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The first temple usually bears the name of Solomon. | the Jews to his usurpation, undertook the charge of its It is impossible for us to form any conception of its size, restoration, and, for the space of nine years, kept eighty proportions, and external appearance, for the Scriptures thousand workmen constantly employed in this task. give us no precise description, and its destruction by the sparing no expense to render the building unmatched in Babylonians took place before the age of authentic tra magnificence and beauty. But though Herod accomdition. It was, however, modelled on the plan of the plished his original design in the time specified, yet the Tabernacle, (which see,) though of much larger dimen Jews continued to ornament and enlarge it, expending sions, and more superb structure. With this general the sacred treasure in annexing additional buildings to it, account we must be content, for no instruction could be so that they might, with great propriety, assert that their derived from indulging in vague and uncertain conjec temple had been “forty and six years in building." ture. It stood on Mount Moriah, an eminence of the (John 2. 20.) ridge which in Scripture bears the name of Mount Zion. The existing descriptions of the second temple dwell The site was chosen by David, but the eminence was so on its dimensions rather than its forms, so that any rugged and precipitous, that it had not sufficient base for attempt to picture it would be a mere exhibition of the sacred edifice, with its courts and appendages. To fancy. The following particulars, however, will serve to remedy this inconvenience, Solomon raised a wall of give some notion of its state at the time of the coming squared stones along the valleys which encircled Mount of Our Saviour. In the New Testament, the name Moriah, and filled up the spaces intervening between the Temple refers not only to the fabric itself, including the wall and the precipice with earth. In later times this Holy of Holies, the sanctuary, and the several courts, space was further enlarged by the erection of additional both of the priests and the Israelites, but also all the walls, and these substructions were continued until in numerous chambers and rooms comprehended in the the time of Our Saviour the platform at the top of the vast edifice, to each of which its respective degree of hill was about a furlong square.
holiness was attributed, increasing in proportion to its The space which Solomon thus prepared was inclosed contiguity to the Holy of Holies. It had nine gates, by an outer wall, and an interior colonnade, so as to each of which was richly studded with gold and silver; divide the space round the building into two courts; the that called Beautiful, (see Sur,) on account of its surinner was called “the Court of the Temple," and some passing excellence, was formed of Corinthian brass, a times “the Court of the Priests.” In the outer court metal highly valued in ancient times. Its height was were erected the magazines for the wine, corn, oil, and fifty cubits, and its ornaments, both of gold and silver, wood used in the service of the temple; and in the inte- | were more costly and massive than those with which the rior colonnade were the cells which contained the vest- others were decorated. ments of the priests and Levites, with other articles of The outer court, which inclosed the Holy House and sacred furniture. It appears that the exterior court was the other courts, was named “the Court of the Genrather lower than the interior, and this gave a terraced | tiles,” because Gentiles were permitted to enter it, but form to the substructure, which greatly increased its not to advance any farther. It was surrounded by a effect when seen from a distance. Seven years and six range of cloisters, above which were galleries supported months were spent in the erection of the superb and | by pillars of white marble; each pillar was a monolith, magnificent Temple of Solomon, by whom it was dedi or single block of stone, and was twenty-five cubits in cated, A.M. 3001, B.C. 996, with peculiar solemnity, to height. The colonnade fronting the Mount of Olives on the worship of the Most High, who, on this occasion, the east was called Solomon's porch, because it stood on vouchsafed to honour it with the Shekinah, or visible a vast terrace which he had originally raised from a manifestation of his presence. It retained its pristine valley beneath, by a wall containing five hundred feet splendour only thirty-four years; Shishak, king of Egypt, in height of solid masonry; it was the only part of Solotook Jerusalem, and carried away the most precious of mon's original work which remained in the second temple. the articles with which the sacred edifice was decorated. This part of the structure was called “the Royal Piazza It underwent many subsequent profanations and pillages, by Josephus; he declares that no one could look down until it was finally plundered and burned by the Chal- from it to the valley below without becoming dizzy, dæans under Nebuchadnezzar, A.M.3416, B.C. 584. and he asserts that the beauty of the architecture was
