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UBIQUITY. An attribute of the Deity, identical | even name, are no longer in their opinion but human with omnipresence, whereby he is always intimately prohibitions established by the policy of legislators. present to all things. C.

According to them, the most horrible crimes or the

purest virtues are all equally the same, since an eternal ULAI. A river of Persia, on the banks of which equalization shall soon equalize the just and the impious, Daniel had his vision of the ram and he-goat. (Dan. 8. , and for ever confound them both in the dreary mansion 2-16.) It flowed near the city of Susa or Shushan, the of the tomb. What monsters then must such be upon capital of the Persian province of Shuzistan. This city the earth!” C. owed most of its celebrity to the fertilizing waters of the Ulai, which was employed to irrigate the plains, and

UNCLEAN. In the eleventh chapter of the Book rendered them so productive, that they returned a hundred and even two hundred fold to the agriculturist.

of Leviticus, Moses has given a catalogue of the various

animals which the Hebrews were prohibited from eating In consequence of this fertility, Susa was the chosen winter residence of the kings of Persia, but in summer,

| as being legally unclean. The marks of discrimination it was so fiercely hot that the inhabitants were forced to

between the clean and unclean are stated with great cover their houses with earth to the depth of a yard and

accuracy and precision. The quadrupeds prohibited as to remain within doors during the entire day. After

unclean were those which did not divide the hoof and Susa was plundered by Alexander, the Ulai ceased to

chew the cud. In applying the first principle, we must receive the attention which such a stream required; |

observe, that those beasts are excluded which have not its waters dispersed through a thousand channels,

nels? | the foot by one cleft thoroughly divided into two parts, stagnated in marshes, or were evaporated by the heat of |

as the camel; and also those beasts whose feet though the sun, and Susa became a heap of ruins, in which

ins in which thoroughly divided into two parts by one cleft externally, state it has lain for nearly two thousand years. C.

yet internally by the construction of their bones, differ from the general character of cloven-footed beasts; a rule which excludes the swine, the anatomical construc

tion of whose foot is similar to that of animals having UNBELIEF. The refusal of assent to testimony; fingers and toes. Animals are also excluded whose feet in Scripture, the term most usually signifies a distrust are divided by two clefts into three toes, as the Du of God's faithfulness, and a discrediting of the testimony saphan, which our translators have rendered the coney, of God's word respecting His Son. (John 3. 18.) “It but which most commentators now agree should be includes,” says Dr. Guise, “disaffection to God, disregard translated the jerboa, or Mus jaculus of Linnæus. to His word, prejudices against the Redeemer, readiness Finally, those quadrupeds were to be deemed unclean to give credit to any other than Him, inordinate love of whose feet were divided by more than two clefts, as the the world, and preferring the applause of man to the hare, which has four distinct toes, and of course the approbation of God.” “Unbelief,” says Dr. Charnock, whole quadrumanous race of apes, monkeys, and baboons. “is the greatest sin, as it is the foundation of all sin: it The construction of the foot was the most marked and was Adam's first sin, it is a sin against the Gospel, distinguishable test, for it required some acquaintance against the highest testimony, a refusal to accept Christ with the habits and internal construction to determine upon the terms of the Gospel. It strikes peculiarly at whether they ruminate or not. God as the highest reproach of Him, robs Him of His Two characters were assigned to determine what fish glory, is a contradiction to His will, and a contempt of could lawfully be eaten; it was required that they should His authority." C.

have fins and scales; those who wanted either were to be rejected as unclean.

No particular characters were given for distinguishing UNBELIEVERS. Theologians divide unbelievers

| birds into classes as clean and unclean, but it may be into three classes; I. Those who having heard the

generally stated that those which live on grain, including Gospel reject it;—II. Those who verbally assent to it,

the domesticated kinds, were permitted to be used for yet know not to what they assent, or what they believe ;

food, while birds of prey were rejected. and III. Those who whatever knowledge they may have

An old English

poem of uncertain date, but probably belonging to the of certain speculative points of divinity yet obey not the

Elizabethan age, affords so curious and accurate a truth but live in sin. The following description of an unbeliever by the

catalogue of the birds which were deemed unclean in

the Levitical Law, that it deserves to be inserted. We eloquent Massillon, is worthy of the most serious attention

have ventured to modernise the antiquated orthography, and consideration. “He is a man without morals, probity, faith, or character; who owns no rule but his O feathered fowls that fan the buxom air passions, no law but his iniquitous thoughts, no master Not all alike were made for food to men; but his desires, no check but the dread of authority, no

