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of the persecution of Joseph, Judah proposed selling | Christ shall come to save Israel, he sball make reader him to the Midianites, in order to save his life, which he ass, and ride upon him, and come to Israel with popestro saw the brethren were intent upon taking. Judah ap- | (Compare with John 12. 14,15; Matt. 21. 257) mi. pears, in all that is related of him, to have been a man vine to which he binds his ass is a type of the Church of courage, sense, and eloquence, and one of the best of Washing his garments in the blood of grapes is the Jacob's sons. When Benjamin was detained a prisoner type of victory, by which his raiment should be red like by the management of Joseph, Judah pleaded for him in wine with the blood of his enemies. (Compare Isaiah a speech which has always been admired for its natural 63. 2,3; Rev. 19. 13; 20. 14.) pathos, (Gen. 45,) and offered to become himself al On, “His eyes shall be red with wine," &c., the Jent. bondsman for Benjamin. And it is to be remarked salem Targum says, “How beautiful are the eres of throughout all the Old Testament history how closely the King Christ; more than refined wine; they do not tribes of Judah and Benjamin stood together in all cir- | behold sins; His teeth are exercised in the Law, so that cumstances, except on the occasion of the Benjamites' he eateth not iniquities; His mountains shall be red sin, (Judges 20,) remaining associated in the kingdom of with vineyards, and His hills white with wheat and Judah, when all the other tribes revolted to Jeroboam; flocks." This prophecy obtained a literal fulfilment to and being now the only visible and acknowledged sur- Judah in the great fertility of that tribe's portion. In vivors of the wreck of the Hebrew nation. Jacob's bless- Christ has been fulfilled the prophecy to Judah that his ing on Judah commences, “Judah, thou art he whom father's children should bow before him, as at the name thy brethren shall praise; thy hand shall be in the neck of Christ every knee bows. (Phil. 2. 10.) His hand of thire enemies; thy father's children shall bow down has been on the neck of his enemies, and as a lion before thee.” (Gen. 49.) The tribe of Judah performed couching after his prey. He hath ascended to his rest the most illustrious acts of any of the tribes. After after his work on earth was done. He is called the Joshua's death it was foremost to fight for Israel; the Lion of the tribe of Judah. (Rev. 5. 5.) In Moses' profirst to offer gifts at the dedication of the altar, (Numb. phecy of Judah, (Deut. 33. 7) he says: “Hear, Lord, 7,) and of it came the royal family of David. The the voice of Judah,” (which God did, both the voice of Jerusalem Targum paraphrases the above verse, “ Judah, David, and of Christ on earth, (John 11. 41,42) “and to thee shall thy brethren confess, and all Jews shall be bring him unto his people,” which is plainly a prayer called by thy name.”

for the coming of the Messiah, who it was known was to The hand of the tribe of Judah was in the neck of proceed from Judah; the remainder of the verse is prohis enemies, for it was a victorious tribe; and David phetic of victory, fulfilled in David and in Christ. says, (Psalm 18. 41,) “ Thou hast given me the necks of Amongst the illustrious persons whom this tribe promy enemies." His brethren bowed down before him, duced, besides the royal family, we may remember that tribe being the kingly one. In the next verse Caleb, son of Jephunneh, the faithful spy: and Othniel, Judah is called a lion by three denominations, a young the first judge who rose up to deliver Israel from the lion, or whelp, gone up from the prey; a lion ('78) an Philistines. (Judges 3.) The inheritance of Judah was adult lion, couching to rest; an old lion ('35), having bounded on the north by the portion of Benjamin; young ones, dangerous to be roused, alluding to the dif south by Edom; east by the Dead Sea; west by Dan ferent stages of Judah’s valour; of which he gave early and Simeon. indications, as did David, the chief representative of V. 17 Dan, first son of Jacob by Bilbab, Rachel's Judah, who made a prey of Goliath, when but a lad. | handmaid, born in the same year as Judah. His name · When the tribe of Judah became mature, it rested, signifies, Judging, because Rachel said that God bad like the couching lion, under Solomon; and even in its judged her cause, in giving her (who was barren) a latter days, was courageous and fierce as the lion that has son by her handmaid, which by ancient custom was whelps to defend. “The sceptre shall not depart from accounted the son of the mistress. Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, till Shiloh | Jacob prophesies of Dan, that “He shall judge bis come.” The rule and the legislative functions abode in people as one of the tribes of Israel.” Dan, though Judah till the coming of Christ; for though the house of accounted a low tribe, was not to be deprived of all priDavid was not actually on the throne, still Judah was vilege, for the sake of Rachel; therefore of Dan came the superior and ruling tribe, existing over the wrecks of Samson, in the time of the Judges; and to him the Tarthe captivities; and their Sanhedrim, or grand legislative

