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closed," purporting that the duty of a judge was to is generally taken in an evil sense: viz., for an unlawful weigh the question according to the evidence he had profit made on money or goods. The Hebrew word for heard; and to trust rather to his mind than to what he usury signifies biting. It is important to observe, that saw; and was intended to remind him of that virtue the usury of the Israelites among themselves only is (Truth) which the Deity peculiarly enjoined.
Usury with strangers is expressly allowed. (Deut. 23. 19,20.) “ Thou shalt not lend upon usury to thy brother, usury of money, usury of victuals, usury of any thing that is lent upon usury. Unto a stranger thou mayest lend upon usury; that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all that thou settest thine hand to in the land whither thou goest to possess it.” The Jews, therefore, in being the greatest usurers upon earth, do not transgress their law. Many of the laws of Moses, and this in particular, had reference to the Hebrews as a people. It is easy to show, that in the present state of society, a law prohibiting interest would be in the highest degree injurious to trade, and generally to that part of the population which has no such property in
land as affords a continued interest on the money Egyptian Thurmim, or mystic figure of Truth:
originally invested in its purchase. Bishop Patrick is of opinion that the use of this
Without interest in money, a person possessing it ornament among the Egyptians was not of so old a date as the time of Moses, for it is not mentioned by dually exhausted; and he could not profitably engage
must live upon his capital, which would become graHerodotus; but that it was copied in later times by the
in commerce, because in commercial transactions emerEgyptians, when they had familiar intercourse with the gencies often arise, in which even a wealthy merchant Israelites on account of the marriage of Solomon with
has occasion for a larger sum of money than he can for Pharaoh's daughter. The bishop also observes that the
the moment command, and which, on account of the vestal virgins among the Romans, at least she that was
risk attending commercial transactions, no one would be called Maaima, wore on the breast a similar ornament of willing to lend him, were no interest allowed. The precious stones, as shown on a statue dug up at Rome; equity of taking interest
, therefore, is manifest for many and that Gatherius has proved that these vestals sat in
In the first place, a person lending ought to judgment and tried causes, as the Pontifex Maximus did.
have some profit for the risk he runs; but, as every Ornaments resembling the Hebrew pontifical breast
Israelite had property in land, and as, if he had not plate have been dug up in Ireland. Keating, in his that, or any other property, the creditor might lay hold History of Ireland, has described them. One of them, of his own person and the persons of his wife and shaped like an officer's gorget, but larger, dug up in a bog in the county of Limerick, has been delineated by A Jew, therefore, even in comparatively low circumC. Vallancey, according to whom, they were worn by stances, had better security to offer than many wealthy the Hibernian Druids, when they sat to administer European merchants can produce
. In the second place, justice; they were of pure gold, says he, and called
the lender ought to derive some benefit from the advanJodhan Morain; and no judge could give sentence tages which the borrower obtains by the use of his without this ornament round his neck. It was believed capital. This, also, does not apply. to be miraculous; for if a judge gave a wrong sentence,
the borrowers as poor persons comit would instantly close round bis neck and stop his pelled by necessity to request a loan, and who had breathing. (See Digby's Divinity Lectures.) To return to the Hebrew Urim and Thummim. The generally sufficient security to offer for its repayment.
That the wealthy should want to borrow money to office of the high-priest and his dress, as well as the make profit by it, was a case which he did not proTabernacle and its furniture and service, were all
vide for, and which did not often arise, because the typical of the Christian dispensation, or of the office and
encouragement of commerce formed no part of his plan, person of Christ; in whom, also, the Urim and Thum
which had agriculture for its basis; and such a bormim, as well as the other types and foreshadowings,
rower could not invest the money in the purchase of were fulfilled. He was Light, Perfection, Manifestation, land, which was unalienably fixed, and,
course, could and Truth. He was the “True Light, that lighteth not become an object of purchase or barter. Other every man that cometh into the world.” (John 1. 9.) nations, however, living under a different system, as the “Being made perfect, he became the Author of salva- commercial Phoenicians, for instance, might have occation to all that obey him.” (Heb. 5. 9.) He was “God
sion to borrow money for such purposes, and to them manifest in the flesh.” (1Tim. 3. 16.) He was
the Israelites might lend, and from them receive Way, the Truth, and the Life," (John 14. 6,) and he
interest. "came to bear witness to the Truth.” (John 18. 37.) By
The third great reason for the general equity of Urim and Thummim a measure of the Holy Ghost was granted to the Jewish high-priest; Christ is a high- interest, viz., that it is just that the profit which a priest in whom are all the gifts of the Holy Ghost person might make by keeping his capital in his own without measure. (John 3. 34.) “He put on righteous- the person to whom it is lent, is shown to be also
power, should at least in part, be made good to him by ness as a breastplate,” (Isai. 59. 19;) and by his merits and intercession as our continual High-priest, He has inapplicable to the ancient Hebrews. The same causes
which prevented a borrower engaging in speculations given to us to "put on the breastplate of faith and
without affording a prospect of profit would equally love." (1Thess. 5. 8.) M.
