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Tiberias, or the Lake of Gennesareth, famed as the Job mentions the tabret, with other instruments of scene of many miracles, is seen on the north-east, filling music, in his description of the prosperity which the the hollow of a deep valley, and contrasting its light wicked are sometimes permitted to enjoy. blue waters with the dark brown shades of the barren
They send forth their little ones like a flock, hills by which it is hemmed around. Here, too, the
And their children leap for joy; steep is pointed out down which the herd of swine, who
They rise up to the tabret and harp, were possessed by the legion of devils, ran headlong into
They trip merrily to the sound of the pipe.
Wemyss's Translation. the sea. In the same direction below, on the plain of Galilee, and about an hour's distance from the foot of
It was generally believed by the Greeks that the celeMount Tabor, there is a cluster of buildings, used as a
brated Scythian philosopher Anarchasis fell a sacrifice bazaar for cattle, frequented on Mondays only. Some
to the indignation of his countrymen, in consequence what farther on is a rising ground, from which it is said
of having introduced this instrument into Scythia when
of having that Christ delivered the long and excellent discourse,
he returned from Greece. C. called the Sermon on the Mount; and the whole view in this quarter is bounded by the high range of Gebel-el
TACHES, hooks, clasps, or latchets of gold and Telj, or the Mountain of Snow, whose summit was at
brass, for fastening together the curtains of the taberthis moment clothed with one white sheet, without a
| nacle. (Exod. 26. 6-11.) A. perceptible breach or dark spot in it. The city of Saphet, supposed to be the ancient Bethulia, a city said to be seen far and near, and thought to be alluded to in
TADMOR or PALMYRA. The foundation of the apophthegm which says, 'A city set on a hill cannot this magnificent and extraordinary city is ascribed to be hid,' is also pointed out in this direction; but, though
the Jewish monarch, Solomon. It is probable, however, the day was clear, I could not distinguish it, its distance
that Solomon was not the original founder; but that he preventing its being defined from hence without a glass.
extended, beautified, and strengthened a position which, To the north were the stony hills over which we had
from its happy situation in the midst of the Syrian journeyed hither, and these completed this truly grand
desert, became a depôt for trade, and a resting-place for and interesting panoramic view.” The Arabs have
the merchants and their caravans, passing from the Pergiven to Mount Tabor the name of Djebel Tour. P.
sian Gulf to the great commercial marts of the ancient world, Tyre and Sidon, or destined for the Jewish capi
tal and the Syrian cities. Palmyra stands on an oasis TABRET, 9n thoph, a musical instrument, also in the desert, according to the best authorities in longicalled the timbrel, which was somewhat like the modern tude 38° 50' E., latitude 33° 20' N.; in the poetic lantambourine; it consisted of a broad metal hoop, with a
guage of the East, “an island” surrounded by a trackskin stretched over it, having jingling metallic plates
less waste of sands. It lies about fifty leagues southattached to the border. It was a favourite instrument
east of Aleppo; about the same distance from Damascus, both on solemn and festive occasions. Among the
| and twenty leagues west of the Euphrates. Egyptians, by whom it was probably invented, the tabret
The Bible affords us little information relative to this was of three kinds, differing, no doubt, in sound, as well
singular and remote city, except the fact that Solomon as in form. One was circular, another square or oblong,
viong, built a city on its site, which is termed “Tadmor in the and the third consisted of two squares separated by a
Wilderness." (1 Kings 9. 18; 2Chron. 8. 4.) On the bar. They were all beaten by the hand, and used as an
discovery of the stupendous ruins of Palmyra in the last accompaniment to the harp and other instruments.
century, it was strongly contended by some learned men Men and women played upon the tabret, or timbrel;
that Palmyra and the Tadmor of the Scriptures were but among the Jews it was generally appropriated to
two distinct places; but modern researches have refuted the latter, and they frequently danced to its sound,
this opinion, and the testimony of the Jewish historian unaccompanied with any other music. It was always Joseph
Josephus puts an end to all controversy on the subject. He informs us distinctly that Solomon built and fortified the city, which was distant two days' journey from Upper Syria; that it was selected on account of its springs of water and its verdure; adding that the Syrians called the place Thaddamora; but that the Greeks and Romans termed it Palmyra. The erection of a city in such a spot throws a strong light upon the condition of commerce in the reign of David and his illustrious suecessor. It is obvious that an immense trade must have been carried on between India and Central Asia, through the Syrian desert, to render its erection as a place of protection and refuge necessary, or to maintain the inns which were to be found there for the accommodation of the travelling merchants. From being a mere resting.