nd their Sanhedrim, or grand legislative gums refer the next verse: “Dan shall be a serpent op council, was in being, and consisted principally of the the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horses members of the tribe of Judah, (though formerly heels so that his rider shall fall backward;" which they Levites had preponderated.)

explain by the sudden and unexpected overthrow of the The prophecies concerning Judah are considered by the Philistines, by the serpent-like subtilty of Samson, Jews themselves as relating to the Messiah. They have when he pulled down the Temple of Dagon. (uages observed that Judah was the fourth of Jacob's sons, and 16.) The next verse is an apostrophe of Jacob ş" that on the fourth day of creation the great lights were | have waited for thy salvation, O Lord!" which soons made, wherefore it is written of the Messiah, in Psalm that the patriarch expected some other and better de 89. 36,37, “ His throne shall be as the sun before me; it | verer of Israel. The Targums explain it: “I espect not shall be established for ever as the moon, and as a faith- | the salvation of Gideon, which is a temporary salvation ful witness in heaven.”

nor the salvation of Samson, which is a transitory set And the Jerusalem Targum upon the verse, “ The vation, but the salvation of Christ the Son of David, W10 sceptre shall not depart from Judah," &c., says, “Kings shall bring to himself the sons of Israel, whose salvatvu shall not cease from Judah, nor teachers of the law from my soul desireth.” Moses (Deut. 33. 22) likens Day his children, till the time that King Christ come, whose a lion's whelp leaping from Bashan, on account the kingdom is, and whom the people shall obey.” On conquest made by Dan of Laish, (Judges 18,) i the next verses of Jacob's prophecy, “ Binding his foal of Leshem. (Josh. 19.) unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine; he' Dan is omitted in the seventh chapter of Rere washed his garments in wine. His eyes shall be red when all the rest of the tribes (types of the cu with wine, and his teeth white with milk," the Jews Church) are represented as sealed, and this is ge comment as follow: the Bereshith Rabba says, “ When understood to be because Dan was particularly

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to unfaithfulness in religion. The later Jews say that as a figure of strength to tread down his enemies, as Antichrist will come from Dan.

Christ's feet (Rev. 1. 15,) are said to be like fine brass.. The portion of Dan in Canaan was bounded on the Asher's portion was a maritime country; having the north by Ephraim; south by Simeon; west by the Mediterranean on the west; Galilee or Naphtali, on Mediterrannean; and east by Judah.

