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none to help, and I wondered that there was none to land of Moab; and I have caused wine to fail from the uphold, therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto wine-presses, none shall tread with shouting, their me, and my fury it upheld me. And I will tread shouting shall be no shouting.” (Jerem. 48. 33.) down the people in mine anger, and make them drunk The crushed pulp of the grapes sunk into the bottom in my fury, and bring down their strength to the earth.” of the vat or cistern, the expressed juice flowed out (Isai. 63. 1-6.) In this noble burst of poetry, the word through a spout inserted in the side of the cistern, about " alone” has a peculiar emphasis, because it was usual one-third of its height from the ground. The juice was for several persons to tread together in the wine-press. imperfectly extracted by the treading process, and another The crushing of the grapes, the spurting forth of the operation was required to render available what remained purple juice, and the dark stains on the vesture, naturally in the trodden pulp. For this purpose, a bag made of flags suggest an image of the waste and destruction ensuing or rushes was provided, in which the pulp was placed and from the triumph of some mighty conqueror. To the compressed by twisting the end of the bag with stares Hebrews it was a familiar illustration, for in their or hand-spikes. Even after it had undergone this language, “blood of the grape" is an ordinary expression process, the pulp was deemed too valuable to be thrown for wine. Many commentators have applied this remark- away, and the pressure on the bag was increased until able prophecy to the victories of Judas Maccabeus over every drop of fluid was pressed out. the Idumeans; but the character of the conqueror There were in Palestine many excellent vineyards. described by Isaiah is clearly very different from that Scripture celebrates the vines of Sorek, of Sebamah, of of the Maccabee, and the victories of Judas Maccabeus, Jazer, of Abel. Profane authors mention the excellent however decisive, do not adequately fulfil the prediction wines of Gaza, Sarepta, Libanus, Saron, Ascalon, and of wide and utter desolation. There is, however, Tyre. Jacob in the blessing he gave Judah, (Gen. 49. another very material circumstance to be considered; 11,) says, “Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass's the Idumea of Isaiah's time, was quite a different colt unto the choice. vine, he washed his garments in country from that which Judas conquered. “During wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes," to show the Babylonian captivity,” says Bishop Lowth, “the the abundance of vines that should fall to his lot. Nabatheans had driven the Edomites out of their country; The law of Moses did not allow the planters of vineand the expelled people took possession of the southern yards to eat the fruit before the fifth year. (Levit. 19. 25,) part of Judea, that is, the country of the whole tribe of “ And in the fifth year shall he eat of the fruit thereof

, Judah and half that of Simeon.” In fact, when we that it may yield unto you the increase thereof: I am look to the Maccabean history, we find that the capital the Lord your God," The Israelites were also required of the country conquered by Judas, was Hebron, not to indulge the poor, the orphan, and the stranger, with Bozrah. The prophecy therefore refers to some event the use of the grapes on the seventh year. A traveller not yet accomplished, and from the distinct reference was allowed to gather and eat the grapes in a vineyard made to it in the Revelations of St. John, we can be at as he passed along, but he was not permitted to carry no loss to determine the person who is introduced by any away. (Deut. 23. 24,) “When thou comest into Isaiah, as stained with the treading of the wine-press. thy neighbour's vineyard then thou mayest eat grapes thy “I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse, and fill at thine own pleasure, but thou shalt not put any in he that sat upon him was called faithful and true, and in thy vessel.” righteousness he doth judge and make war. His eyes The scarcity of fuel, particularly wood, in most parts were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many of the East, is so great, that they supply it with every crowns, and he had a name written that no man knew thing capable of burning, cow-dung, dried roots, parings but himself. And he was clothed with a vesture dipped of fruits, withered stalks of herbs, and flowers. Finein blood: and his name is called the Word of God. twigs are particularly mentioned as used for fuel in And the armies which were in heaven followed him dressing their food, by D'Arvieux, La Roque, and others upon

white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and Ezekiel says in his parable of the vine used figuratively clean. And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that for the people of God, “Shall wood be taken thereof to with it he should smite the nations, and he shall rule do

any work? Or shall men take a pin of it to hang them with a rod of iron, and he treadeth the wine-press any vessel thereon ? Behold it is cast into the fire for of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. And he fuel.” (Ezek. 15. 3,4.) "If a man abide not in me, hath on his vesture, and on his thigh, a name written, (saith Our Lord,) he is cast forth as a branch (of the KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS.” vine), and is withered, and men gather them, and cast