For these thou shalt not eat, doth God declare,

Twice ten their number, and their flesh unclean. God but himself; an unnatural child, since he believes

First, the great Eagle, bird of feigned Jove, that chance alone has given him fathers; a faithless

Which Thebans worship and diviners love. friend, seeing he looks upon men merely as the fruits of

Next Ossifrage and Osprey both one kind, a wild and fortuitous concurrence, to whom he is

Of luxury and rapine emblems meet, connected only by transitory ties; a cruel master, seeing That haunt the shores, the choicest prey to find he is convinced that the strongest and most fortunate And burst the bones, and scoop the marrow sweet. always have reason on their side. Who could henceforth

The Vulture, void of delicesse and fear, place any dependence on such? They no longer fear a

Who spareth not the dead pale man to tear. God; they no longer respect men; they look forward to The tall-built Swan, fair type of pride confest; nothing after this life; virtue and vice are merely preju

The Pelican, whose sons are nurst with blood, dices of education in their eyes, and the consequences of

Forbid to man ! she stabbeth deep her breast,

Self-murderess, through fondness to her brood; popular credulity. Adulteries, revenge, blasphemies, the

They too that range the thirsty wilds among, blackest treacheries, abominations which we dare not

The Ostriches, unthoughtful of their young.

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The Raven ominous, (as Gentiles hold,)

morality, particularly such acts of lewdness as marriage What time she croaketh hoarsely à la morte;

was ordained to prevent. C. The Hawk, aërial hunter, swift and bold, In feats of mischief trained for disport;

UNCTION. Anointing with oil was the usual The vocal Cuckow, of the falcon race,

form of consecrating both persons and things to holy Obscene intruder in her neighbour's place.

purposes, and hence unction is sometimes used to signify The Owl demure, who loveth not the light,

the sacred character which might have been derived (Ill semblance she of wisdom to the Greek;)

from such a ceremonial. C. . The smallest fowls' dread foe, the coward Kite; And the still Herne, arresting fishes meek;

UNDERGIRD. This is a naval term used in the The glutton Cormorant, of sullen mood,

account of St. Paul's voyage. (Acts 27. 17.) To underRegarding no distinction in his food.

gird a ship is to bind her round with ropes that she The Stork, who dwelleth on the fir-tree top,

might not be torn asunder. C.
And trusteth that no power shall her dismay,
As kings on their high station place their hope,

UNICORN, OX reem. The Hebrew word
Nor wist that there be higher far than they ;
The gay Gier Eagle, beautiful to view,

simply signifies “tall animal,” and it was first rendered Bearing within a savage heart untrue.

“unicorn” by the Septuagint translators, who uniformly The Ibis, whom in Egypt Israel found,

call it uovokepos, monoceros, or “the one-horned." Fell bird ! that living serpents can digest;

Such an animal as is usually pictured for the unicorn The crested Lapwing, wailing shrill around,

has never existed, and consistent with the laws of Solicitous, with no contentment blest;

nature never could exist, but unfortunately our transLast the foul Bat, of beast and bird first bred,

lators living in a time when natural history was little Flitting with little leathern sails dispred.

understood, gave the name of this fabled animal to the The Scripture, our only safe guide in this matter,

Hebrew reem, and thus rendered the error inveterate. informs us that the distinction of animals unto clean and

Most commentators assert that the reem is the rhinounclean, was subservient to a moral and political purpose,

ceros, an animal remarkable for its erect horn, nearly the preservation of the Hebrews as a people distinct

perpendicular to the os frontis. There are, however, from the surrounding idolatrous nations. This is

some difficulties in this identification; the Hebrew name declared in Leviticus 20, 24-6, “I am the Lord your

implies that the animal was tall and erect, but the

im God who have separated you from other people; ye shall

rhinoceros is not so erect as other quadrupeds, having therefore put difference between clean beasts and

crooked knees, and a most clumsy gait. In the cognate unclean; and ye shall not make yourselves abominable

languages, reem, at the present day, is applied in a vague by beast or by fowl, or by any living thing that creepeth

sense to tall animals of the deer species, and not, as Mr. on the ground, which I have separated from you as