During the Captivity the summit of Mount Moriah fully equal to the sublimity of the situation. was covered with a heap of shapeless ruins; but imme- As the outer court was expressly intended for the diately after the restoration of the Jews to their native Gentile converts, the Jews, who did not worship in 19 land, Zerubbabel commenced the rebuilding of the | themselves, believed that they might lawfully employ It temple on a larger scale than before, but in a far inferior for profane uses; here, accordingly, those who sold anistyle, both of architecture and decoration. After the mals for sacrifice established their market, and the establishment of the Seleucidæ in the kingdom of Syria, | money-changers displayed their tables. Our blessed Antiochus Epiphanes, who was anxious to Hellenize all | Lord rebuked them for this desecration, declaring that the nations subject to his sway, and to coerce them into his Father's house was a house of prayer, and ought now conformity to the Grecian religion, caused the priests to to be converted into “a den of thieves." (Matt. 21. 12,13.) discontinue the daily sacrifice which was offered to the No stronger proof could be given of the awe and respect God of Israel, and erected the statue of Jupiter Olym- which the bearing and behaviour of Jesus had inspired, pus on the altar of burnt-offering. This desecration than the immediate obedience to his mandates by the continued for three years, until Judas Maccabæus having traders and usurers who have in all ages been provere commenced a successful struggle for recovering the inde- | ally eager for gain. pendence of his native land, made himself master of | The court of the Israelites was inside the court of the Jerusalem. His first care was to remove the idolatrous Gentiles, from which it was separated by a low s pollutions, and purify the temple. The Asmonean wall of elegant construction, on which stood sever princes pursued the same policy, and the sacrifices to square pillars, bearing inscriptions in Syriac, Greek, and Jehovah were not again intermitted until the final Latin, importing that aliens were prohibited destruction of Jerusalem. After having stood for five entering the Holy Place. To this wall St. Paul allu centuries, the temple began to exhibit signs of dilapida- in describing the universality of the Christian system, tion and decay. Herod the Great, in order to reconcile which embraced both Jew and Gentile: “But noff du
1 Shushan Gate.
11 The Holy of Holies.
5 Chambers round the Court of Israel. 14 North Gate.
aa Outer Wall of the Courts of the
Christ Jesus, ye who sometimes were afar off are made by a double veil was the Holy of Holies, a chamber nigh by the blood of Christ. For he is our peace, who | about twenty cubits square, into which no one was hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle admitted but the High Priest, and he only once a year, wall of partition between us." (Ephes. 2. 13,14.) The on the great day of atonement. (Exod. 30. 10; Heb. 9. court of the Israelites was subdivided into two parts; 2,7.) that next to the court of the Gentiles was reserved for the women, separated from which by a flight of fifteen steps, and a gate called that of Nicanor, was the terrace or court appropriated to the male Israelites.
In the women's court stood the building called the Treasury, where voluntary offerings were received for the purchase of victims and other things necessary to the
COURT OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL daily sacrifice. The treasury was furnished with twelve chests, somewhat similar to the boxes placed for receiving charitable contributions in many of our modern public offices. Each chest had written on it the class of offerings it was destined to receive, so that every one knew where to cast in what he had to offer. They were placed in this court that the women might have access to them, which could not have been the case had they been placed in the court of the men. It was opposite to the building in which these chests were placed, that Christ was sitting when he showed that the poor widow's humble contribution of two mites was in reality a greater offering than the large sums which the wealthy bestowed. (Mark 12. 41.) In these two courts, the female and male Israelites were offering up silent prayer, while Zacharias was making the customary offering of incense
Plan of the Temple with its Courts. in the sanctuary preparatory to the daily sacrifice.
9 Cattle Gate. (Luke 1. 10.) We are told that “the people waited for
10 The Holy Place. Zacharias, and marvelled that he tarried so long in the
4 The Stairs leading to the Upper 12 Solomon's Porch. temple,” (Luke 1. 21,) for when the priest came forth Chambers.
13 Gate of Huldah. from the Holy Place, the sacrifice was laid on the altar,
6 Galleries supported by Pillars. the trumpets sounded, and the Levites commenced their 7 Gate of Parbar.
Levites. sacred hymns and psalms.