operate in preventing the owner himself. And this
brings it to the result, which is, that when a Hebrew USURY, the gain taken for the loan of money or out of the abundance of his inert property, which he wares. This is, if but a common profit, lawful; but it was only interested in having securely kept, made a
loan to a poor neighbour to relieve him from distress, on a cart, or drawn by any animals, but to be carried on and whose land or person formed a sufficient security for the shoulders of the Levites by means of staves, which the ultimate repayment, the lender was not by demanding precluded the ark itself from being handled by the interest to make that profit which he would not have bearers in its removals. Indeed in Numbers 4. 15, it made if he had not lent it, and which could not be made is forbidden, on pain of death, that any of the holy by the person to whom it was lent. It would be easy things should be touched by the Levites; and we might to instance many other particulars in which this law was expect to find this law the more rigidly enforced with perfectly applicable to the condition of society among respect to the ark, on account of the superior sanctity the Hebrews, and equally easy from ancient and modern with which it was invested. The ark ought to have history to show its inapplicability to any other condition been wholly enveloped and concealed by the priests of society than that. No one now contends that all the before the Levites approached, instead of which we find laws of Moses are necessarily binding upon all people. it openly drawn on a cart, and thereby assimilated to A.
the processions of the heathen, who drew their gods
about in carriages. The ark had indeed before been UZ, the son of Shem, and grandson of Aram, conveyed on a cart when returned by the Philistines, who is supposed to have peopled the country round but that case was very different from the present. The Damascus.
Philistines could not be expected to know the proper UZ, LAND OF. Commentators are generally
ceremonies to be used in its conveyance, and according agreed that this country, the residence of the patriarch to their knowledge they endeavoured to show it every Job, was the same as Idumea, and that it derived its respect. In the case of Uzzah, the forms which the name from Uz, the grandson of Seir, the Horite. C.
law required appear not to have been thought of, for we have no account of any priest attending the removal,
and, in this instance, it could not have been a sin of UZZAH, son of Abinidab. As critics are divided ignorance, as Uzzah was a Levite, and consequently about the cause of the death of Uzzah, and as the his- must have known the proper rules to have been observed tory is related very succinctly, we will quote it, and in conducting the procession, and who must have been then make a few remarks. (2Sam. 6. 3,6,7.) “And aware of the awful judgment with which an intrusion they set the ark of God upon a new cart, and brought
on the sanctity of the ark had been visited at Bethsheit out of the house of Abinidab, that was in Gibeah; mesh. (1 Sam. 6. 17.) Probably the mode of convey. and Uzzah and Ahio, the sons of Abinidab, drave the ance used by the Philistines on the occasion referred to
, new cart. And when they came to Nachon's threshing- formed the bad and dangerous precedent adopted in the floor, Uzzah put forth his hand to the ark of God, and present instance. Ahio being subordinate to Uzzah, took hold of it, for the oxen shook it. And the
and probably younger than him, appears to have escaped
anger of the Lord was kindled against Uzzah, and God smote
the divine wrath. A. him there for his error, and there he died by the ark of God."
UZZEN SHERAH, a city of the tribe of Ephraim, It will be observed that the whole process adopted in at no great distance from Beth-horon. It was built by the removal of the ark is entirely contrary to the direc- Serah, the daughter, or grand-daughter, of Beriah. tions given in the Law. The ark was not to be conveyed |(1Chron. 7. 24.) C.