the east; Lebanon, north; and Mount Carmel, south. VI. 509) Naphtali, second son of Jacob and IX. ve Issachar, fifth son of Jacob and Leah, Bilbah, born 1754 B.C.; his name signifies “wrestling." born about 1752, B.C. The name"means “hire.” Jacob In Jacob's prophecy it is said: “Naphtali is a hind let | likens him to a strong ass, because this tribe was laboloose: he giveth goodly words. Most of the Rabbins | rious in rustic employments, and "he saw that rest was explain this to mean Barak of the tribe of Naphtali, good.” It has been observed, that when Tola, of the who at first showed the timidity of a hind in refusing to tribe of Issachar, judged Israel, (Judges 10,) the land go against Sisera, without the prophetess Deborah; but | had rest. Bishop Patrick explains the words, “he after wards displayed his fleetness in pursuit of the ene- became a servant unto tribute,” to mean, that this tribe mies; and his eloquence and goodly words, in the song being devoted to agriculture, preferred paying taxes of of thanksgiving he sang with Deborah for the victory. redemption for their services, to leaving their pleasant (Judges 4 and 5.) The prophecy was spiritually ful- land and going to war. filled in the Apostles, who preached much in the land of The portion of Issachar had, Zebulon, north; halfNaphtali, and gave goodly words; and the Gospel pro- | tribe of Manasseh, south; Jordan, east; part of Asher, mulgated by them, was as a hind let loose in its speedy | west. circulation. Moses says. (Deut. 33. 23,) “Naphtali X. 7521 Zebulon, sixth son of Jacob and Leah, born satisfied with favour, and full with the blessing of the about 1751, B.C. The name means “dwelling.” Jacob Loid.” For the inheritance of Naphtali was a fertile prophesies of him as a maritime tribe; and his portion and delightful woody country. It was also full of the lay on the Mediterranean. Moses says of Zebulon, blessing of the Lord when Christ and his disciples “Rejoice in thy going out,” which alludes to the going dwelt and taught so much within its borders, along the out of the Gospel within his boundaries, as prophesied in Lake of Gennesareth. As is said in Matthew 4.14-16, Isaiah 9. 1,2, in conjunction with Naphtali, (see then was fulfilled the saying of Isaiah, “ The land of | NAPHTALI supra,) and further, that they shall call the Zabulon and the land of Nephthalim (Naphtali), by the people to the mountain and offer the sacrifices of rightway of the sea; the people which sat in darkness saw a eousness, i. e., to the mount of the Lord's house. (Isai. great light.”

2. 23.) Naphtali's portion extended into Upper and Lower The “abundance of the seas” is understood literally Galilee; having Lebanon north; Issachar south; Jordan of the merchandise of this maritime tribe, and “the east; Asher and Zebulon west.

treasures hid in the sand,” of the glass, which was anciVII. 72 Gad, first son of Jacob and Zilpah, Leah's ently made of the sand of the river Belus, which was in handmaid, whom she gave to Jacob, when she herself this tribe. Figuratively, it meuns the admission of the had apparently ceased child-bearing. His name means Gentiles into the church. (Isai. 9. 5,16.) “ a troop," alluding to the troop of sons of which Leah Zebulon had Naphtali, north; Issachar, south; the saw herself now at the head. Born about 1754. Sea of Gennesareth, east; and the Mediterranean, west. Jacob says, “ A troop shall overcome him; but he shall XI. 70 Joseph, eldest son of Jacob and Rachel, born overcome at Jast.” Gad's portion being a frontier | 1745, B.C. The name means “addition,” because Rachel country was much exposed to the invasions of the said, that God had added to her a son. The words Ammonites and Moabites, but who were overcome by uttered by Jacob, of Joseph, related to the past literal Jepl.thah, (Judges 11;) also the tribe of Gad overcame history of Joseph, and afterwards were fulfilled in Christ. the Hagarites and dwelt in their land. (1 Chron. 5.) The archers, (his brethren,) shot at him and hated him; To this Moses alludes “Blessed be he that enlargeth but God made his arms strong to abide; and blessed Gad, he dwelleth as a lion;" explained by Chronicles him with great and mighty blessings in Egypt. So 12. 8, where the Gadites wlio gathered to David in the Christ was hated and put to death, by his brethren wilderness are called men of war, with faces like lions. according to the flesh, the Jews; but he was helped “He teareth the arm with the crown of the head," is and blessed by the Almighty God, and the blessings were explained by the Targum of Onkelos, as the men of “on the crown of him that was separate from his brethstrength (typified by the arm), and the chief rulers (the ren,” which is a plain allusion to Christ, who was a crown of the head), overcome by Gad. “He provided Nazarene, or separated person. (Matt. 2. 23; Isai. the first part for himself,” explained by Rabbi Solomon 9. 1.) The allusion is made still more plain by the Jarchi; he received his portion in the lands of Sihon words of Jacob, “from thence is the Shepherd, the stone and Og, which was the first fruits of subduing the land. of Israel.” For Christ is always known as the “good “ He came with the heads of the people, he executed Shepherd," and the stone which became the head of the the justice of the Lord.” The Gadites, with Reuben corner. and Manasseh, headed the tribes on entering Canaan, The benediction of Moses on Joseph, is in the same to execute the Lord's judgments on the wicked inha strain; prophetic of every precious blessing, and adding bitants.