The same vivid image of crushing grapes occurs them into the fire, and they are burned.” (John 15.6.) in the beautiful specimen of a national elegy, the The expression of “ sitting every man under his own Lamentations of Jeremiah. “The Lord has trodden vine," probably alludes to the delightful arbours which under foot all my mighty men in the midst of me,


were partly composed of vines. Plantations of trees has called an assembly against me to crush my young about houses are very useful in hot countries to give men; the Lord has trodden the virgin, the daughter of them an agreeable coolness.

The ancient Israelites Judah, as in a wine-press.” (Lam. 1. 15.)

seem to have made use of the same means, and probably Treading out the grapes was an exhilarating employ- planted fruit trees rather than other kinds to produce ment; in all the representations of the process we that effect. “ It is their fashion in many places," says Sir imagine that we can see joy and merriment proceeding Thomas Rowe's chaplain, speaking of the country of the even to extravagance in the countenances of those Great Mogul, “ to plant about and amongst their buildings

, engaged in it. This circumstance explains another trees which grow high and broad, the shadow whereof image of divine vengeance in the prophecies of Jeremiah. keeps their houses by far more cool; this I observed in a “The Lord shall mightily roar from his habitation, he special manner when we were ready to enter Amadarar shall give a shout as they that tread the grapes, against for it appeared to us as if we had been entering a wood all the inhabitants of the earth.” (Jerem. 25. 30.) rather than a city.” “Immediately on entering." (says Indeed so great was the general joy inspired by the Turner, “I was ushered into the court yard of the Aga

, vintage, that its cessation was one of the punishments whom I found smoking under a vine, surrounded by denounced by Jeremiah against Moab. “And joy and horses, servants, and dogs." gladness is taken from the plentiful field and from the Dr. Russell states that it is very common to cover ike


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stairs leading to the upper apartments of the harem with | Vivipara, which signifies “bringing forth its young vines. This fully explains the beautiful metaphor in alive;" but though the young are thus produced, they Psalm 128: “Thy wife shall be as a fruitful vine by the are previously formed in an egg within the parent's sides of thy house."

ovary, and hence Isaiah's allusion to the hatching or • The fruitful vine is the favourite emblem by which the vipers (Isai. 59. 5,) is perfectly justified by physiology inspired writers love to figure the Hebrew nation. When and natural history. From the earliest ages the viper obedient, the vine flourisheth and extendeth her branches to the furthermost parts of the earth; but when rebellious, God hideth his face, the vine is neglected, the wild beasts break down the fences, trample the vineyard, and devour its clusters till all is waste. Again, on repentance, the Lord of mercy visiteth his vine, and the vineyard is restored, the wine-press is full, and every man may rejoice under his vine and under his fig-tree.

In the New Testament, the vine shares with the lily and the wheat-field, the honour of illustrating the parables of our Divine Teacher.

In the sermon on the Mount, He asks, in illustration of the sentence concerning bad men, “By their works shall ye know them; do men gather grapes of thorns ?" (Matt. 7. 16.) And in speaking the two parables,

The Viper. the first of the labourers who though entering the vineyard at different hours of the day received each has been dreaded for its venomous bite, and made the his just reward, (Matt. 21. 1-14,) and the second, emblem of every thing that is hurtful and destructive; of the rebellious labourers who first turned out their

indeed its poison is one of the most active and dangerlord's appointed messengers, and finally abused and slew

ous in the animal kingdom. So terrible was the nature his son, (Matt. 21. 33-41,) how beautifully has the

of these creatures that they were very commonly thought Preacher chosen scenes familiar to the minds and senses

to be sent as executioners of Divine vengeance upon of his hearers.