VAIL. See VEIL.
Blessed is the man whose strength is in Thee,
In whose heart are the ways of thy commandments; VALE, VALLEY. Palestine is an uneven and They passing through the valley of Baca make it a well; irregular country, “a land of hills and valleys, and The rain also covereth the pools. drinketh water of the rain of heaven,” (Deut. 11. 12;)
They go from strength to strength; hence we frequently find localities described as valleys;
Every one of them in Zion appear before God. such as " the valley of Achor," where God promised
Baca appears to have been a rugged valley, embarrassed Joshua that he would enable the Israelites to retrieve the with bushes and stones, which could not be passed defeat which they had received from the king of Ai, as
without labour and tears, so that it placed great difia punishment for the sin of Achan; "the valley of Me- culties in the way of the pilgrims who had to pass giddo,” in which King Josiah was slain; "the valley of through it on their road to Jerusalem. Parkhurst Hinnom, or Tophet,” where children were sacrificed to justly observes, "A valley of this kind was a striking Moloch, and many others. In Isaiah 22. 2, Jerusalem emblem of the vale of thorns, through which is metaphorically termed “the valley of vision,” because believers must pass to the heavenly Jerusalem.” “The the schools of the prophets were for the most part valley of Jehoshaphat” (see JERUSALEM) is frequently established in the deep valley under the hill on which used in a metaphorical sense for any place where God Solomon's Temple was erected.
would signally execute vengeance on the oppressors Some of the valleys in the remote parts of Palestine his chosen people. C. were overgrown with jungle and tangled brushwood, which made the paths through them dark and difficult, VAPOUR. Although the science of meteorology while the thickets afforded a covert for wild beasts: was not much cultivated in ancient times, it is obviou hence the Psalmist says,
that atmospherical phenomena must ever have attracted Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, a large share of public attention, particularly in the I will fear no evil, for Thou art with me.-Psalm 23. 4.
countries surrounding the Levant, where storms so freThere is a passage in Psalm 74. 5-7, relating to a quently come on without any premonitory symptoms, valley, which requires some explanation:
and where the success of agricultural labour mainly
depends upon the periodical rains. The dew, for those who display part or the whole of their faces on all instance, may be mentioned as a vapour, or exhalation, ordinary occasions. to which the inhabitants of Canaan attached much In modern times the females are veiled with great importance; they believed that it afforded the best sus- strictness; and even in the time of Solomon we find the tenance to the trees, shrubs, and herbs, on which it was spouse complain, “ They took away my veil from me. found. Job beautifully alludes to this, in his descrip- (Cant. 5.7.) To lift up the veil of a virgin is reckoned tion of the prosperity he enjoyed before his season of a gross insult; but to take away the veil of a married affliction:
woman is one of the greatest indignities that she can Then I said, I shall die in my nest,
receive, because it deprives her of the badge which I shall multiply my days as the palm-tree;
distinguishes and dignifies her in that character, and My root shall spread out to the waters;
betokens her alliance to her husband, and her interest The dew of night shall repose on my branches:
in his affections. When it is forcibly taken away by My glory shall be unfading around me; And my bow continue fresh in my hand.
the husband, it is equivalent to divorce, and justly
WEMYSS's Trans. reckoned a severe calamity; therefore God threatened On the contrary, the dewy vapours in Arabia Petrea Zion, including the radidim, or low-descending veils :
to take away the ornamental dresses of the daughters of are dreaded by the inbabitants, because they are so heavy as to wet to the skin those who are exposed to
“ In that day the Lord will take away the changeable them. But as soon as the sun arises, and the atmo
suits of apparel, and the mantles, and the fine linen, and sphere becomes a little warmed, the vapours and mists
the hoods, and the veils.” (Isai. 3. 18.) are quickly dispersed, and the abundant moisture which
A lady in the East considers herself degraded when the dews have communicated to the sands is quickly she is exposed to the gaze of the other sex, which evaporated. Hence Job enumerates rain and dew accounts for the conduct of Vashti in refusing to obey among the fearful phenomena of nature;
the command of the king. (Esther 1. 11,12.) Their Who is tbe father of the rain?
ideas of decency forbid a virtuous woman to lay aside, Who bath begotten the round drops of the dew ?
or even to lift up, her veil, in the presence of men. She Wemyss's Trans.
who ventures to disregard this prohibition, inevitably We find in the Psalms a distinct allusion to the ruins her character. From that moment she is noted as formation of the clouds out of the vapours exhaled from a woman of easy virtue, and her act is regarded as a
signal for intrigue. Pitts tells us that in Barbary the He causeth the vapours to ascend out of the ends of courtesan appears in public without her veil. the earth ;
The veil is also worn as a token of reverence and He maketh lightnings for the rain;
subjection to husbands. (1Cor. 11. 3-15.) He bringeth the wind out of his treasuries.