8 Outer Wall of Court of the Priests.|| Within the court of the Israelites was that of the · The appearance of the inner temple or sanctuary was priests, separated from the former by a low wall not well calculated to excite awe and astonishment in the more than two feet high. This inclosure surrounded minds of the spectators; it was almost completely the altar of burnt-offering, and to it the people brought | covered with plates of gold, so resplendent as to dazzle their oblations and offerings, but the priests alone were the eye when the sun shone upon it. The dome was permitted to enter its sacred precincts.
studded with sharp golden spikes to prevent birds from Twelve steps ascended from the court of the priests to perching upon it and defiling the building. Enormous the Temple properly so called. The edifice was divided blocks of stone, some of which were sixty feet long, into three parts; the portico, the outer sanctuary, and seven broad, and ten high, were used in its construction, the Holy of Holies. In the portico, the various votive Hence Christ's disciples expressed a very natural asto.. offerings made both by Jews and foreigners were depo- | nishment at the vast size of these blocks: “Master, see sited. Amongst these treasures we find specially men- what manner of stones, (irotanou 11001, potapoi lilhoi, tioned a large golden table, presented by Pompey the what huge stones,) and what buildings are here,” (Mark Great, and several golden vines of exquisite workmanship | 13. 1;) nor was their incredulity wonderful when they and immense size; for Josephus assures us that some of heard that the existing generation should not have quite the clusters of golden grapes were as tall as a man. passed away, before this glorious edifice should be a Herod, in imitation of the Greeks and Romans, sus- |
Greeks and Romans, sus- | heap of shapeless ruins. pended in the porch several of the rich spoils and The fulfilment of this prophecy took place in the same trophies which he had taken from the Arabs and other month, and on the same day of the month, that the first barbarous tribes of the East. This was a common temple had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, about custom among the heathen nations; Virgil introduces forty years after the prediction had been uttered. (A.D. Æneas boasting of having suspended the spoils which 70.) In consequence of the revolt of the Jews, Vespasian he took from the Greeks on the portals of a Grecian led an army into Judea, the command of which he aftertemple.
wards transferred to his son Titus, who laid siege to I hung the brazen buckle on the door,
Jerusalem. (See art. JERUSALEM.) Foot by foot, and
inch by inch, the Jews defended the sacred city, but From conquering Greece the great Æneas gain'd.”
still driven backward by an overwhelming force, they at
Æneid III. length occupied the temple as a citadel. Titus would The porch had a very large portal or gate, which was willingly have spared the sacred edifice, but in the confurnished with a Babylonian veil instead of folding | fusion of the fight, a soldier flung a flaming brand into doors. So far as we are enabled to determine by the one of the windows of the cloisters, which falling on a description, this Babylonian reil was a piece of thin heap of combustible materials, kindled a fire that spread muslin, stained with a great variety of colours, and
with fearful rapidity. Some of the other assailants, designed to be a mystic representation of the universe. | stimulated by the hope of piu
stimulated by the hope of plunder, flung torches into the Priests of every grade were admitted into the actuary, sanctuary, and as the flames
ruary, | sanctuary, and as the flames arose, the Jews, goaded where the altar of incense was erected; separo. Da com it by the energies of despair, refused quarter and fell in
"led from it /
thousands around their desecrated altars. The hill on to curse the sons of Jacob, reference is made to their which the temple stood was soon crowned with a mass of habitations: “How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and flames which illuminated Jerusalem and the entire chain thy tabernacles, O Israel! As the valleys are ther of mountainous ridges by which the city was girdled. spread forth, as gardens by the river's side, as the trees Ere long the work of destruction was complete, and this of lign-aloes which the Lord hath planted, and as cedarstructure, recently so glorious, was a shapeless mass of trees beside the waters.” The children of Israel we smoking ruins.
find employed tents as habitations in the days of ReboThe Emperor Julian, through hatred of Christianity, boam; and the signal for rebellion was the cry, “T resolved to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem, and restore | your tents, O Israel!" it to the Jews; but miraculous fires drove away the “Entertainments," observes Paxton, “are frequently workmen who were employed in clearing the founda- | | given in the country under tents, which, by the variety tions, and the attempt was abandoned. Soon after the of their colours, and the peculiar manner in which they conquest of Jerusalem by the Saracens, the Caliph Omar are sometimes pitched, make a very pleasant appearance erected a magnificent mosque on the neglected spot To this agreeable custom the spouse probably alludes, in where the Temple of Solomon once stood, and this that description of her person: “I am black, but comely, edifice is not less venerated by the Mohammedans than O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the original structure was by the Jews. T.