mankind for enormous crimes which had escaped the Beyond all the fruits of the earth is the fruit of the

course of justice. The people of Melita showed that vine honoured and hallowed : Jesus himself hath conse

they were thoroughly imbued with this superstition crated it.

when St. Paul was shipwrecked on the island. (Acts We will state in conclusion, that as the extraordinary 28. 3.) This dangerous serpent is known in the East fertility of Palestine has been sometimes denied by by the name of leffah; it is thus described by Dr. Shaw. sceptics, even now, notwithstanding the countless cala- "The most common as well as malignant of the serpent mities which have befallen that unhappy land, and the tribe is the leffah. It is about a foot in length; it is atrocious tyranny to which it is still subjected, evidences of its former productiveness have been collected by ing to the quality of the earth, sand, or rocks where it is

not always of the same colour, but varies a little accordnearly all the travellers who have visited that country. found.” The modern Oriental 'name is derived from an “Galilee,” says Malte Brun, “would be a paradise, were

Arabic word which signifies “to burn,” whence some its

inhabitants an industrious people under an enlightened have inferred that the fiery serpents sent to chastise the government. Vine-stocks are to be found here a foot Israelites in the desert were leffahs, or vipers. c. and a half in diameter, forming by their twining branches vast arches and extensive ceilings of verdure. A cluster of grapes two or three feet in length, will give an

VIRGIN, sind belhulah. The Hebrew word, abundant supper to a whole family." Laborde, in the

like the Latin virgo and puella, is frequently used to opposite extremity of Palestine, found clusters of grapes fully as enormous as those which the spies are described signify any young woman whether married or single.

In Joel, it is applied to a newly-married wife: "Lament to have brought from the brook of Eshcol. A.

like a virgin girded with sackcloth for the husband of her youth.” (Joel 1. 8.) It is however more commonly

taken in the rigid sense, for an immaculate virgin who VINEGAR, yon chometz, ogos, oxos. An acid had never known man, particularly in the well-known produced by a second fermentation of vinous liquors. prediction, “Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bring Vinegar, or perhaps some kind of thin sour wine, was forth a son.” (Isai. 7. 14.) C. used by reapers for their refreshment in the season of harvest, and when not too acid, or when diluted with VISION. In the Old Testament this word is frewater, it made a very cooling beverage. Hence Boaz, quently used to signify certain mysterious signs and when anxious to show kindness to Ruth, told her that appearances, whereby God made his will manifest to his

come and dip her bread in vinegar with his priests and prophets. Hence Samuel declares, that people.

An allowance of vinegar was made to the during the apostasy which took place under Eli, “there Roman soldiers when on a march, and that which they was no open vision,” (1 Sam. 3,) that is, there was no offered to Our Saviour was probably a portion of that public and recognised revelation of the Divine will; to which they used for their own drinking. The use of which we may compare the passage in Proverbs 29. 18, vinegar, as well as of wine, was forbidden to those who “There is no vision, the people perish.” (See Urim.) had taken the Nazarite vow. C.

Vision is also sometimes used to signify the ecstatic state

of the prophets when they were favoured with commuVIOL. See MUSIC.

nications from Jehovah. C.

VOICE, 5p na bath kol, “The daughter of the VIPER, Jyox ephach, exidva, echidna. The voice.” The Rabbins assert, that inspiration was conEnglish name of this serpent is derived from the Latin veyed to the prophets in a low whispering sound, which


she might

they poetically designated “the daughter of the voice." ever to redemption, except in the case of the execratory They assert that it was only heard by those to whom it vow, called on cherem, and of animals proper for was addressed, and they believe that this means of com- sacrifice. Negative vows were promises of abstinence, munication still exists. Indeed, the Talmud expressly which the Jews called wh3 5 10X esar gnal nephesh, declares that the bath kol may be heard every night by that is to say, “a restraint upon the inclinations or the faithful Hebrews, wailing over the ruins of Jerusa- appetites;” the principal vows of this kind were those of lem, and lamenting the dispersion of the chosen people. the Nazarite, whether male, 712 nazir, or female, 1773 Some of the Rabbins, however, have identified “the nezirah. daughter of the voice" with the echo. C.