There can be no doubt that the veil is of very remote Psalm 135. 7. C.
antiquity; but from the sculptures and paintings of the
ancient Egyptians it seems not to have been worn by VASHTI. A queen of Persia, who was divorced the females of that nation. Lane, in his account of the by her husband for refusing to comply with his demands. modern Egyptians, give us very full particulars of the (See arts. AHASUERUS and Esther.)
manner in which ladies now wear the veil in that country. He says, “A long piece of white muslin,
embroidered at each end with coloured silks and gold, VEIL, a covering used by women in the East or of coloured crape ornamented with gold thread and for concealing their face and person.
spangles, rests upon the head and hangs down behind, In very early times the veil was not so universally nearly, or quite, to the ground; this is called 'tarhah,' used as at present. We find, from Genesis 24. 11, that it is the head veil,' and can be drawn forward to cover when Eliezer went to look for a wife for Isaac,“ he the face at pleasure; this veil is always worn in the made his camels to kneel down without the city, by a house. The riding or walking attire of an Egyptian well of water, at the time of the evening, even the time lady is called “tezyureh.' Whenever she leaves the house, that women go out to draw water.” He was aware that she wears a large loose gown, the sleeves of which are his best opportunity for making observations on the nearly equal in width to the whole length of the gown; women would occur in the evening, when they came to it is of silk, generally of a pink, or rose, or violet the well, because at that time they were either not colour. Next is put on the burko,' or 'face-veil,' veiled at all, or very partially so. It appears that the which is a long strip of white muslin, concealing the unmarried females, even of towns, only veiled them- whole of the face except the eyes, and reaching nearly selves on particular occasions in those times; for we to the feet; it is suspended at the top by a narrow find that when Rebekah went to meet Isaac, and saw
band, which passes up the forehead, and which is him at a distance," she lighted off the camel, for she sewed, as are also the two upper corners of the veil, to had said unto the servant, What man is this that walk- a band that is tied round the head. The lady then eth in the field to meet us? and the servant had said, covers herself with a “habarah,' which, for a married It is my master: therefore she took a veil, and covered lady, is composed of two breadths of glossy black silk, herself.” (Gen. 24. 64,65.) It is the invariable custom each ell-wide, and three yards long (according to the in the East for the bride to be conducted to the bride height of the person), the seam running horizontally. groom entirely veiled; therefore Rebekah, on seeing with respect to the manner in which it is worn: a piece Isaac, “took a veil, and covered herself."
of narrow black riband is sewed inside the upper part, Rosenmüller, in illustration of this passage, quotes about six inches from the edge, to tie round the head. an ancient father (Tertullian), who, with an express This covering is always worn in the manner shown by reference to the same text, observes, as a custom still the accompanying sketch. The unmarried ladies wear existing in his time, that the heathen brides were also a ‘habarah' of white silk, or a shawl. Some females of conducted to their husbands covered with a veil. It is the middle classes, who cannot afford to purchase a all but universal in the East; and it will be observed habarah,' wear, instead of it, an uzar,' which is a that it is used not only by the females whose faces are piece of white calico, of the same form and size as the always concealed both before and after marriage, but by former, and worn in the same manner. But although
Chaldea." (Ezek. 23. 12-14.) He adds, “and she
them as soon as she cast her eyes on them." These were in fact the representations of the Chaldean idols, which many of the Jews were seduced unto worshipping. The author of the apocryphal Book of Wisdom also alludes to this custom: “The carpenter taketh the very refuse of his timber, being a crooked piece of wood, and full of knots, and carving it diligently when he had nothing else to do, and fashioning it into the image of a man, or like some wild beast, laying it over with vermilion and with paint, colouring it red, and covering every spot therein." (Wisd. 13. 14.) C.
