in the following lines of perish." C. Beaumont:The stork's an emblem of true piety;

SUCCOTH, IMDD The name properly signifies Because when age has seized and made his dam

tents, or booths, such as are frequently erected for temUnfit for flight, the grateful young one takes

porary encampments in the East. It happened someHis mother on his back, provides her food, Repaying thus her tender care of him

times that an encampment long-continued gradually was Ere he was fit to fly.

changed into a city, an instance of which recently ocThe stork is a bird of passage, and is mentioned as

| curred in Hindustan, where Scindia's camp, at first such among others by Jeremiah, 8. 7.

designed to be merely temporary, has by degrees become Even the stork in the heavens knoweth her stated times,

| a flourishing metropolis, under the name of Gwalior. And the turtle-dove, and the crane, and the swallow, observe | The place where the Hebrews first set up their tents in the season of their coming,

Egypt received the name of Succoth, but, as it was soon But my people have not discerned the judgment of Jehovah.

abandoned, the circumstance was forgotten. This was The particulars attendant on the migration of storks not the case with Succoth on the east of Jordan and are admirably enumerated in Thomson's Seasons. south of the sea of Galilee, where Jacob made an

- The stork assembly meets: for many a day encampment on his return from Padan-aram, (Gen. Consulting deep and various, ere they take

33. 17;) it became one of the principal cities of the Their arduous voyage through the liquid sky.

tribe of Gad. The valleys near it supplied the best clay And now their route design'd, their leader's chose, Their tribes adjusted, clean'd their vigorous wings,

for making moulds, and on that account they were And many a circle, many a short essay,

chosen by Hiram as the proper place for casting the Wheel'd round and round, in congregation full

large utensils for the Temple. The figur'd flight ascends, and riding high

mua nido Succoth Benoth, “The booths of the The aërial billows, mixes with the clouds.

daughters,” mentioned in 2 Kings 17. 30, were small

tents in which the Babylonish women practised the imSTRANGER. See HOSPITALITY.

pure and licentious rites of the goddess Mylitta. T. STRANGLED. Animals put to death by strangulation had not the blood properly separated from the SUEZ. Although this isthmus, which connects flesh, they could not therefore be eaten without a viola | Africa with Asia, is not specifically mentioned in tion of the Noachic precept. (Gen. 9. 4.) The primitive Scripture, frequent allusions are made to the caravanChristians abstained from them, principally to avoid roads between Syria and Egypt by which it is traversed, giving offence to the Jewish converts. (Acts 15. 20.) and the prophet Ezekiel describes Migdol, a fortress on See Blood. C.

the isthmus near the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, as the

frontier-town of Egypt. The navigation of the upper STREETS. As the oriental streets are very nar

part of the Red Sea being always tedious, dangerous, row, the corners of them are usually the only parts

and uncertain, the Phænicians and the Hebrews, in the which arc frequented, and hence Our Lord reproves the

time of Solomon, went up the Gulf of Akaba, instead of Pharisees for praying at the corners of streets, which

the western inlet, which appears to have been neglected were public places. The Hindús, Mohammedans, and

until after the accession of the Ptolemies to the throne many other Orientals, still observe this fashion of pa

of Egypt. rading their private devotions, and travellers have noted

If Suez was not founded by this dynasty, it

certainly is indebted to them for its commercial importthat the Mussulman saints, like the ancient Pharisees,

ance; they made it one of their trading-ports, and proare most ostentatious in the selection of a place for

jected the cutting of a canal through the isthmus, to prayer. C.

connect the Red Sea with the Mediterranean. STRIPES. See PUNISHMENT.

Suez has now become a flourishing place, in conseSTUBBLE. In Egypt the reapers only cut off the

quence of the establishment of communication between ears of the corn with the sickle, leaving the straw, which

Europe and India by steam-vessels in the Red Sea. The they deemed worthless, to rot on the ground. Hence

changes which are rapidly taking place in the populawhen the cruel Pharaoh commanded the Hebrew brick

tion, buildings, and commerce, render it unnecessary to makers to gather straw for themselves, though guilty of

give any account of its existing condition, for in a very excessive tyranny, he did not, as some have supposed,

few months the description would, in all human pro

bability, be quite inapplicable. It is enough to say that ordain a physical impossibility. C.

it is most advantageously situated near the northern STUMBLING-BLOCK. The roads in Eastern extremity of the Red Sea; has a good port, with concountries are for the most part nothing more than ac venient anchorage, and is the residence of many customed tracks, worn to something like a lera hy the European agents and factors, who are totally changing


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