place for goods from the Euphrates on their passage to Jewisin Maiders playing the Tabret.
the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, Tadmor by degrees employed on occasions of rejoicing and thanksgiving: became an important mart, in whose bazaars the traders thus we read, that after the overthrow of Pharaoh and of the East and West met and transacted business his host in the Red Sea, “Miriam took a timbrel in her an emporium and a stock exchange where the Indian, hand, and all the women went out after her with tim- | Persian, Phænician, Syrian and Greek were brouge brels and with dances.” (Exod. 15. 20.) With similar | together. It is supposed that King Solomon levied autos signs of exultation the unfortunate daughter of Jeph- on the goods which passed on this route; but the early thah went out to meet her victorious father as he history of Palmyra is, it must be confessed, buried. returned from his successful campaign, when his rash the deepest obscurity, in consequence of the wars who vow changed their exultation into sorrow and mourning. broke out in the times of Solomon's successors in Syria,
which, in all probability, rendered the city independent. the Roman affairs almost to their pristine condition. Tadmor was taken by Nebuchadnezzar on his march to He took the treasures of the king, he also took what the Jerusalem; but he appears to have merely rendered the Parthian kings esteem more dear than treasures, their place tributary to the Assyrians of Babylon. The Per- women, and caused Sapor to flee with fear into his own sians, on the overthrow of Babylon, became its masters; kingdom.” “ Odenatus, king of the Palmyrenes, thus it submitted to Alexander the Great; then became sub- obtained the empire of the whole East, and that chiefly ject to the Seleucidæ; after which it appears to have because he showed himself by his brave actions worthy enjoyed a peaceful independence, and to have observed a of so much majesty. While Gallienus was doing cautious neutrality. “Palmyra," says Pliny, “remark- nothing, or foolish or ridiculous things, Odenatus crushed able for its situation, its rich soil, and pleasant streams, Balista, a pretender to the empire. He then waged war is surrounded by a sandy desert, and seems naturally to on the Persians to revenge Valerian, which that empebe cut off from the world; it has been preserved in inde ror's son, Gallienus, neglected to do, occupied Nisibis pendence between the two great empires of the Romans and Carras, and sent the captive satraps to Gallienus to and the Parthians, from these two nations having been shame him. Persia being desolated, Nisibis and Carras, always at war with each other.” The Palmyrenes con and all Mesopotamia being reduced to the Roman power, fined their attention strictly to merchandise, and, under the conquering troops having marched to Ctesiphon, the the Roman emperors, arrived at the height of their glory king being fled, satraps taken, and numbers of Persians and importance.
killed, Odenatus was, with the approbation and applause Palmyra is mentioned by none of the ancient writers of the Roman world, declared Augustus by the senate, from the time of Pliny till the reign of the Emperor and received as a colleague in the empire by Gallienus, Valerian, when it attracted the attention of the world. and the money taken from the Persians was ordered to After the defeat of the Romans by the Persians, and the be coined in their united names.” Odenatus, however, capture of Valerian, A.D. 260, Palmyra was menaced was shortly afterwards assassinated at a public banquet by the haughty conqueror Sapor, the successor of Arta- | by his nephew Mæonius, who had been deprived of his xerxes, who had the audacity to place his foot in public horse by his uncle for presuming to cast his javelin before upon the neck of the Cæsar. Odenatus, prince of Pal- the emperor while hunting. Zenobia, his heroic queen, myra, hoping to propitiate this formidable neighbour, at once revenged the murder of her husband by putting sent presents to Sapor, accompanied by a polite letter. the assassin to death; and, although the decree of the But the Persian treated the letter with the most insolent senate had only given royal authority to Odenatus, withcontempt, and ordered his presents to be cast into the out the right of transmitting it to his successor, Zenobia Euphrates. Odenatus, incensed at this proceeding, and at once ascended the vacant throne, and proclaiming herdesiring to revenge the death of Valerian, whose skin self “queen of the East," established her authority over some assert that the Persian ordered to be stuffed as a Palmyra, Syria, and the East. “Modern Europe," says trophy of his victory at Edessa, instantly marched Gibbon, “has produced several illustrious women, who against