VINE, VINEYARD, VINTAGE. The vine is a noble plant of the creeping kind, famous for its fruit or grapes and the liquor they afford. The first
the ladies are so closely wrapped up that those who look at them cannot even see their hands, still less their faces, yet it is reckoned indecent in a man to fix his eyes upon them; he must let them pass without seeming at all to observe them.”
“When a lady of distinction, "says Hanway, “ travels on horseback, she is is not only veiled, but has generally a servant who runs or rides before her to clear the way; and on such occasions the men, even in the marketplaces, always turn their backs till the women are past, it being considered the height of ill-manners to look at
In Syria, the shape of the veils somewhat differ, but not sufficiently so to require a minute description; we may, however, mention, that many ladies use as a veil a long piece of black crape stiffened, which, sloping a little from the forehead, leaves room to breathe more freely. This latter is a complete disguise, as even the eyes are covered. The mere shape of the veil differs in different parts of the East; but the use, or partial use
The Vine. of it by womeu, may be considered universal." A.
mention of the vine in Scripture occurs in Genesis 9.20:
“And Noah began to be an husbandman, and he planted VEIN. Metalliferous veins are only once directly a vineyard.” Many are of opinion that wine was not mentioned in Scripture. (Job 28; &c.) The passage is unknown before the Deluge, and that the patriarch only remarkable from the light it throws on the progress that continued to cultivate the vine after that event, as he had been made in the working and refining of metals. had done before it, but the Fathers think that he knew Truly there is a vein for the silver,
not the force of wine, having never used it before, nor And a place for gold which they refine ;
having seen any one use it. Iron is dug up from the earth,
The grape vine is found wild at this day in the And the rock produceth copper ;
neighbourhood of Noah's first vineyard, at the foot of Man diggeth into the place of darkness,
Mount Ararat. Humboldt found it on the shores of
the Caspian, in Caramania, and in Armenia. It is also Wemyss's Trans. a native of Georgia and of the northern parts of Persia
, It is not probable that veins of all these metals but does not extend to India, though several plants of existed in the country which Job inhabited, but he may the same family are common among the mountains of easily have obtained information respecting them from
the northern parts of that rich country. Egyptian or Phoenician traffic. c.
The vine was not a native of Egypt, nor does the climate favour it. In ancient times, as we learn from
the monuments, great care was taken in its culture, but VERMILION, www sisir. This well-known with little success; and hence the surprise of the spies metallic paint was first brought into use by the when sent to survey the promised land at the immense Phænicians, who imported large quantities of it in clusters of grapes they found. the form of a reddish sand from their colonies in account of their great size would not be credited by Northern Africa. Its bright red colour recommended persons accustomed to the less productive vines of Egypt, vermilion to those who were engaged in decorating they brought back a cluster of the grapes to convince temples and idols; hence, whenever it was mentioned them, as we learn in Numbers 13. 23,24: “And they in Scripture, it was usually associated with idolatry. came unto the brook of Eshcol, and cut down from Hence Ezekiel, reproving the apostasy of his times, thence a branch with one cluster of grapes, and they declares, that Aholiab "added to her idolatries, for bare it between two, upon a staff; and they brought of she saw men pourtrayed upon the wall, images of the pomegranates, and of the figs. The place was calle? Chaldeans pourtrayed with vermilion, girded with girdles Eshcol because of the cluster of grapes which the upon their loins, exceeding in dyed attire upon their children of Israel cut down from thence." heads, after the manner of the Babylonians, even of Some wine, indeed, has been made in Lower Egypt,
Fearing that their
in different ages, but it was never celebrated either for tendrils. Yet these, like the golden vine, were only quality or quantity. From the fortieth chapter of symbolical of the nation, though they were, like it, Genesis, where the dream of Pharaoh's chief butler is taken for the signs of idolatry. related, it would appear that the juice of the grape The book of Genesis informs us that the culture of fresh-pressed was drunk by the king; and possibly the the vine and the art of making wine were very ancient Egyptian grape-juice at that time was used in the state in the land of Canaan. It relates that when Abraham of must. But though the Pharaohs drank of the “ blood and his followers were returning with their captives of the grape" in this imperfect state, the Ptolemies from the open country, where they had overcome Cherevelled in the maturer wines of Palestine, Cyprus, and dorlaomer and the kings of the plain, Melchisedeck, Greece; and one of them, as Josephus tells us, among king of Salem, brought forth bread and wine to refresh some magnificent gifts sent to the Temple of Jerusalem, them, (Gen. 14. 18:) “And Melchisedeck, king of renewed the Golden Vine, the symbol of the Jewish Salem, brought forth bread and wine, and he was the nation, of which the treasury had been robbed.