" the good will of Him who dwelt in the bush,” (God His portion had Manasseh north; Reuben south; who appeared to Moses in the burning bush;) Him, Ammon east; Jordan west.

who declared of Christ in a voice from heaven, “This is VIII. U8 Asher, second son of Jacob and Zilpah, my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." born about 1753 B.C. The name signifies “happy,” for 12. 78. Benjamin, the youngest of all Jacob's. Leah said, “Happy am I,” at his birth. Jacob said sons, the second son of Rachel, born about seven years of him, “ Out of Asher shall his bread be fat; and he after his brother Joseph. He was the only one of shall yield royal dainties," alluding to the fertility of his Jacob's sons born on the borders of Canaan; and his country, especially about Carmel. Moses adds, “He mother died in giving him birth. The Rabbins consider shall dip his foot in oil,” which was proverbial of pros- that she died prematurely, in consequence of Jacob's perity, (Job 29. 6,) and “his shoes shall be iron and prophetic imprecation on the head of the person (to him brass,” because in his country were mines, also, it is said unknown,) who had stolen Laban's teraphim, “ With

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whomsoever thou findest thy gods, let him not live. | Daghistan, on the Caspian Sea, who live entirely un. For Jacob knew not that Rachel had stolen them.” | mixed and unconfounded with neighbouring Gentiles, (Gen. 31. 32.) Rabbi Eliezer says, that which cometh out or modern Jews. They observe the Passover, and are of the mouth of a just man is as though it came out of the only Jews who at this day actually and fully sacrifice the mouth of an angel. Wherefore Rachel travailed and the Paschal lamb; they observe the feasts, but with some died. In dying, she called her child Benoni; but Jacob difference from the modern Jews; they know nothing of called him Benjamin; the son of my right hand. the later Jewish books or customs, and appear to have Jacob's prophecy of Benjamin was, “Benjamin shall been separated at an early period from the Hebrew ravin as a wolf: in the morning he shall devour the nation; they are ignorant of the Feast of Lights, which prey: and in the night he shall divide the spoil:” which is not of earlier origin than the time of the Maccabees; was literally fulfilled in Ehud the Benjamite, the second they have none of the fasts, except that of the Day of judge, who delivered Israel from the Moabites, (Judges Atonement; they observe the Sabbath without any of 3,) and Saul the Benjamite, first king of Israel, a valiant the superstitious practices of modern Jews; in fact, warrior, but not equal to the lions of Judah. Benjamin they are ignorant of the oral law; of the Scriptures in the Christian dispensation is the time of the Church. | they have only the Pentateuch, and part of Esther; St. Paul, the chief Apostle, takes care to remind us in Deuteronomy they have not the last chapter, which that he was of the tribe of Benjamin, (Rom. 1. 11;) in was added after the time of Moses; and the blessing on his unconverted state, he “ made havoc among the Simeon, which is omitted in our copies, is found in churches,” (Acts 3. 8,) like the ravening wolf of Benja theirs, joined to Reuben. (See SIMEON, supra.) Their min. St. Paul also reminds us, that he was as one born MSS. are without pointing, or divisions of chapters or out of due time, (1Cor. 15. 8,) which naturally recalls