Sapor. His cavalry at once attacked the enemy, have sustained with glory the weight of empire; nor is and, after a bloody battle, the Persians were driven with our own age destitute of such characters. But if we great slaughter across the Euphrates. Trebellius Pollio, except the doubtful achievements of Semiramis, Zenobia the historian of these events, gives the following account is perhaps the only female whose superior genius broke of the progress of the arms of Odenatus and his lovely through the servile indolence imposed on her sex by the and intrepid princess, Zenobia. “ Valerian being taken, climate and the manners of Asia. She claimed her Odenatus had the empire of the East, and Gallienus descent from the Macedonian kings of Egypt, equalled appeared to rejoice in the captivity of his father. in beauty her ancestor Cleopatra, and far surpassed that Armies were wandering about, generals were murmur- princess in chastity and valour. Zenobia was esteemed ing, and there was great grief among all that a Roman the most lovely as well as the most heroic of her sex. emperor should be held in servitude in Persia.” “Ode- She was of a dark complexion, (for in speaking of a lady natus, the Palmyrene, having collected an army, restored these trifles become important.) Her teeth were of a
pearly whiteness, and her large black eyes sparkled with | Roman army under Probus, who had returned from the uncommon fire, tempered by the most attractive sweet- conquest of Egypt. Zenobia now mounted one of her ness. Her voice was strong and harmonious. Her fleetest dromedaries, and, with a chosen band, passing manly understanding was strengthened and adorned by the hostile lines in the night, fled toward Persia. - Aure study. She was not ignorant of the Latin tongue, but | lian quickly pursued her, and she was taken prisoner on possessed, in equal perfection, the Greek, the Syriac, and the banks of the Euphrates as she was stepping into the Egyptian languages. She had drawn up for her own | the boat that was to have carried her beyond the reach use an epitome of Oriental history, and familiarly com- of her pursuers. The city now surrendered to Aurelian: pared the beauties of Plato and Homer under the tui. and from the accounts which Pollio, Vopiscus, and Zosition of the sublime Longinus.” Zenobia is said to have mus have given of the value of the spoils that fell into professed the Jewish religion, and is by some critics his hands, it is evident that at the period just preceding supposed to have been of Jewish origin, although she its ruin, Palmyra was a place of as much commercial boasted a nobler extraction. But the royal widow was importance as it was when Solomon made it one of his not content with the sovereignty of Syria and Mesopo store cities, and deposited there the spices, the gold, and tamia, although the neighbouring states of Persia, the precious stones with which the caravans of his merArmenia, and Arabia solicited her alliance; allured by a chants came laden from India. Aurelian treated his fatal ambition, she resolved to extend her conquests to royal captive with leniency, and after gracing his triumEgypt, and, taking advantage of the Gothic wars in phal procession, she was given an estate at Tibur, which which the Emperor Claudius was engaged in the west, was transmitted to the children which were the issue of planted her banners on the banks of the Nile. Finding a second marriage with a Roman nobleman. His fury, that Zenobia aspired to nothing short of the dominion however, fell upon the incomparable Longinus. Aureof Asia, Aurelian, who after the death of Claudius, and lian had scarcely crossed the Hellespont on his return the murder of that emperor's brother, was chosen empe from the East when intelligence reached him that the ror, prepared to march an army against her to reduce citizens of Palmyra had revolted. He instantly reher to obedience to Rome Having accepted the sub crossed the straits, and, breathing forth vengeance, mission of several cities in his route through Asia rapidly marched back upon the devoted city. His own Minor, Aurelian encountered the forces of Zenobia in letters inform us that he ordered the indiscriminate exethe vicinity of Antioch, the Syrian capital. Animated | cution of men, women, and children; his chastisement by the presence of their dauntless queen, who directed nearly depopulated the place; its defences were disthe battle in person, the Palmyrenian cavalry bore down mantled, and its magnificent Temple of the Sun almost the Roman legions; but the superior tactics of the western destroyed. Aurelian afterwards repented the destruccommander restored order to his ranks, and drew the tion of Palmyra; but although he appropriated a sum enemy into a snare, from which the troops of Zenobia of money to the