the curtains of Solomon. The seeming contradiction in the first clause, is easily obviated. The Arabs generally
make use of tents covered with black hair-cloth; the TEMPTATION, trial or proof, which may be taken other nations around them live in booths, or huts, coneither in a good or bad sense according to the design of structed of reeds and boughs, or other materials, or in the tempter. Thus, when God tempted Abraham by tents of different colours. In Palestine, the Turcomans commanding him to sacrifice Isaac, the word is used in live in tents of white linen cloth, while the Turks, in its good sense, for a trial of faith and obedience. their encampments, prefer green or red, which have a Temptation, however, is more frequently used to signify very pleasing effect in the eye of the traveller. It is the enticements to sin, held out by the devil and by only the Arabian tents, or the tents of Kedar, which wicked men, C.
are uniformly black, or striped. This is the reason the
spouse compares herself, not to tents in general, which TEMPTATION OF CHRIST. The remarkable
are of different colours, but to those of Kedar; which account of Christ's temptation is contained in the fourth
are all covered with black hair-cloth, and have therefore chapter of Saint Matthew's Gospel. It is designed to
a disagreeable appearance. These tents are stretched on show us by a striking example, how the temptations
three or four pickets, only five or six feet high, which and suggestions of the evil spirit are to be resisted, and
give them a very flat appearance at a distance; one of also to afford us the consoling hope of Our Blessed
these camps seems only like a number of black spots. Saviour's sympathy and assistance, seeing that “he
The spouse proceeds: “As the tents of Kedar, as the was in all points tempted as we are.” (Heb. 2. 13;
curtains of Solomon. By the last clause may be under4. ]5.)
stood those splendid tents, to which the great monarch, TEMPTER. See DEVIL, and Satan.
who, by his own confession denied himself no earthly pleasure, retired in the heats of summer, or when he
wished to entertain his nobles and courtiers, or sought TENT. Tents or pavilions, constructed from the the amusement of the chase. Some are of opinion, skins of animals, formed the first habitations of the these curtains refer to the sumptuous hangings which human family. Those temporary residences, admitting surrounded the bed of the Israelitish king: and their of easy removal, were particularly suited to the habits of | idea receives some countenance from a manuscript note pastoral and nomade tribes; they have been employed in of Dr. Russell's, which states, that moscheto curtains the East in all ages; being still used by the Arabs, Tar are sometimes suspended over the beds in Syria and tars, Affghans, and other wandering nations. Jabal, the Palestine. But since it is common in Hebrew poetry to son of Lamech, was “the father of such as dwell in express nearly the same thought in the second paralle tents, and of such as have cattle.” (Gen. 4. 20.) He line as in the first; and since it is equally common in appears to have been the first who attempted the domes Scripture to put a part for the whole, it is more natura? tication of cattle, as Abel is said to have been only 6 a to suppose that the tents of Solomon are actually meant keeper of sheep” his flocks and herds were moved from in this passage ; and as we are sure they were extremely place to place in search of pasture, water, or shelter: | magnificent, they might, with great propriety, be introand the striking of his tent was but the work of a duced here, on account of their beauty.” P. moment. Cain we are told had “builded a city and called the name of the city after the name of his son Enoch:” but we are not to infer from this that masonry TENTH or TITHE, Twyn maasher. The setting and metallurgy were understood in his days; their apart of a tenth portion of the produce of the earth, invention is to be assigned to a later era; the word city, of every man's possessions, was anciently ordaine meaning in this instance, an assemblage of tents, inclosed two purposes. First, to be dedicated to the ser probably by some common fence. The patriarch Abra- | God and the maintenance of his ministers, as a way ham pitched his tent in the plains of Mamre; and we religious homage, and of gratitude to Him as the are informed in the sacred narrative that the Lord of all things; secondly, for charitable uses in appeared to him “as he sat in the tent door in the heat port of the poor, (Deut. 14.); also as a token of gram of the day.” During the wandering of the children of to God manifested in love to his creatures, (1John Israel in the Desert they encamped in tents; and the “Whoso hath this world's good, and seeth his Tabernacle constructed by Divine command was a tent have need, and shutteth up his bowels of con of peculiar form and splendid decorations, appropriated from him, how dwelleth the love of God in him for the worship of God. In the beautiful apostrophe
utiful apostrophe Though the first regular laws concerning tithes a which Balaam found himself by an uncontrollable im- given under the legislation of Moses, yet the pulse constrained to pronounce when Balak called him paying them existed long before his days.