Good has asserted, to the rhinoceros. Finally, no unclean; and ye shall be holy unto me, for I the Lord

representation of the rhinoceros, as far as we know, has am holy, and have severed you from other people that

been yet found on the Egyptian monuments, though ye should be mine.”

they contain delineations of nearly all the animals The entire race of reptiles, serpents, and creeping things mentioned in the Scriptures. These and similar reasons more than having four legs was prohibited, with the excep have led many recent writers to identify the reem with tion of such winged insects as having four walking legs, the oryx, the bison, or the giraffe; and it appears to have in addition two longer used in jumping or springing, us, that the giraffe affords the most plausible solution of (pedes saltatorii); these, under the general name of the difficulties connected with the subject; the animal is locusts, are declared to be clean. The Hebrews were also prohibited from eating animals slaughtered by strangulation, or which died of themselves, because in these cases the blood remained in the flesh.

The Levitical law respecting food at once broke off all the corrupt practices which the Hebrews had learned during their bondage in Egypt; for they were permitted to slaughter animals, such as the ox, which their ancient taskmasters regarded as sacred; and they were taught to regard as unclean and abominable several others, such as birds of prey, to which the Egyptians looked with superstitious veneration. This restriction equally separated them from the idolatrous nations of Canaan, so grossly corrupt in their manners, morals, and worship, for it prevented them from social intercourse with those who brought prohibited food to their board, so that in no instance could “their table become a snare, por their entertainments a trap.” (Psalm 59.22.) The Jews have

The Giraffe. generally adhered to the law of distinctive meats with inveterate obstinacy, so that St. Peter in his vision was frequently delineated on the Egyptian monuments, its disposed to refuse obedience to the commands of God horns are more purely ornamental than those of any Himself, by eating what was a common and unclean." other animal, and its general character agrees with that (Acts 10. 14.) They preserve this peculiarity even in of the reem described in the book of Job, (39.9, 10.) the present day, and nothing has been more efficacious Will the Reem submit to serve thee, in preserving them as a distinct and separate people. C. Will he indeed abide at thy crib ?

Canst thou make his harness bind the reem to the

furrow! UNCLEANNESS. This term is applied in Serip Will he forsooth plough up the valleys for thee?

Wilt thou rely on him for his great strength, ture not merely to physical impurities, but to ceremonial

And commit thy labour unto him? ordinances, such as the neglect of the nurifications Wilt thou trust him that he may gather in thy grain enjoined by the Levitical law, and also to biolations of And bring home thy harvest ?

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The giraffe fulfils the conditions of being tall, erect, | Paul, are those which do not tend to edification in and incapable of such domestication as would render it sound and substantial religious knowledge. c. available for field labour; it was frequently brought

UPHAZ. This place is mentioned by Jeremiah down as a tribute to the Pharaohs, and very probably

(10. 9), and by Daniel (10.5), as a city, or country, efforts were made to domesticate it both in Egypt and

productive of very fine gold. Its exact situation cannot Idumea which proved abortive. T.

now be determined; but Calmet, on plausible grounds,

identifies it with the river Phasis and the surrounding UNION, HYPOSTATICAL. This is a theological country on the east side of the Black Sea. term devised by the old divines to express the union of the human nature of Christ with the divine in one person. It must be observed that this union is not UPPER ROOM. The principal rooms anciently consubstantial, as of the three Persons in one Godhead; in Judea were those above, as they are to this day at nor physical, as soul and body united in one person; | Aleppo and Cairo, the ground floor being chiefly made nor mystical, as between Christ and believers; but so use of by the inhabitants for their horses and servants. as that the manhood subsists in the second person, (See arts. House, DWELLINGS, and Room.) In Cairo, the yet without making confusion, both forming but one streets are very narrow, the houses are generally two or person. C.

three stories high, and the windows projecting one above UNION WITH CHRIST. This is described by the other. Lane tells us, that the projecting windows the sacred writers in the strongest expressions of which on opposite sides of a street often nearly meet each

e highest | other; almost entirely excluding the sun, and thus human nature is capable, and is described as the highest privilege of a believer. Theologians generally state it | producing an agreeable coolness in the summer months. thus ;-1. An union of natures, (Heb. 2. 11;) 2. Of

1 « The house at which I am at present living," says Jowett, actions, his obedience being imputed to us, and our sins gives what seems to be a correct idea of the scene of

Eutychus falling from the upper loft while St. Paul was reckoned to him, (2Cor. 5. 21;) 3. Of life, (Col. 3. 4;)

preaching. (Acts 20. 6-12.) 4. Of sentiment, (2Cor. 5. 17;) 5. Of interest, (Matt.