By affirmative vows, not only property of various descriptions, as money, lands, houses, and animals, clean and unclean, but servants, children, and even the

person VOW. Vows were solemn promises which men himself, might be consecrated to God. These dedimade to God, promising that they would either conse- cations went under the common name, ia7p korban, crate something to Him, or do something to his service which was a generic name for all“ sacred gifts.” In the and honour, which, without such promises, they did not time of Our Saviour the corrupt traditions of the elders feel themselves bound to do. The design of these vows permitted persons to go through the form of this was in some instances, to express the thankfulness of dedication for the purpose of exonerating themselves those by whom they were made, to God, as their from the obligation of supporting their aged parents. Almighty benefactor; in other cases, they were intended Animals which were fit for sacrifice, and which were to obtain favour and mercy from Him. The earliest vow devoted to God by this vow, were to be sacrificed, but recorded in Scripture is that by which Jacob devoted those which were for any reason, such as too large a the tenth of all the property he should acquire to the supply of victims, excluded from the altar, were to be service of Jehovah. “Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If sold according to the valuation of the priest: they could God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that be redeemed, however, by the original owner, on the I go, and will give me bread to eat and raiment to put payment of one-fifth more than the priest's valuation. on, so that I come again to my father's house in peace, The men who were thus devoted became servants, or then shall the Lord be my God. And this stone which rather slaves, in the tabernacle or temple, and could not I have set for a pillar shall be God's house; and of all recover their liberty unless redeemed. Money, lands, that thou shalt give me, I will surely give the tenth and houses, which had become 0'773 nedarim, or unto thee.” (Gen. 28. 20-22.)

“devoted,” became the property of the tabernacle or the Though the Mosaic law held out no encouragement to temple, excepting that the land might be redeemed the making of voluntary vows, it insisted on a rigid before the year of Jubilee. On this point, the Levitical performance of them when made; the obligation is very law is very clear and express: “If a man shall sanctify forcibly stated by the Hebrew legislator: “When thou

“When thou unto the Lord some part of a field in his possession, then shalt vow a vow, unto the Lord thy God, thou shalt not thy estimation shall be according to the seed thereof

: slack to pay it; for the Lord thy God will surely require an homer of barley-seed shall be valued at fifty shekels it of thee, and it would be sin in thee. But if thou of silver. If he sanctify his field from the year of shalt forbear to vow, it shall be no sin in thee. That jubilee, according to thy estimation it shall stand. But which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt keep and if he sanctify his field after the jubilee, then the perform, even a free-will offering, according as thou priest shall reckon unto him the money according to the hast vowed unto the Lord thy God, which thou hast years that remain, even unto the year of jubilee

, and it promised with thy mouth.” (Deut. 23. 21-23.) It must shall be abated from thy estimation.

And if he that however be observed, that Moses, in certain instances, sanctified the field will in any way redeem it

, then be permitted the redemption of a vow; the scale on which shall add the fifth part of the money of thy estimation persons, animals, and things, devoted by vows, might be unto it, and it shall be assured unto him. And if le redeemed, is given at great length in the 27th chapter of will not redeem the field, or if he have sold the field to Leviticus. We also find that husbands and fathers, in any other man, it shall not be redeemed any more: but certain cases, had the power of annulling vows made by the field when it goeth out in the jubilee, shall be holy their wives and daughters: “If a woman vow a vow unto the Lord as a thing devoted, the possession thereof unto the Lord, and bind herself by a bond, being in her shall be the priest's. And if a man sanctify unto the father's house in her youth, and her father hear her vow, Lord a field which he hath bought, which is not of the and her bond where with she hath bound her soul, and fields of his possession; then the priest shall reckon her father shall hold his peace at her; then all her vows unto him the worth of thy estimation, even unto the shall stand, and every bond wherewith she hath bound year of jubilee; and he shall give thine estimation in her soul shall stand. But if her father disallow her in that day, as a holy thing unto the Lord.” (Levit. 27. the day that he heareth, not any of her vows or of her 16-24.) bonds wherewith she hath bound her soul shall stand; The vow called on cherem, was deemed the most and the Lord shall forgive her, because her father hath binding and awful obligation which any person could disallowed her. And if she had at all an husband when voluntarily incur. The persons or things to whom it she vowed, or uttered aught out of her lips wherewith was applied, became “accursed” in the eye of the law, she bound her soul; and her husband heard it, and held and it was deemed sacrilege to spare life, or to approhis peace at her in the day that he heard it