restoration of the temple, the glory of found it impossible to extricate themselves. Being the East fell into irretrievable ruin. defeated by Aurelian in another battle at Emesa, Zenobia | The site of this city of the wilderness was unknown, retreated to her city of Palmyra, where she resolved to and its history was forgotten till its noble ruins were make a last and desperate stand for her crown, Vale accidentally discovered during the last century by some rian prepared at once to pursue her; and, although his British travellers. Mr. R. Wood's drawings and descripsoldiers suffered severely from the march through the tions at once excited the attention of the learned and desert, which denied them shelter or any kind of sup- curious throughout Europe; and, since his time, Palmyra plies, and were harassed by frequent attacks from pre- has been inspected by several French and English tradatory gangs of Arabs, he pressed the siege with vigour. vellers, to whom we are indebted for minute descriptions The heroic queen still disdained to submit. In reply to of its architectural remains:
The ground, the message of Aurelian, requiring her to surrender, she
League beyond league, like one great cemetery, sent the emperor a letter, written by Longinus, in which
Is covered o'er with mould'ring monuments; she defied his power, reminded him of the inhospitable
And let the living wander where they will, nature of the desert in which his troops were encamped; They cannot leave the footsteps of the dead. and, boasting of the strength of her walls, and the Palmyra is situated under a barren ridge of bills to approaching succours of her allies, told him that she
the west, being open on the other sides to the desert, was resolved, like Cleopatra, that the last moment of her | Mr. Wood describes the impression created on his mind reign and her life should be the same.
by the first sight of its ruins in 1751 in the following We may judge of the strength and importance of the terms: “In nine hours from Carietein we came to a city of Palmyra in the third century by the difficulty | ruined tower, on which we observed, in two places, the which Aurelian found in obtaining admission into it. | Maltese cross. Near it are the ruins of a very nich In an original letter to the senate, the emperor remarks, building, as appeared by a white marble door-case, whic “The Roman people speak with contempt of the war is the only part standing not covered with sand. At which I am waging against a woman. They are igno- midnight we stopped two hours for refreshment, and the rant both of the character and of the power of Zenobia. | 14th, about noon, we arrived at the end of the plain, It is impossible to enumerate her warlike preparations of where the hills to our right and left seemed to meet. stones, of arrows, and of every species of missile wea- | We found between those hills a vale through which an pons. Every part of the walls is provided with two or
| aqueduct (now ruined) formerly conveyed water to l'al: three balistæ, and artificial fires are thrown from her myra. In this vale, to our right and left, were several military engines. The fear of punishment has armed square towers of a considerable height, which, upon, her with desperate courage. Yet still I trust in the pro
| nearer approach, we found were the sepulchres of the tecting deities of Rome, who have hitherto been favour- | ancient Palmyrenes. We had scarce passed these ver able to all my undertakings." Still Aurelian offered rable monuments, when the hills opening, discovered inviting terms to his warlike enemy; promising a splen- | us, all at once, the greatest ruins we had ever seen did retreat to Zenobia, and to the citizens of Palmyra of white marble, and beyond them, towards the Euall their ancient privileges. These terms were rejected phrates, a flat waste as far as the eye could reach, w with disdain, and the queen of the East maintained her
na the queen of the East maintained her out any object which showed either life or motion." fortitude till she witnessed the approach of another is scarcely possible to imagine anything more stri
than this view: so great a number of Corinthian pillars, 1 established opinion that Palmyra, or Palmira, is derived mixed with so little wall or solid building, afforded a from the word Palma, and was a translation of the most romantic variety of prospect." Mr. Wood accom Hebrew name of Tadmor, which signifies a place aboundpanied his descriptions with forty-five illustrations, (seeing in palms. If any confirmation were necessary to The Ruins of Palmyra, otherwise Tadmor in the Desert, establish the identity of Tadmor and Palmyra, it is fol., London, 1753,) the fidelity of which has been afforded in the interesting fact that the Arabs, who live vouched by Burckhardt and others.