sentences. Their customs and creed prove them to be Benjamin, born in a severe travail. Benjamin, as the primitive Jews; their ignorance of the thirteen articles Christian Church succeeding the Jewish, shows out the of faith current among the Jews in Europe, their nonsignificancy of the double name,-it is first, a child of observance of Rabbinical ordinances, and their small sorrow and martyrdom, then the child of God's right quantity of Scripture, prove their early separation. They hand. In the literal sense, the double name was fulfil- | fully believe in their restoration to the Holy Land, the led in a double fortune to the tribe of Benjamin, which rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem, and the restoraat one time was made desolate and nearly annihilated. tion of the sacrifices of the Law. M. (Judges 20.) Yet before the end of that age, it recovered so much, that Saul, the first king, was chosen from it, TRIBULATION. See Trial. and became for a time the right hand of the tribes. In TRIBUNAL. See COUNCIL, JUDGE, &c. the close connexion, throughout the Jewish history, between Benjamin and Judah, the peculiar tribe of the TRIBUTE. In all states the subject pays taxes Messiah, there is a beautiful type of the close fellowship | or tribute to the sovereign power in return for the between the Church and Christ.

protection he receives in person and property. Hence Moses says of Benjamin, (Deut. 33. 12.) “ The beloved the Hebrews under the Theocracy acknowledged the of the Lord shall dwell in safety by him; the Lord shall sovereign dominion of God by a tribute or capitation cover him all day long, and dwell between his shoulders;" | tax of half a shekel a head, which was paid yearly. which was literally fulfilled in the Temple being partly' (Exod. 30. 13.) built within the lot of Benjamin, whose borders touched | Vanquished nations were forced to pay tribute to Judah’s. Typically it has been fulfilled of the Christian their conquerors, and the severity with which this was Church, in which dwells Christ, the beloved of the frequently exacted, made such a badge of servitude Lord; and the Septuagint version shows it out more more onerous and galling than a mere pecuniary clearly, rendering “ The Lord shall dwell in the bride- payment would have been. The Jews, after their chamber,” marking Benjamin as the Church, allegorized subjugation by the Romans, submitted very reluctantly in Scripture as the bride.

to the payment of tribute, and hence the Pharisees Some of the foregoing prophecies of the tribes are tempted Christ by the insidious question respecting the considered by Christian commentators, as well as by payment of tribute, (Matt. 22. 17;) had He declared it Jews, as not having yet received their entire fulfilment, unlawful, they could have accused him of treason to the literally or spiritually, (especially the prophecies of Romans, whilst, on the other hand, had he directly Joseph,) such fulfilment awaiting the time when it shall sanctioned the payment, he would have grievously please God to “set his hand the second time to recover offended the Jews, who were reluctant to acknowledge the remnant of his people which shall be left; to as any sovereign but Jehovah. In the apostolic age, many semble the outcasts of Israel (the lost and hidden ten Jews adopted the principles of Judas Gaulonitis, who tribes), and gather together the dispersed of Judah” (the taught that it was unlawful for the descendants of scattered two tribes). (Isai. 11. 11,12.)

Abraham to pay tribute to any foreign power. On this From the time that the ten tribes, forming the kingdom account, the apostles Peter and Paul strenuously of Israel, were carried away captives by the Assyrians, a | recommended to the Christian converts, submission and mystery and a cloud have hung over their existence, obedience to the ruling powers, together with a consciwhich many able men have endeavoured to penetrate.entious discharge of their duty in the payment of tribute Sir William Jones thought he discovered some of them and taxes. C. among the Afghans, who call themselves Beni Israel, or sons of Israel, have Jewish countenances, and many I TRINITY. This term is not used in Scripture, Jewish customs. Buchanan found many traces of them but it was early introduced into the Christian church to in the East, especially in Bombay. Aaron Levi, who in express the union of three in one; the ineffable mystery 1644 travelled under the name of Montesinos, thought of three persons, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, in one he discovered some of them in America and in the West Godhead. The term, which might more properly be Indies. Other writers have traced some of them into tri-unity, corresponds with the trinitatis unitas of Ethiopia. But one of the most interesting late works on Tertullian, who employed it as more correct than the the subject is the Remnant Found, by Jacob Samuel, Greek term trias, and also less liable to be confounded who has discovered a remnant of Jews located in with the mystic triads devised by the later Platonists. C.