, then her priate the property. This dreadful vow was usually vows shall stand, and her bonds where with she hath pronounced against an enemy, as in the following bound her soul shall stand. But if her husband disal- instance ; “Israel vowed a vow unto the Lord, and said, lowed her in the day that he heard it, then he shall If thou wilt indeed deliver this people into my hand, make her vow which she vowed, and that which she then will I utterly destroy their cities. And the Lord uttered with her lips, wherewith she bound her soul, of hearkened to the voice of Israel, and delivered up none effect; and the Lord shall forgive her.” (Numb. Canaanites, and they utterly destroyed them and their 30. 3-8.)

cities; and he called the name of the place Hormah, that Vows were either affirmative, D77) nedarim, by which is, utter destruction.” (Numb. 21. 2,3.) The sin of Achan, persons and things were consecrated to God, subject how- (Josh. 7. 17-19,) consisted in his appropriating part


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the plunder of a city against which the tremendous which St. Paul embarked; she was but lightly proTOW On cherem, had been pronounced. In Exodus visioned, for when the storm drove them out of their 17. 14-16 we find that the people of the Amalekites course, they were reduced to great distress. As sailors, were declared cherem to all future generations. And before the invention of the compass, were forced to the Lord said unto Moses, “Write this for a memorial steer by the stars, they were placed in great perplexity in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua, for I when the weather continued for any length of time dark will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from and cloudy. St. Paul's companions discovered that they under heaven. And Moses built an altar, and called were drawing near some land, by their diminished soundthe name of it JEHOVAH-Nissi, (* The Lord my banner;') ings; but they appear not to have known what land it for he said, Because the Lord hath sworn that the Lord was until they had reached the shore. So dreaded was will have war with Amalek from generation to genera- the sea in the winter season, that St. Paul was detained tion.” After a lapse of about four hundred years, Saul about three months in Melita before he found any was commissioned to fulfil this decree; Samuel conveyed opportunity of continuing his voyage, and even then the to him the divine command, “Now go and smite navigators were so timid, that they made for Sicily, Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and instead of steering directly for Western Italy. This is a spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant curious picture of the difficulties and uncertainties of and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.” (1 Sam. 15. ancient navigation, and justifies the Apostle in reckoning 3.) The history then informs us that Saul destroyed “perils by the sea" among the sufferings which he the people of the Amalekites. “But Saul and the endured in behalf of the Gospel. C. people spared Agag, (the king of the Amalekites,) and the best of the sheep, and of the oxen, and of the fatlings, and the lambs, and all that was good, and VULGATE. The Vulgate version of the Scripwould not utterly destroy them; but every thing that tures, so named because it is that which is commonly was vile and refuse, that they destroyed utterly.” In (vulgo) received by the Latin Church, is the oldest, and consequence of this disobedience, Samuel announced one of the most valuable, translations of the Holy that God had rejected Saul from being king over Israel. Scriptures. It is probable that portions of the New

We find another instance of the vow On cherem, Testament were translated into Latin, for the benefit of being broken by the same monarch. During one of his the Italian converts, in the time of the Apostles, to battles against the Philistines, "Saul adjured the people, which were soon added those portions of the Old Testasaying, Cursed be the man that eateth any food until the ment which were either prophecies or types of the evening, that I may be avenged on mine enemies." | Messiah. A complete version appears to have been (1Sam. 14. 21.) Jonathan unwittingly broke through made about the close of the second century; it is called this prohibition, and would have been put to death, had by ecclesiastical and theological writers, the Vetus or not the people with one voice declared that they would Itala version, and the fragments of it which have been not allow a hair of his head to be touched. Jephthah's preserved were collected and published at Rome, in Tow was another instance of cherem, and this is the 1720. This translation was made from the Septuagint, strongest argument which can be adduced by those who not only because Greek was better understood than contend that he really sacrificed his daughter.