According to our idea of 25, 34;) 6. Of affection, (2Cor. 5. 14;) and 7. Of

houses, the scene is very far from intelligible, and besides

this, the circumstance of preaching generally leaves on the residence, (John 17. 24.) The advantages of this union are,-1. Knowledge, (Ephes. 1. 18;) 2. Fellowship,

mind of cursory readers the notion of a church. To (1 Cor. 1. 9;) 3. Security, (John 15. 1;) 4. Felicity, describe this house, which is not many miles distant from (1Peter 1. 8;) 5. Spirituality, (John 15. 8;) and, the Troad, and perhaps from the unchanging character

of Oriental customs, nearly resembles the houses then indeed, all the rich communications of blessings both here and hereafter. (Col. l. 22.) The evidences of built, will fully illustrate the narrative. On entering my union to Christ are,-1. Light in the understanding,

host's door, we find the first floor entirely used as a (1 Peter 2. 9;) 2. Affection to Christ, (John 14. 21;)

store, it is filled with large barrels of oil, the produce of 3. Frequent communion with Him, (1John 1. 3;) the rich country for many miles round; this space, so far 4. Delight in his words, ordinances, and people, (Psalm

from being habitable, is sometimes so dirty with the 37. 4;) 5. Submission to his will and conformity to his

ity to his dripping of the oil, that it is difficult to pick out a clean image. (1John 2. 5.) C.

footing from the door to the first step of the staircase. On ascending, we find the first floor consisting of an

humble suite of rooms not very high; these are occupied UNITY. This theological term is employed to by the family for their daily use. It is on the next story signify a oneness whether of sentiment, affection, or that all their expense is lavished; here my courteous behaviour. (Psalm 133. 1.) The “unity of the faith” is host has appointed my lodging; beautiful curtains and an equal belief of the same great truths of God, and the mats, and cushions to the divan, display the respect with possession of the grace of faith in a similar form and | which they mean to receive their guest. Here, likewise, degree. (Ephes. 4. 13.) The “unity of the spirit" is that their splendour, being at the top of the house, is enjoyed union between Christ and His saints, by which the same by the poor Greeks with more retirement and less divine Spirit dwells in both, and they have the same | chance of molestation from the intrusion of the Turks: disposition and aims; and that unity of the saints here, when the professors of the college waited upon me among themselves, by which being joined to the same to pay their respects, they were received in ceremony, Head, and having the same Spirit dwelling in them, and sat at the window. The room is both higher and they have the same graces of faith, hope, love, &c., and larger than those below, it has two projecting windows, are rooted and grounded in the same doctrine of Christ, and the whole floor is so much extended in front beyond and bear a mutual affection to each other. C.

the lower part of the building, that the projecting UNITY OF GOD. The unity of the Deity is

windows considerably overhang the street.

“In such an upper room, secluded, spacious, and comargued from his necessary existence, self-sufficiency,

modious, St. Paul was invited to preach his parting disperfection, independence, and omnipresence: from the

course. The divan, or raised seat with mats or cushions, unity of design in the works of nature, and from there

encircles the interior of each projecting window, and I being no necessity of having more Gods than one. But

have remarked that when the company is numerous it is from Scripture that we derive the most important

they sometimes place large cushions behind the comevidence of this sublime doctrine, for “the world by

pany seated on the divan, so that a second tier of comwisdom, knew not God." See particularly Deuteronomy

pany, with their feet upon the seat of the diran, are 6. 4; Isaiah 43. 10; John 17. 3; and Romans 3. 30. Č.

sitting behind higher than the front row. Eutychus UNLEARNED. This term in its primary sense thus sitting would be on a level with the open window, is applied to those who have received slender instruction and, being overcome with sleep, he would easily fall out in literature and science, (Acts 4. 13;) but it is also from the third loft of the house into the street, and used to describe to those who are little acquainted with be almost certain from such a height to lose his life. the mind of God and the teaching of His Spirit. (2Peter | Thither St. Paul went down and comforted the alarmed 3. 16.) The “unlearned questions” mentioned by St. company by bringing up Eutychus alive. It is noted