priest of the Most High God." Rosenmüller tells us that in the Temple, above and We have before mentioned that the climate of Egypt around a gate seventy cubits high, which led from the was not favourable to the culture of the grape, yet from porch to the holy place, a richly-carved vine was the monuments we infer that its cultivation was at one extended as a border and decoration. The branches, time popular in Egypt, though it could only have been tendrils, and leaves were of the finest gold, the stalks of grown with success in a few of the high-lying districts, the bunches were of the length of the human form, and and when commerce enabled the Egyptians toimport wine. the bunches hanging upon them were of costly jewels. from other countries better and cheaper than they could Herod first placed it there; rich and patriotic Jews from manufacture it themselves, they had the good sense to, time to time added to its embellishment, one contributing abandon this unprofitable branch of industry and direct a new grape, another a leaf, and a third even a bunch their attention to commodities for which nature afforded of the same precious materials.
them greater facilities. If to compute its value at more than twelve millions Indeed every circumstance proves to us that the of dollars be an exaggeration, it is, nevertheless, indis- cultivation of the vine required great care and attention putable that this vine must have had an uncommon in Egypt. This care was particularly required to guard. importance, and a sacred meaning, in the eyes of the against the hoary night-shade, called by the Arabs, Jews. With what a majestic splendour must it likewise aneb-el-dib, or the wolf-vine, which is common in Egypt have appeared in the evening, when it was illuminated and Palestine, grows much in the vineyards, and is very by tapers. This golden vine was afterwards carried to pernicious to them. It greatly resembles a vine in its Rome, where, along with the golden candlestick and shrubby stalk. This was “the wild vine” whose fruit other rich ornaments of the Temple, it made part of the poisoned the pottage which Elisha miraculously cured. show in Vespasian's and Titus's triumph for the taking (2Kings 4. 39-41.). It is to this also, that Moses of Jerusalem.
alludes in his prophetic description of the future degeTacitus mentions this vine as one proof that the Jews neracy of the Israelites: “For the vine is the vine of worshipped Bacchus at the Feast of the Tabernacles, Sodom and of the fields of Gomorrah, their grapes are which took place about the time of the celebration of grapes of gall, their clusters are bitter. Their wine is the orgies. The truth is, that when the Jewish princes the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps. began, in conformity with the customs of other nations, (Deut. 32. 32,33.) to use coined money instead of lumps of metal of certain In the engraving of the vine arbour before us, it will weight, the vine was their common device: some of be seen that great care is taken to keep the roots moist, their pieces have on them a single vine-leaf, others a they are inclosed by a mound or wall, and water is bunch of grapes, or a vine-branch, with leaves, fruit, and brought to them by one of the labourers. The grapes when
gathered, were conveyed in baskets to the wine-vat. This over his enemies: “Who is this that cometh from Edom was not a moveable utensil, but a permanent structure; with dyed garments from Bozrah? This that is glorious when the fruit was here collected, men and women were in his apparel travelling in the greatness of his strength? employed to crush it by treading. We find ropes fixed I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. Wherefore to a transverse pole by which the vintners gave greater art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like force and elasticity to their spring or leap. We find him that treadeth in the wine-vat? I have trodden the many wine-vats displaying considerable architectural wine-press alone, and of the people there was none with beauty in their construction. To this operation there me, for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample are frequent allusions in Scripture. Bishop Lowth has them in my fury, and their blood shall be sprinkled dwelt forcibly on the poetic beauty of the delineation of upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. divine ven geance by imagery borrowed from the wine- For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year press in Isaiah's description of the Messiah's victory of my redeemed is come. And I looked, and there was