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TRIUMPH. Almost all ancient nations celebrated spoils taken from the enemy, carried in open wagons, or success in war by a triumph, which generally included a on a species of bier called feretrum, around which were gorgeous procession, a display of captives and spoils, displayed the golden crowns sent by allied and tributary and a solemn thanksgiving and sacrifice to the gods. states. The titles of the vanquished nations were Amongst the Egyptians, the triumph of a king returning inscribed on wooden frames; and images or represenfrom war was a grand solemnity celebrated with all the tations of the conquered countries and cities were pomp which the wealth of the nation could command. exhibited. The captive leaders followed in chains, with (See PHARAOH.)

their children and attendants; after the captives came The Hebrews, under the direction of inspired prophets, the lictors, having their fasces wreathed with laurel, celebrated their victories by triumphal processions, the followed by a great company of musicians and dancers, women and children dancing, accompanying their steps dressed like satyrs, and wearing crowns of gold; in the with various musical instruments, (see art. TABRET,) midst of whom was a pantomime, elothed in a female and singing hymns of triumph to Jehovah, the living garb, whose business it was with his looks and gestures and true God. The song of Moses at the Red Sea, to insult the vanquished. A long train of persons folwhich was sung by Miriam to the dulcet sound of the lowed, carrying perfumes; after whom came the general, timbrel, and that of Deborah on the overthrow of dressed in purple, embroidered with gold, wearing a Barak, are majestic examples of the triumphal hymns of crown of laurel on his head, holding a branch of laurel the ancient Hebrews.

in his right hand, and in his left an ivory sceptre with Among the Greeks it does not appear that triumphs an eagle on the top, his face painted with vermillion, were accorded to victorious generals, but conquerors and a golden ball hanging from his neck on his breast. occasionally entered their native cities attended by their He stood upright in a gilded chariot adorned with ivory, victorious soldiers bearing branches of palm. Such pro-drawn by four white horses, attended by his relations cessions became very common under the successors of and a great crowd of citizens, all clothed in white. It Alexander the Great, particularly the Seleucidæ of was creditable to Roman morality that a public slave Syria, and the Ptolemies of Egypt, who are generally accompanied the conqueror in his chariot, to remind believed to have been the inventors of the toga palmata, him of the vicissitudes of fortune, and to present to him, or robe adorned with representations of palm-trees in the midst of all his glory, the remembrance of the interwoven into its fabric. It is clearly to the Græco- varied changes and chances of mortality. The conSyrian form of triumph that the evangelical apostle queror's children sometimes accompanied him, and St. John alludes in the Apocalypse, when he describes sometimes vode in a second chariot, escorted by the those who had overcome by the blood of the Lamb, lieutenants and military tribunes who had served in the standing “ before the throne, clothed with robes, and war. The consuls, senators, and other magistrates folpalms in their hands.” (Rev. 7. 9.)

lowed the general's chariot on foot; and the whole Next to the Egyptians, the Romans were chief procession was closed by the victorious army, drawn up amongst ancient nations in attributing importance to a in order, crowned with laurel, decorated with the gifts triumph, and exerting themselves to bestow a gorgeous which they had received for their valour, and singing brilliancy upon the triumphal procession. The highest their own and their general's praises. honour which could be bestowed on a citizen or magis- The great Apostle of the Gentiles alludes to these trate was the triumph or solemn procession, in which a splendid triumphal scenes in his Epistle to the Ephevictorious general passed from the gate of the city to the sians, when he mentions the glorious ascension of his Capitol. He set out from the Campus Martius, and pro- Redeemer into heaven: “ When he ascended up on high ceeded along the Via Triumphalis, and from thence he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men.” (Eph. through the most public places of the city. The streets 4. 8.) Knowing the deep impression which such an were strewed with flowers, and the altars smoked with allusion is calculated to make on the mind of a people incense. First went a numerous band of music, singing familiarly acquainted with triumphal scenes, the Apostle and playing triumphal songs; next were led the oxen returns to it in his Epistle to the Colossians, which was to be sacrificed, having their horns gilt and their heads written about the same time: “Having spoiled princiadorned with fillets and garlands; then followed the palities and powers, he made a show of them openly,