Urim אורים ותמים ,URIM and THUMMIM


1311 that there were many lights in the upper chamber.'| Ur, or 'Urfáh, after having passed successively through The very great plenty of oil in this neighbourhood the hands of the Romans, the Saracens, the Crusaders, would enable them to afford many lamps, the heat of and the Tartars, was ultimately taken possession of by these, and so much company, would cause the drowsi. the Turks, under whose dominion it now remains. It ness of Eutychus at that late hour, and be the occasion is now the seat of a pashalic, and is a large and tolerably likewise of the windows being open."

well-built town, containing a population which BuckingIn 2Kings 1.2, we are told that Abaziah “ fell down ham states at 50,000,- an estimate which we have through a lattice in his upper chamber that was in reason to believe much too large. It is a place of conSamaria." Indeed it is likely that those accidents were siderable trade, enjoying the advantage of being one of by no means rare in the East.

the principal stations on the great caravan route between The upper room was used for devotional purposes, Aleppo and Bagdad. A. probably from being out of the way of interruptions ; it was especially adapted for the members of a persecuted religion to worship in, as on any alarm being given, they could make their escape by the roofs, which were flat, ve Thummin. (Exod. 28. 30.) The literal signification and in some parts laid out like terraces. A.

of these words is Lights and Perfections. The Septuagint render them Anmols kai Anndela, Delosis kai

Aletheia, manifestation and truth; and the Vulgate UR, of the Chaldees, an ancient city of Mesopo Doctrina et Veritas, doctrine and truth. The Urim and tamia, the abode of Terah and Abraham.

Thummim were something appertaining to the pectoral, As there has been much difficulty in determining the or breastplate, of the high-priest of the Israelites; but situation of Ur, we will quote from Mr. Ainsworth's as Moses has left us no account of them, and has only very valuable Researches in Assyria, Babylonia, and briefly mentioned them, it is now impossible to deterChaldea, in which he says, “The city of Ur, which mine what they were; and the subject has given rise to was in Ur of the Chaldees, and the seat of the nativity a vast variety of conjectures. No directions are given of Abraham and of the death of Haran, is to the present to Moses in Scripture relative to the making of the Urim day denominated by the Syrians Urhoi, by the Arabs and Thummim; though the other parts of the pontifical corrupted into 'Urfúh, or 'Orfáh. It is at the foot of ornaments and dress are described with minuteness; the mountains of Osroene, and at the head of the same whence Rabbi Menachem and some few other Jewish great and fertile plain which contains the seats of the doctors infer, that they were not the work of any artipatriarchs of the faimly of Shem, Haran and Seruj. ficer, neither were they any part of the voluntary offer. Tradition has consecrated Urfáh as the birth-place of ings of the Israelites, (Exod. 35,) but that they were a the father of Isaac, and the Bírket el Ibrahím el Khalil | mystery delivered to Moses by the mouth of God, or is still supposed to contain the descendants of the fish were the work of God himself, (like the first two loved by the Prophet. 'Urfáh is also celebrated as the tables,) for Moses took the Urim and Thummim, and residence of Akbár, commonly called Agbarus, by | put them in the breastplate after he had put on Aaron Herodotus Auryapos, who is said to have written a letter the ephod and breastplate. (Levit. 8. 7,8.) to Our Saviour.”

Mede thought that as no command is specified for the Ur was not only “Ur of the Chaldees," (Gen. 11. 28; making of the Urim and Thummim, and as Moses seems Aben Ezra, in Gen.; Bochart, lib. i.; Phaleg, x.; and to allude to them as things well known to the Israelites, Hugo Grotius, in Gen.;) but is more particularly and needing no description, that they were not then first described as in the land of the Chaldeans, (Josephus, | ordained with the rest of the pontifical garments, but lib. i.; Antiq., vii.;) and by Eusebius as “Ur oppidum had been in use among the patriarchs. This opinion, regni Chaldæorum,” that is, of the kingdom founded by however, has been combated by Pococke, in his Com. Chesid; the same author also says: “In urbe Camarina mentary on Hosea. seu Urie quæ Græcis dicta Chaldæopolis."