Moses, yet the custom of te bis days. We read in
Genesis 14, that Abraham paid to Melchizedek, king | it in his mourning, i.e., for the dead, which would have and priest of Salem, (a type of Christ,) tithes of the spoil been uncleanness: compare Hosea, 9. 4, speaking of the he had got in battle, (Heb. 7.4,) when he rescued Lot; captivity of Israel; “Their sacrifices shall be unto them: and which he offered in homage and gratitude to God a bread of mourning, all that eat thereof shall be pollufor the victory. From this circumstance, St. Paul ted,"—that he had not taken aught of it for the dead; takes occasion to show, (Heb. 7,) that the priesthood this is frequently understood by commentators, to mean which Melchizedek represented, viz., Christ's, was more idolatrous customs, such as the worship of the false gods, excellent than the Levitical priesthood, which Abraham, who were often no more than dead heroes deified: but. Levi's progenitor, represented. (Heb. 7.) In a similar the Rabbins explain it to mean, using part of the tithe spirit of homage and gratitude, Jacob vowed to the to buy grave clothes, or other necessaries for the dead, Lord's service, the tenth of whatever he might gain in or giving any part of it to mourners at a funeral. Mesopotamia. (Gen. 28. 24.) And we may remark | The religious character of tithes is thus marked, by that this is the first vow of which we read in Scripture; the presentation as a heave-offering of the first: by their. and it strongly marks the religious character of the eating before the Lord of the second: and by the conseparating of the tenths.
fession made before the Lord concerning the third. Under the Mosaic Law, tithes were regularly esta That tithes were of God's own institution we see in the blished in three kinds, and their uses and applications Mosaic law: that they were offered in homage to God, defined.
and a promise attached to the cheerful payment of them, 1. The tithes purely ecclesiastical, consisting of the in Proverbs 3. 9,10, “Honour the Lord with thy subtenth of all the seed of the land, and the fruit of the trees. stance, and with the first fruits of all thine increase. So (Levit. 27. 30.) Rabbi Solomon Jarchi explains the first shall thy barns be filled with plenty, and thy presses to be corn, the last, to be wine and oil, (Numb. 18. 12); shall burst out with new wine;" and that when they also the tenth of herds and of the flocks. It may be | were withheld from the Lord's minister, God considered remarked that the tenth lambs were not to be taken out; himself wronged and aggrieved, in Malachi 3. 8,9, but to pass out of their folds under a marking rod, “Will a man rob God? yet ye have robbed me. But (see art. Rod,) lest the Jews might be tempted by ye say, Wherein have we robbed thee? In tithes and avarice to select the worst for tithe. These tithes were offerings. Ye are cursed with a curse, for ye have given to the Levites for their maintenance; and the robbed me, even this whole nation.” Levites gave a tenth of this tithe to the priests, after Rabbi Bechai observes, upon Deuteronomy 14. 23, presenting it as a heave-offering before the Lord. (Numb. “Thou shalt eat before the Lord thy God, the tithe of 18. 26-28.) The reason of which ceremony was, that thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil;" that while the the tithes being primarily the Lord's, this was an acknow people paid the tithe, then the produce of the earth was ledgment of his right. If any man wished to redeem called theirs; but when they withheld the just dues, his tithes for money, he was permitted to do so, adding then God asserts his claim to the whole, as the original the value of a fifth part to the original tithe; which rule Giver, as in Hosea, 2. 9, “I will return and take away was instituted in order to prevent the Jews from taking my corn in the time thereof, and my wine in the season any undue advantage of their priests in the commutation. thereof, and will recover my wool, and my flax,” &c., &c.
2. The second tithe, or festival tithes: which was the Rabbi Bechai remarks that they forfeited, the whole, tenth part of the nine remaining after payment of the who did not pay the tenth, which was the rent that God former tithe. This was to be carried up to Jerusalem, reserved to himself out of his own creation, and which yearly, by the master of each family, that he might | was a much smaller proportion than the landlords of the consume it there before the Lord, with his household, in earth require. a solemn festival. (Deut. 14.) These festivals seem to Under the Mosaic law, when a man committed any have been somewhat of the nature of the Agapæ or Love trespass in regard to his dues to God, such as eating at Feasts of the primitive Christians.
home the festival tithe, using the first-fruits of his flocks Chazkum says that the reason of this institution or herds, his lands, withholding his lawful tenths, &c,, was, that when the Jews came up to Jerusalem, and saw | even though it might be done in ignorance, he was the priests officiating, and the Levites singing, and the | required to offer a trespass-offering for his sin, and to Sanhedrin judging, and the doctors teaching, they might make atonement by adding a fifth to his legal dues. be struck with reverence and fear the Lord.