among the ruins, still call the place Tedmór. P. “Of Tedmór the ancient remains are so fully given by Wood,” says Mr. Burckhardt, “ that it is impossible for me to add to them. I discovered a single oversight
TAHAPANES or TAHPANHES, an Egyptian in Wood, which is having noted down only one source
city, supposed to be Daphnæ Pelusiæ, situated sixteen and rivulet at Tedmor. There is a second, which takes
miles from Pelusium. It stood on the margin of the its rise in the hill beyond the Temple of Diocletian, and
lake now called Menzaleh, and seems to have enjoyed is conducted by a subterraneous aqueduct across the
extensive commerce both with the Mediterranean and ruins and the grand colonnade until it issues from under
the Red Sea. The Prophet Jeremiah in recounting the ground near the ancient walls of the city, and shortly
sufferings of the Jews, says, “ Also the children of Noph afterwards joins the other rivulet. The first view of
and Tahapanes have broken the crown of thy head.” Tedmór when arriving from the west, and issuing from
Johanan, discrediting the prophecies of Jeremiah, carried the narrow pass between the Jebel Abyad and a branch
away the prophet and all the remnant of Judah to of the Jebel Rowak, is beautiful beyond description;
Egypt: “Then came the word of the Lord unto Jerebut I must confess that, at the first moment, I was still
miah in Tahpanhes, saying, Take great stones in thine more struck by the aspect of trees and verdure in the
hand, and hide them in the clay of the brick-kiln, which middle of a sandy sea, than by that of the proud remains
is at the entry of Pharaoh's house in Tahpanhes, in the of human grandeur.” Mr. Bruce, the celebrated tra
sight of the men of Judah; and say unto them, Thus veller, observes, “ Just before we came in sight of the
saith the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel; Behold I ruins we ascended a hill of white gritty stone, in a very
will send and take Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, narrow winding road, such as we call a pass, and when
my servant, and will set his throne upon these stones arrived at the top, there opened below us the most asto
that I have hid; and he shall spread his pavilion over nishing stupendous sight that perhaps ever appeared to
them. And when he cometh, he shall smite the land of mortal eyes. The whole plain below, which was very
Egypt, and deliver such as are for death to death; and extensive, was covered so thickly with magnificent build
such as are for captivity to captivity; and such as for ings as that one seemed to touch the other, all of fine pro
the sword to the sword.” (Jerem. 43.) Tahapanes was, portions, all of agreeable forms, all composed of white
| we are informed, the burial-place of Jeremiah. P. stones, which, at that distance, appeared like marble. At the end of it stood the Palace of the Sun, a building
TALENT. A weight among the Jews containing worthy to close so magnificent a scene."
three thousand shekels, which, if a shekel of silver be Messrs. Irby and Mangles, however, who visited reckoned at three shillings, a talent of it will amount to Palmyra 1817-18, do not estimate the architectural
four hundred and fifty pounds sterling; and one of remains of the “Queen of the Desert" so highly as pre
of the Desert so highly as pre- gold to sixteen times as much, viz., seven thousand two ceding travellers: the picturesque effect of the whole, l hundred pounds. But we, supposing a shekel of silver they state, presented altogether the most imposing sight to be considerably less, viz., two shillings, three pence, they had ever seen; but, on minute examination of the
| and three-eighths, compute the talent of silver at three sculptures, they were of opinion that the plates of Messrs.
n that the plates of Messrs. | hundred and forty-two pounds, three shillings, and nine Wood and Dawkins “ had done but too much justice to
pence; and a talent of gold at five thousand four hundred the originals.” The last visitor, on the other hand, Mr.