Some thought that the words Urim and Thummim, Oriental historians conduct the patriarch Abraham, or lights and perfections, were engraved on a golden in his migration to the land of Canaan, from Haran to plate, and put into the breastplate, which was double. Berza, or Beroe, tbe modern Aleppo; and Ahmíd Ibu (Exod. 28. 16.) Menochius (Comment. in S. ScriptuYusuf, and Abu Mohammed Mustafah, identify Urram,) thought that they were engraved on the breastwith Roha, the modern 'Urfah. From the records of plate, to signify illumination of doctrine, and integrity the Holy Writ we gather (Gen. 11. 31) that Terah, of life, as the qualities required in the high-priest, who with Abraham and others of the family, went out of Ur was pastor, teacher, and prince. The Vulgate seems to to go into the land of Canaan, and they came into take the same view, for in Ezra 2. 63, where the Hebrew Haran, and dwelt there. It is evident that, had the Ur and our version read, “Till there stood up a priest with of the Chaldees been identical with the Ur of Babylo- | Urim and Thummim," the Vulgate renders, “ Till there nian Chaldea, (the Orchoe of Ptolemy and Pliny,) that stand up a priest learned and perfect:" Sacerdos doctus the way of the patriarchs did not lie through Haran, in atque perfectus. And in Ecclesiasticus 45. 10, where Mesopotamia; but even the direction of the journey is our version reads of Aaron, that he had the breastplate preserved in the amplitude of the sacred text, for we of judgment with Urim and Thummim; the Vulgate are expressly informed (Gen. 12. 9) that the patriarch reads concerning him, as of a wise man endued with "journeyed going on still towards the south.”

judgment and truth: Viri sapientis, judicio et veritate Ur, in the progress of corruption, became Urhoi, præditi. (Eccles. 45. 12, Vulgate version.) EpiphaRoha, 'Orfáh, or 'Urfáh; and, with change of masters, nius and Suidas thought that besides the twelve stones Chaldæopolis, Antiochea, Callirhoe, and Edessa.

in the breastplate, bearing the names of the twelve Mr. Buckingham has, apparently, mistaken what tribes, there was a diamond of surpassing beauty, which Benjamin of Tudelah says of Dakia, or Rakkah, as by its increased splendour, indicated to the high-priest belonging to 'Urfáh; and hence he makes Haran two the pleasure of the Almighty on particular occasions. days' journey from that city, from which it is in reality Arias Montanus and others thought that there were two visible at almost all times, and a ride of only eight gems, beside the usual twelve, and that they were the hours, or about twenty miles in direct dista

Urim and Thummim.

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This opinion is condemned by St. Augustin. Some to one of the cities of Judah, (2Sam. 2.1,) the answer suppose that the words Urim and Thummim were was “go up," Aby alah, the letters y 5 and it became in wrought on the embroidery of the breastplate, between order prominently lustrous, and thus formed the word. rows of gems, or in the two borders, one above, the It has been objected, that the names of the twelve other below. Rabbi Solomon says, that the holy name tribes engraved on the stones did not contain all the Jehovah, written on a plate of gold, and added to the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and consequently were pectoral, was the Urim and Thummim.

not adapted to answer every question. To obviate this Spencer maintained the Urim and Thummin to have objection, the Rabbins say, that the names of Abraham, been two little images or teraphim, which were put into Isaac, and Jacob, were also engraven on the pectoral, over the doubling of the breastplate, as into a purse, and which the name of Reuben, and under that of Benjamin; but gave answer by an articulate voice to the questions of as ♡ teth, would still be wanting, they say the words the high-priest. But this idea savours so much of the T'UJU shible jah, were added, and thus the alphabet heathen oracles, and is so contrary to the whole spirit of was complete. the Jewish Church, and to the general tenor of Scripture, Josephus only says, that when the jewels shone with that it cannot be considered without repugnance. It peculiar radiance, the answer was considered affirmative; has been completely confuted by Pococke, (Comment. on but negative when they appeared dim. Hosea,) and by Witsius in his Egyptiacæ.