(Levit. 5. 15-18.) As tithes were not instituted as These tithes were considered holy: they could not be merely a part of the Jewish ceremonial law, but were in eaten any where but in Jerusalem: and in a state of existence long before it, as, exemplified in the cases, of legal purity.
Abraham and Jacob, so they have naturally subsisted If it were inconvenient for the owner to carry these after it, as a religious due and acknowledgment of God's tithes to Jerusalem in kind, he was permitted to sell supremacy; for homage to God is not confined to any them, and to take the money to Jerusalem, to purchase one dispensation, but is to be looked for under all in what he pleased for holding the festival. (Deut. 14. 24, turn. 25,26.)
Therefore Our Saviour did not abrogate the payment 3. The tithe for the poor. Every third year, the of tithes, with other parts of the ceremonial law, which above named festival tithe, instead of being carried up were either merely ceremonial, or were fulfilled in his to Jerusalem, was devoted to the poor about the owner's person. On the contrary, he confirmed them. Lightfoot residence, to the widow, the orphan, the stranger, and observes on Matthew 23. 23, that Our Lord, when he the Levite. (Deut. 14. 28,29; 26. 12.) This tithe of rebukes the Pharisees for neglecting judgment, mercy, the poor the Jews call the “consummation of tithes," and faith, while they were scrupulous in paying tithes of because thereby was brotherly love made apparent. In pot-herbs, yet commends the payment of the latter, saythis tithe, the owners generally took no part, as in the | ing, “These ought ye to have done, and not to leave the festival tithe; but gave it all up to their necessitous other undone.” This tithe of herbs was not established brethren. This tithe was also accounted holy: the | by God in the law, but by the Jewish doctors; now if owner had to make a declaration before the Lord, (either Our Saviour sanctioned that which was established by in his devotions at home, or the next time b cent up to church authority alone, how much more that which was Jerusalem,) (Deut. 26. 12,13,) that he had
had not eaten
8 B 2
what he please in the money to Jerus permitted to the
In Luke 14. 13,“ When thou makest a feast, call the the sacrifices discontinued of necessity, and the Temple poor, the maimed, the lame, and the blind.” Our | destroyed, the modern Jews cannot observe the Levitica Saviour alludes to the tithe of the poor, (supra,) and law, having no longer an authentic priesthood, and some sanctions it. In Luke 20. 15, “Render unto Cæsar the of their ecclesiastical dues being lawful to use only in things that be Cæsar's, and unto God the things which Jerusalem; such of the Jews, however, as are conscien. he God's," Our Lord sanctions both the payment of | tious, dedicate a tenth part of their income to the poor, lawful human taxes and customs, and the payment of in lieu of the original tithes; and they still redeem their the ecclesiastical dues. And though from the unsettled first-born son from the priest for a sum of money. and infant state of the Christian church at the time the according to Exodus 34. 20. New Testament was written, no positive and definite | The Jews in France also generally set aside a tithe for rules could be laid down for ecclesiastical dues, yet was the maintenance and expenses of their synagogues. ), it clearly explained by Our Lord and the Apostles that the church was to receive its maintenance from the laity. TERAPHIM, O'970 These were small images: Our Lord desires the disciples on their missions to go
of uncertain shape, which were sometimes worn as into the houses where they shall teach to be maintained;
amulets, and sometimes worshipped as tutelary deities. saying, “ The labourer is worthy of his hire,” (Matt.