and ninety-five pounds sterling. (Exod. 38. 24-27.) C. G. Addison, contends that the criticisms of Irby and
The weight of a Jewish talent for weighing silver was Mangles are not founded in justice. “I did not share,”
one hundred and thirteen pounds, ten ounces, one pennyhe says, “in the disappointment expressed by one of our
weight, ten grains, and two-sevenths; but their talent travellers, because the columns of these porticos were
used in weighing other things was, perhaps, a fifth-part not above half the height of the columns of the great
heavier. temple of Baalbec, not at all expecting to find columns
The Egyptian talent was eighty-six and almost nine composing lines of porticos extending for a mile, of the
ounces. They had a talent at Antioch that weighed same gigantic size as those of the peristyle court of a
three hundred and ninety pounds and about three temple. Nor do I at all agree in the opinion that the
ounces and a half. See Money. details of the architecture are unworthy of admiration;
Whatever means of grace and usefulness God gives true it is that the capitals of the columns, and all the
to men are called pounds and talents, and to some he more delicately sculptured parts, possess none of the deep
gives these in greater, and to others in less proportion; and sharp cutting that one sees at Baalbec; but this is
but all ought to improve what they receive, and must entirely owing to the corroding effects of the siroc wind
give account of the use thereof. (Matt. 25. 15-19: from the desert, for, on examining those parts which
Luke 19.) To mark the infinite disproportion between were sheltered from the weather, and disengaging the
the injuries done by us to God, and those done by men fallen fragments from the sand in which they lie buried,
to us, the former are called ten thousand talents, and we found them beautifully and deeply chiselled.”
the latter, one hundred pence. (Matt. 28. 24-21; The Valley of the Tombs is considered the most | Zech. 5. 7: Rev. 16. 21.) A. interesting portion of Palmyra: it abounds in noble sepulchral monuments; many of the inscriptions are legible. It is worthy of remark that the Palmyrenes TALMUD, 71250 doctrine, from 793 lamad, to dated from the æra of the Seleucidæ. (See Halley's and teach; a celebrated Jewish book, being a collection of SWINTON'S Papers in the Philosophical Transactions.) all the Jewish laws, institutes, and rules of life, and
The origin of the name of Palmyra has given rise to expositions of duties imposed on the people by Scripture, no small controversy;, but it appears now to be the tradition, or the authority of the Rabbins; in fact, the
complete body of the Jewish canon and civil law; illus- 7 of his labours was the Mishna, or text of the Talmud. trated with tales, allegories, and aphorisms. The Tal- / being the oral law, with the traditions and Rabbinical mud consists of two parts, the Mishna, or text; and the decisions. Following the arrangement of Hillel, he Gemara, the exposition or commentary, which together divided it into six heads, called Orders. The first form the Talmud. The foundation of this work is the treats of agriculture, the second of festivals, the third of Oral Law, which the Jews say, God delivered to Moses women, their duties, &c., the fourth of injuries sustained on Mount Sinai, at the same time with the Pentateuch, by man or beast, all kinds of losses, or contracts, shipor written law, of which the oral law forms the expla- wreck, &c.; the fifth of sacrifices and holy things; the nation or interpretation. The Jews call it the Juin no sixth of purifications. Syau lorah shebaal peh, or Law of the Mouth, because The word Mishna is derived from 1730 shenah, to do it remained unwritten for ages; and the account they the second time, and means repetition, like Deutegive of its oral transmission is as follows. That God ronomy; when mentioned by the ancient Christian gave the text and its explanation to Moses, who repeated Fathers it is called evTepWols, Deuterosis. It was them in the same manner to Aaron when he (Moses) re- / published by Rabbi Judah Hakkadosh, about 190 A.D., turned to his tent; then Aaron went to Moses' right and was unanimously received as of authority by all the hand, and Eleazar and Ithamar entered, whom Moses Jews in Palestine. It is written in a pure style of taught as he had done Aaron; then in their presence he Hebrew, but is so very concise as to be extremely repeated the law to the Seventy Elders; and lastly to obscure. It was therefore soon found insufficient as a the whole people in presence of all the foregoing. Then code of canon and civil law; and particularly as R. Judah Moses departed, and Aaron repeated what he had heard in giving the different decisions of different presidents to all as before; and then retired. Eleazar and Ithamar (at variance with each other,) neglected to point out then recited it before the Seventy Elders and the people; which were to be followed or received as of authority. and, on their departure, the Seventy repeated it to the Wherefore some succeeding Rabbins distinguished the people; so that each