The Urim and Thummim was, according to the The opinion of the Rabbins in general, of Josephus, Rabbins, the degree of the Holy Ghost given under the and of many Christian commentators, ancient and Tabernacle; that degree which was given under the first modern, is, that the Urim and Thummim were the Temple was prophecy, by the mouth of the prophets; same as the precious stones, bearing the names of the and under the second Temple, the Bath-kol, or echo of a twelve tribes, set in the high-priest's breastplate. voice from heaven. (See art. BATH-KOL.) They say that (Exod. 28. 17-20.) They observe, that where the stones the Urim and Thummin was a degree inferior to the are mentioned, as in Exodus 39. 10, there is nothing Prophets, but superior to the Bath-kol. said of Urim and Thummim; and where the latter are Scripture does not inform us at what period the mentioned, as in Leviticus 8. 8, the stones are not answer by Urim and Thummim ceased; but we find no spoken of; whence they conclude Urim and Thummim trace of its existence after the building of Solomon's to have been epithets for the jewels, signifying shining Temple. It has been observed that this method of conand perfect stones. Braunius and Hottinger are of sulting God was on affairs concerning the common opinion, that when Moses was commanded to put Urim interest of the whole twelve tribes, whose names were (lights) and Thummim (perfections) into the breast- engraved upon the breastplate. But these ceased to plate, (Exod. 28. 30,) it meant that he was to choose have an interest in common after the division of the two the most beautiful stones, and have them polished so as kingdoms of Israel and Judah, under Jeroboam and to give the most perfect splendour.

Rehoboam; and the consulting by Urim and Thummim But, however obscure may be the question of what necessarily ceased. It is agreed by all, that the Urim Urim and Thummim were, we are informed by Scripture and Thummim (at least the divine answering by them,) of their use; which was, to inquire of God, and receive did not exist under the second Temple, after the return an oracular answer of His will by them, as is said, from Babylon. (Numb. 27. 21,) that Eleazar the priest should ask The Talmud treatise Joina says, concerning Haggai counsel for Joshua, “after the judgment of Urim, before 1. 8, that the word 72OX echabda, “I will be glorithe Lord.”

fied,” wanting the letter i he, which is the numeral for The manner of consulting the Lord by Urim and 5, shows that five things were wanting in the second Thummim, and the mode in which the answer was Temple, which existed in the first: viz., l. The ark, returned, are not explained in Scripture, and all we can with the mercy-seat and cherubims; 2, The fire from say on the subject is from Rabbinical tradition. The heaven; 3, The Shechinah, or divine majesty; 4, The Rabbins say, that the manner of inquiring was as Holy Ghost (speaking by the Prophets); 5, The Urim follows: the priest put on his robes, and went (not into and Thummim. Maimonides says, that under the the sanctuary, where he could go but once a year,) but second Temple they made Urim and Thummin, i. e., into the sanctum, or holy place, and stood before the the breastplate with the precious stones, in order to curtain or veil, that divided the sanctuary from the make up the eight ornaments of the high-priest, without sanctum. There he stood upright, facing towards the which he could not minister. But that they did not Ark of the Covenant, and behind him, stood the person inquire by him, because the Holy Ghost was not there; for whom he inquired, in a right line with the priest, and they used not to inquire by any priest with whom facing the back of the latter, but outside the sanctum. the Holy Ghost was not, and on whom the divine Then the priest inquired of God concerning the matter majesty did not rest. This ornament of the high-priest, required, in a low voice, like one praying half audibly, as chief judge of the Jewish nation, appears to have and keeping his eyes upon the breastplate, he received been copied by other nations. Elian and Diodorus by Urim and Thummim the answer to his question. Siculus have related that the chief judge of the Maimonides says, it was not lawful to inquire by this | Egyptians, when a cause was brought before him, used mode for private individuals, but only for the king, or to put a golden chain round his neck, to which was for him on whom the affairs of the congregation lay. suspended a small figure of Truth, ornamented with

With respect to the mode in which the answer was precious stones. This was, in fact, a representation of returned, Prideaux, and some other Christian commen- | the goddess who was worshipped under the double chatators, think that when the high-priest inquired of the racter of Truth and Justice, and whose name, Thonci, Lord, standing in his robes before the vail, that an the Egyptian or Coptic name of Justice or Truth, has a audible answer was returned from within. But the Rab- resemblance to the Hebrew Thummim, rendered by the bins say, that the answer was given by certain letters | Septuagint Annoeta, Truth, (Exod. 28. 30;) and bearengraven on the stones in the breastplate becoming ing a farther analogy in its plural termination. The peculiarly, prominently lustrous, in proper order, so as goddess frequently occurs in the Scriptures in this to be read by the high-priest into words. For instance; double capacity, represented by two figures exactly when David inquired of God, whether he should go up similar. She was represented as “having her eyes

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