They appear to have been reverenced both by believers 10. 9-11; Luke 10. 7;) and St. Paul, (1 Cor. 9, 13,14.)
and unbelievers; but it is not known in what respect alluding to the tithes paid to the Levitical priesthood for
the lawful teraphim differed from idolatrous images. C. their maintenance, proposes the example to the Christian church: “Do ye not know that they which minister
TERTIUS. The amanuensis whom Paul employed about holy things live of the things about the Temple?
to write his Epistle to the Romans. Tertius is the and they which wait at the altar are partakers with the
Latin form of the Syriac name Silas, which signifies altar?” (because they partook of all the sacrifices except
“third." C. the whole burnt-offering.) “Even so hath the Lord ordained, that they which preach the Gospel should live
TESTAMENT, AlaOnkn, Diathēkē. The Septuaof the Gospel;” and in the 7th verse of the same
gint translators have generally rendered the Hebrew chapter, speaking of the ministers, he says, “ Who goeth
word n'y berith, “covenant," by the Greek diaữnın, a warfare at his own charges?" and in Galatians 6. 6,
and it is for the most part used in this sense by the “Let him that is taught in the word communicate to
writers of the New Testament. St. Paul, however, in him that teacheth in all good things."
his Epistle to the Galatians, uses the Greek word in its But there was no need for laying down definite rules
classic signification of a last will or testament; and, in on the subject, while they had the example of the
obedience to his authority, the religious institution of Jewish priesthood, whose place the Christian ministry
Jesus Christ, called 'H Kaivn Alankn, Hë Kainè was now to take, and the manner of whose maintenance
Diathēkè, is usually rendered “The New Testament," was sanctioned by Our Lord. There were the first
instead of “The New Covenant.” The word generally tithes for the priesthood; the second for an example of
includes the notion of a dispensation, or system of Christian hospitality without revelling; the third, for a di
divine economy, the Old Testament being equivalent to model of a regular provision for the poor.
the Jewish dispensation, and the New, to the Christian. That tithes were not confined to the Jewish priest
In Galatians 4. 24, ai dvo dialekai, hai duo dialhēkai, hood we learn from the fact of their having been very
rendered by our translators “ the two covenants," clearly generally copied from the patriarchs by Gentile nations.
refer to the Mosaic and Christian dispensations. Among the Greeks and Romans tenths were fre
These terms soon were employed to denote the books quently dedicated out of men's substance to their gods,
in which an account is given of these dispensations; the sometimes as a lasting obligation; sometimes only on
sacred writings of the Jews being called the Old Testaparticular occasions; but it was customary to dedicate
ment, and the writings superadded by the apostles and the tenth of the spoils of war to Jupiter Prædator, to evangelists, the New Testament. We find that the Mars, and to Hercules. A tenth of private possessions
word was employed in this sense so early as the days of was also, in some places, dedicated to Diana. The Car
St. Paul; alluding to the Jewish form of reading the thaginians sent a tenth of their profits to the Hercules
Law, he says, “For until this day remaineth the same of Tyre, of which city they were a colony. The Persians
veil untaken away in the reading of the Old Testament, gave to their gods the tenths of war spoils. The Pelas
which veil is done away in Christ.” (2Cor. 3. 14.) T. gians paid tithes to the oracle of Apollo at Delphos.
In the infant state of the Christian dispensation, the ministers were obliged of necessity to live by indefinite
TETRARCH. A sovereign of the fourth part of a oblations of the laity, who were, however, guided by
province, or kingdom. In Scripture the title is usually the example of the Jewish church, and the teaching of
given to the descendants of Herod, amongst whom the Our Lord and the Apostles. But when the affairs of
Roman emperors distributed his dominions at their the Church became fixed, so did the revenues of her
pleasure. The title, however, is not used in a rigorous ministers.
sense, but is applied to princes who ruled any fractional Blackstone thinks that the establishment of tithes in
part of a province. C. England was cotemporary with the preaching of Chris THADDEUS. A surname of the Apostle Jude. O tianity by Augustine in the sixth century. But the
THEBET. The tenth month of the sacred, and earliest written English law he met with on the subject
e subject the fourth of the civil year, according to the Hebrew
the fourth of the is that of a synod in A.D. 786, which enjoins the pay-|
ayo | calendar. C. ment of tithes. A little before which time Charlemagne had established them in France, A.D. 778, and
THEBEZ or THEBES, a city of the tribe of divided them into four portions: one to support the
Ephraim, about thirteen miles west from Bethshan, au edifice, &c., of the church, one for the poor, one to
about half a mile from Shechem. The inhabitants setu maintain the bishop, and one the parochial clergy.
to have revolted from Abimelech, the illegitimate Now that the Jewish hierarchy has been so wholly of Gideon and assisted the Shechemites. When overturned, the true succession of the priesthood lost, assaulted it they fled to their tower, ana
tower, and when be