Hebrew, but also because the Evangelists have given to A negative vow, as has been already stated, was a that version the sanction of their authority, by quoting promise to abstain from certain things allowable by law. from it in most of the passages which they have exJosephus says, (Jewish War, 11., 15. 1,) that in his day tracted from the Old Testament. But, as the text of there were many, particularly those who had been op- the Septuagint was uncertain and corrupt before it was pressed by sickness or adverse fortunes, who vowed to revised by Origen in the Hexapla, the Itala version abstain from wine, to go with the head shaven, and to possessed all the defects of the version from which it spend the time in prayer for thirty days previous to was made, and in the different copies several important offering sacrifice. We find that St. Paul observed this texts could neither be reconciled with the Greek, nor custom: “having shorn his head in Cenchrea, for he had with each other. Towards the close of the fourth cena vow.” (Acts 18. 18.)

tury, Pope Damasus declared that it was necessary to The Nazarites, on the contrary, vowed to let the hair have the Itala version thoroughly revised, and his plans grow, to abstain not only from wine and all inebriating being approved by the principal prelates of the western drink, but from vinegar also; to eat no clusters, and to churches, he entrusted the task to St. Jerome, the most beware of any contamination from corpses, bones, and learned and accomplished Biblical scholar of his age. Of sepulchres. In some instances, the parents bound a this revised version, only the Psalms and the Book of child by the vow of a Nazarite even before his birth. Job have come down to our times. This was the case in respect to Samson, (Judges 13. 7,) At a later period of his life, St. Jerome visited and John the Baptist. (Luke 13. 15.) (See Nazar- Palestine, where he diligently studied the Hebrew ITE.) T.

language under the Jewish rabbis who remained in that

country; he also made himself acquainted with the VOYAGE. The only voyages particularly men- geography, natural history, and antiquities of the Holy tioned in Scripture are those of Jonah and St. Paul. Land, subjects which had not been studied by the Jonah took shipping at Joppa for Tarshish, that is, the writers of the Septuagint. Impressed with the value of western parts of Europe; but there is no record of the his newly acquired knowledge, and convinced of the distance to which he had sailed when overtaken by the imperfections of the Septuagint, St. Jerome undertook tempest. The history of St. Paul's voyage throws con- an entirely new translation, based on the original siderable light on the state of navigation of the Mediter- Hebrew text. He followed, indeed, rather too closely, ranean when the Romans were masters of the sea; we the Rabbinical interpretations which were at that time find that the sailors always endeavoured to keep close current in Palestine, more particularly in his rendering along the coast, and that this rendered voyages particu- of the prophecies relating to the Messiah; this blemish, larly dangerous at tempestuous seasons of the year. however, which, under the circumstances, could hardly Including sailors, soldiers, and prisoners, there were two have been avoided, detracts very little from the merits hundred and seventy-six persons on board the ship in of his work, which is really wonderful, when we consider the general state of knowledge in the age in which it is probable that the variance between the names in it was executed.

Leviticus and Isaiah is a mere error of transcription, Great opposition was made to the new version by rendered inveterate by successive copyists. The 7" some of the western prelates, who fell into the common ayah, rendered “vulture” in the Book of Job, is in other error of receiving an authorized version with the im- places translated “kite.” However the context clearly plicit reverence which is due only to the original text. shows that Eliphaz meant the vulture, or some similar We learn from St. Augustine, that it was introduced bird, which preys upon carrion, by the 179 ayah. into the church by degrees, for fear of offending weak All the days of the wicked he is his own tormentor, persons. At length Pope Gregory I. stamped Jerome's And a reckoning of years is laid up for the violent. new version with the seal of his approbation, so that

A sound of alarm rings in his ears; ever since the seventh century it has been exclusively

Even in peace the despoiler invades him.