party heard it four times, and had received 'decisions by marks. Rabbi Chaia, disciple of it thus impressed on their memories. Joshua and Phi Rabbi Judah, wrote an exposition called Joseptoth, i. l, neas taught the oral law to their successors; it passed additions; and Rabbi Uzziah wrote commentaries called from the prophets in succession to Jeremiah, and from Barajeloth, or glosses beside the text. Various comhim to Baruch, who transmitted it to Ezra, who taught mentaries were written by later Rabbins to explain the it to the Great Synagogue of which he was the head, obscurities, and supply the deficiencies of the Mishna, all (see SYNAGOGUE,) and which ended with Simon the of which were collected by Rabbi Jochanan Ben Eliezer, Just, from whom the oral law passed downwards in the head of the school at Tiberias, and formed into a work following succession: to Antigonus Sochæus, (president called the Gemara, i.e., completion, about 290 A.D. of the Sanhedrin,) Joseph Ben Juchanan, (vice-presi The Mishna, together with this Gemara, form the Jerudent,) Joseph Ben Joezer, (president,) Nathan Arbelitu, salem Talmud, so called, because written in Palestine. (vice-president,) Joshua Ben Perekia, (president,) who The style of the Gemara is coarse, and much inferior to lived at the time of Alexander Janneus, (in last century that of the Mishna, and has been in many places found B.C.,) Simon Ben Setah, (vice-president,) and Judah obscure by the best Hebraists, even Lightfoot. On Ben Tabbai, (president,) Semaiah and Abtalion, (presi- account of the general obscurity and insufficiency of the dent and vice-president,) these were kinsmen, and of Jerusalem Talmud, a variety of additional commentaries the posterity of Sennacherib, but of Hebrew mothers; and explanations were composed, and particularly by the the celebrated Hillel, pupil of the foregoing, president of Jews in Mesopotamia; the collecting and arranging of the Sanhedrin, founder of the Pharisees; he lived a little these to form another Gemara was commenced by Rabbi before Christ. He arranged the precepts of the oral law Asa; after he had been head of the school at Sera near into six general classes (unwritten however,) for the sake Babylon, for forty years. He died in A.D. 427, leaving of method; he transmitted the law to his son and suc- | thirty-five books, or treatises, for the work, which was cessor, Rabbi Simeon, he to his son and successor, Rabbi continued by Rabbi Maremor, his successor, and Rabbi Gamaliel, who was St. Paul's teacher, and who trans- | Mar Asa's son, and by other disciples, and completed by mitted it to his son and successor, Rabbi Simeon II., | Rabbi Jose about A.D. 500. Other dates have been who perished at the fall of Jerusalem, and who taught assigned, of less antiquity, but we follow the most gene. the traditions to his son Gamaliel II., surnamed Jas- rally acknowledged. The late Archbishop of Cashel nensis, (president,) whence the oral law descended to (Dr. Lawrence), has proved that this latter Gemara must Simeon III., Gamaliel's son and successor, who handed | have been completed before A.D. 513. This Gemara is it down to his son the famous Rabbi Judah, surnamed written in a corrupt style, full of Chaldee and other Hakkadosh, the Holy or the Saint, who was the intimate foreign words, and barbarous phrases. This Gemara, friend of the emperor Antoninus Pius, and who also with the Mishna, forms the Babylonian Talmud, because lived in the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. arranged and collected in Babylonia. It was imme Rabbi Judah, seeing that the restoration of the Jewish diately and unanimously received by the Jews, and is polity was hopeless; that the entire dispersion of the held by them in the utmost veneration, and considered people was inevitable; and that the oral law for which | infallible. they had so high a reverence, was in danger of being 1 Thus, to recapitulate, there are two Talmuds, composed lost or corrupted, if left any longer to tradition among a l of one and the same Mishna, but two different Gemaras. scattered and oppressed people, took the resolution of The Jerusalem Talmud, and the Babylonian. The de committing it to writing, conceiving that the circum rusalem, the most ancient, the most concise, and the stances sanctioned the breach of the solemn prohibition most obscure; with Rabbi Jochanan's Gemara. The that had always existed against writing it.
Babylonian, with Rabbi Asa's Gemara, more modern, Rabbi Judah was president of the Sanhedrim at Tibe and much more diffuse and voluminous: it is by far the rias, and head of the school, and was wealthy. He em- most highly esteemed by the Jews, and is called the ployed all his influence and his wealth in collecting not | Talmud especially; whenever the other is quoted it is only the traditions, but all the questions and decisions of called the Jerusalem Talmud. This latter has been the ancient Rabbins upon doubtful and difficult cases; generally preferred by Christian writers as containing this is said to have occupied him forty years. The result less of fable and frivolous matter.