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triumphing over them in it.” (Col. 2. 15.) After obtain- , and by his own strength, without the assistance of any ing a complete victory over all his enemies, he ascended creature, destroyed him that had the power of death. in splendour and triumph into his Father's presence, on that is, the devil. And as mighty princes were accusthe clouds of heaven, the chariots of the Most High, tomed to scatter largesses among the people with a thousands of holy angels attending in his train: he led liberal hand, and bestow great rewards apon their comthe devil and all his angels, together with sin, the panions in arnis, when they returned in triumph, laden world, and death, as his spoils of war and captives in with the spoils of vanquished enemies, to their capital; chains, and exposed them to open contempt and shame so the Conqueror of death and hell, when he ascended in the view of all his angelic attendants, triumphing far above all heavens, and sat down in the midst of the like a glorious conqueror over them in virtue of his throne, shed forth the blessings of his grace and Holy cross, upon which he made complete satisfaction for sin, Spirit upon people of every tongue and every nation. W.

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Troas. TROAS. This city was built near where Troy employed trumpets for military purposes; the instruonce stood, south-west of the strait of the Hellespont, ment which they used was straight, like the Roman on the coast of Mysia. St. Jerome asserts that it stood tuba, and it was held in both hands when sounded. on the same ground as ancient Troy, but this is an Among the Hebrews the trumpet was used on many error, for the new city was built four miles nearer to the occasions, religious, civil, and military. Its religious shore than that which the Grecian heroes destroyed. In uses were to proclaim the return of the jubilee, the the time of Alexander the Great, New Troy was an commencement and end of the Sabbath, and to give inconsiderable village; but that conqueror, struck with notice of the burnt-offerings and peace-offerings netthe commercial capabilities of its position, caused it to moons, and other solemn festivals. be rebuilt by his general Lysimachus, and gave it the Its civil uses were to give notice of the inauguration name of Troas Alexandria. When the Romans invaded of magistrates, to proclaim the watches of the night, and Asia, Troas had lost the name of Alexandria, and had to celebrate the foundation of cities or remarkable greatly declined from its former prosperity. Augustus edifices; thus we are informed, that trumpets were used Cæsar, to gratify the Roman citizens, who believed when the foundation of the second temple was laid. themselves descended from the Trojans, rebuilt Troas, (Esdras 3. 10.) and sent a colony to the city. A Christian church was The sentinels on the watch-towers which studded the established in this city by St. Paul, with the members of frontiers of Palestine were provided with trumpets, which St. Paul lived on very intimate terms. (Acts which they sounded on the approach of an enemy. 15. 18; 20. 5,6; 1 Tim. 4. 13.) The only remains of (See Tower.) Thus Joel, (2. 1,) this city in the present day are some masses of shapeless

Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, ruins. C.

And sound an alarm in my holy mountain.

The prophet Amos (3. 6) compares the effects which TROGYLLIUM, the name of a promontory and the denunciation of divine vengeance should produ town of Asia Minor, situated at the foot of Mount My- on the impenitent Jews to the alarm excited in a city cale, between Ephesus and Miletus, and about five by the warning note of the sentinel's trumpet:miles from the island of Samos. St. Paul, in his jour

Shall a trumpet be blown in a city, neys, rested here one day; a Christian church having

And the people not be afraid ! been established in the town at a very early period of

Trumpets were used by the heathens, and perhaps the preaching of the Gospel. P.

also by the Jews, at the destruction of cities. Thus toe

prophet Amos, (2. 2.) TRUMPETS. In addition to what has been already

I will send a fire upon Moab,

Which will destroy the palaces of Kirioth; stated under the head Music, we may remark that the

And Moab shall die with tumult, Egyptians appear to have been among the first who

With shouting, and the sound of the trumpet.

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