He cannot hope to escape from darkness; adopted by the Latin church. The Psalms, however,

Even from the lurking-place the sword awaits him, being daily chanted to music in the church service, He wanders about and becomes the prey of vultures. could not be easily altered; the old Itala Psalter, there

Wemyss's Job. fore, continues to be used instead of the corrected The vulture is a large bird of prey, somewhat resemversion; just as in the English church the older transla- bling the eagle. There are several birds of the vultion of the Psalms is retained in the Prayer Book, while turine kind, which though they differ much in colour the more correct translation made in the time of James I. finds a place in our Bibles. The apocryphal books of Baruch, Ecclesiasticus, Wisdom, and the two books of Maccabees, are also retained from the old Latin version ; but, with these exceptions, the Vulgate, as it now stands, consists mainly of the revised translation of St. Jerome.

The Council of Trent, in its fourth session, ordained " that the Vulgate alone should be deemed authentic in the public reading of the Scriptures, in preaching, and in expounding, and that no one should dare to reject it upon any pretence whatsoever.” By this decree the Vulgate was virtually invested with the authority of the original text, and rendered incapable of improvement from the researches of scholars and the progress of Biblical criticism. There is indeed an obvious inconveni

The Vulture. ence in needlessly varying translations of the Scriptures, but this might be avoided, if a power had been lodged and dimensions, yet they are easily distinguished by their somewhere of correcting such errors as might be detected bald heads and partially crooked beaks. They are very at different times, and thus making the translation of the common in most parts of Asia and Africa, where they Bible keep pace with the advancement of knowledge.

are proverbial for their uncleanness and voracity, presThough the Tridentine prelates had declared the Vul- ing more frequently on carrion than on live animals

; gate version to be authentic, they did not point out what for this reason their flesh was prohibited by the Levitical edition was to be recived as authentic

, although it was law. (See Unclean.) Indeed few nations of the East notorious that great discrepancies existed in several have not stigmatised these birds as abominable. copies, arising from the carelessness or ignorance of

The Egyptian vultures, together with the stork, pertranscribers. To remedy this deficiency, a revised edi- form the office of scavenger in the cities and towns, tion was published by Sixtus V., who declared it to be removing the filth, and feeding upon the animal sub“the authentic version,” sanctioned by the Council of stances that otherwise would be left to corrupt the air. Trent, and commanded it to be received as such in all the appearance of this vulture in cities, from the nature the Latin churches. Unfortunately for papal infallibility of its occupation, is disgusting in the extreme; though this authentic edition was soon found to contain not less naturally it is a noble object, and was a sacred bird with than two thousand gross errors, and it was necessary for the ancients, and certainly deserved their gratitude for Clement VIII. to publish a new “authentic” version. the duties it so well performs. The vulture resorts to The fatal variances between the two infallible versions the deserts to seek for the remains of men or animals have furnished much amusement to Protestant divines; who may bave met a violent death there, or have died but though the Latin Vulgate is neither inspired nor from fatigue and thirst. Its singular mode of breaking infallible, it is in general a very faithful translation, and the eggs of ostriches is thus described by a modern trasometimes exhibits the sense of Scripture with more veller. “In the middle of the day ostriches leave their accuracy than modern versions.

Indeed it preserves eggs in the sand, forgetting that the foot may crush many true readings which have been corrupted in the them, or the wild beast break them. Looking aloft at modern Hebrew copies of the Old Testament, and must this time of day, a white Egyptian vulture may be seen therefore be carefully studied by all who desire to become soaring in mid air, with a large stone between his talons

. proficients in Biblical criticism. T.

Having carefully surveyed the ground below him, he suddenly lets fall the stone, and then follows it in rapid

descent; let the hunter run to the spot, and he will find VULTURE, 1787 daah, (Levit. 11. 13,) 787 a nest of probably a score of eggs (each equal in size to raah, (Isai. 34. 15,) and 17'8 ayah, (Job 28. 7.) From twenty-four hen's eggs, some of them broken by the the similarity between the letters T duleth and 7 resh, vulture." C. and G.

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