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WAFER, a very thin cake of bread employed in ment against the civilization of the Jewish nation, that the Jewish sacrifices. We find from the Levitical law we find wagons, and other means for the transport of (Exod. 29. 2) that they were usually made without heavy goods, so rarely mentioned in the sacred records. leaven, and that they were anointed with consecrated oil. Palestine, from the earliest period, has been destitute of The custom of preparing such wafers for their great fes- roads over which any heavy conveyance could travel. tivals is continued by the Jews of the present day. C. After the age of Solomon, when the Jews ceased to be a

trading and commercial nation, the internal traffic of

Palestine became so very trifling, that the use of WAGES. In ancient times most servants, whether wagons was almost unknown; and hence the Prophet prædial or domestic, were merely slaves, and could have Ezekiel dwells very strongly on the presence of these no action at law against their masters, however badly vehicles to aggravate the horrors of that fearful siege they might have been treated. Still certain allowances of Jerusalem which he was commissioned to predict: were made to them, chiefly as a remuneration for extra - The Babylonians, and all the Chaldeans: Pekod, and work, and though these were regulated by the sheer dis- Shoa, and Koa, and all the Assyrians with them, all of cretion of the slave-owner, yet there was generally an them desirable young men, captains and rulers, great honourable feeling to give fair wages for fair work, and

work; and and renowned, all of them riding upon horses. And not to defraud those who were helpless and without

they shall come against thee with chariots, wagons and remedy. Job very strongly pleads in proof of his inno

wheels, and with an assembly of people.” (Ezek, 23. cence that he always paid fair wages to his servants.

25,26.) Recent discoveries in Egypt have shown that If I denied justice to my man-servant,

the use of wagons, or, as we perhaps might have approOr to my maid-servant, when they disputed with me;

priately designated them, “ox-chariots," was not conWhat then should I do when God maketh inquest ? When He inquires, what answer should I give?

fined to persons in an humble sphere of life, for Did not He who formed me form them?

representations have been found of queens and princèsses Were we not fashioned alike in the womb ?

travelling by this mode of conveyance. Some writers

have attempted to show that the tents of the patriarchs The Levitical law very strongly inculcates the duty of were a species of wagon, which were drawn from place a fair payment of wages: “ Thou shalt not defraud thy to place; but this opinion is not supported by any neighbour, neither shalt thou rob him; the wages of him internal evidence, and the instances given from the cirthat is hired of thee shall not abide with thec all night cumstances of other nations are not applicable to the until the morning.” (Levit. 19. 13.) Jeremiah reproves peculiar position of Palestine. D. the withholding of wages as one of the most crying sins of his day: “Woe unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness, and his chambers by wrong, that useth WAIL. In no respect do the Asiatics differ more his neighbour's service without wages, and giveth him from the Europeans than in their manifestations of not for his work.” (Jerem. 22. 13.) Still more strong is grief. In the East every misfortune, whether small or the denunciation of the last of the prophets: “I will great, is made known by the “wail,” or rather “how]," be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the raised by the females of the household; and whenever adulterers, and against false swearers, and against those they deem that their voices are not likely to make sufthat oppress the hireling in his wages, the widow and ficient impression upon the hearers, they at once have the fatherless, and that turn aside the stranger, saith recourse to the assistance of hired and professional the Lord of hosts." (Malachi 3. 4.) Although no direct mourners. “As I travelled along the banks of the reference is made to the subject in the New Testament, Indus and Sutlej,” says a writer, whose travels have not get there are many obvious allusions to it which show been published, “the mournful cries of the Hindoo that equity in wages forms an important part of Chris- women strongly brought to my mind the frequent mentian morality. C.

tion of howling and wailing in the Sacred Scriptures.

I was particularly struck with the fact, that in every WAGON. Wherever we find the wagon men- language of which we have any knowledge, the sound tioned by ancient writers, it always means a vehicle drawn ulalu seems to be that which is most expressive of powby oxen, because it was generally believed that they erful animal feelings; thus we have 55 yalal, among were better suited than the horse for the traction of among the Hebrews and Arabs; ululare, among the heavy weights. From the Egyptian monuments (Wilkin- Latins; and hullah, among the Irish and Scotch; not son, vol. iii. 179), we find that the plaustrum, or wagon, to mention a host of others, which all, more or less, was the vehicle most commonly used for women and repeat the letter ‘L,' accompanied by a short vowel.” R. children; hence, when Joseph was preparing to receive his father in Egypt, we see that the reigning Pharaoh provided wagons for the accommodation of the families WAIT, LIERS IN. The mountain tribes of of the patriarchs: “ Take you wagons out of the land Western and Central Asia have been in all ages infamous of Egypt for your little ones, and for your wives, and for their plundering propensities. Their daring in bring your father, and come.” (Gen. 45. 19.) . The attacking caravans, can only be equalled by their patient ancient wagon differed from the ancient chariot, not watchings in ambuscade; they will remain sometimes only because it was drawn by oxen, while the other was for days and even weeks, with a very scanty supply of always harnessed to horses, but also because it had four provisions, waiting to surprise the unguarded caravan or wheels, and the chariot only two. Pliny attributes the the unwary traveller. In modern times, the Koords are first invention of a four-wheeled carriage to the Phry- the most distinguished among Asiatic nations for their gians; but there can be little doubt that they must have inordinate and determined spirit of plunder, and they been used by the Israelites in transporting the enormous faithfully preserve all the habits which the Old Testablocks of stone used in the building of Solomon's ment ascribes to the “liers in wait” of ancient times. Temple, and in the construction of the massive walls “ With them,” says a writer in the Saturday Magaand edifices of Tadmor. It is by no manns an argu- zine, “plundering is a natural occupation; and every

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unhappy stranger, whom chance or curiosity throws in A place for ambush fit they found, and stood their way, they regard as their lawful prey. Should the

Cover'd with shields beside a silver flood,

Two spies at distance lurk, and watchful seem, unfortunate being happen to be poor and ragged, he is

If sheep or oxen seek the winding stream. severely beaten for not having brought sufficient property Soon the white flocks proceeded o'er the plains, to make him worth robbing. They are not only daring And steers slow-moving, and two shepherd swains robbers, but skilful thieves; and their boldness is solely Behind them, piping on their reeds, they go, equalled by their address. Sir John Malcolm, on his

Nor fear an ambush, nor suspect a foe;

In arms the glittering squadron rising round, mission to the Court of Persia, in 1810, had scarcely set

Rush sudden; hills of slaughter heap the ground; his foot in their territory, when he was attacked, in Whole flocks and herds lie bleeding on the plains, spite of his imposing appearance, and his numerous And all amidst them, dead, the shepherd swains ! attendants. Captain Keppel was closely watched for

Iliad xviii. several miles, and narrowly escaped a similar visitation. In the civil wars which arose out of the usurpation of Mr. Buckingham was less fortunate; a contribution of Abimelech, we find that the men of Shechem adopted 2500 piastres (about 1251. sterling,) was levied on the the Canaanitish, or, as we should call it in modern caravan by which he journeyed, before it was allowed to times, the Koordish custom of employing “liers in proceed.”

wait.” The sacred historian relates, “The men of SheThese marauders not only beset mountain passes and chem set liers in wait for him on the tops of the moundefiles, but frequently come into the neighbourhood of tains, and they robbed all that came along that way by cities for the purpose of kidnapping the unprotected and them, and it was told Abimelech.” (Judges 9. 25.) The driving them off to sell as slaves, or murdering and chapter from which we have quoted them proceeds to robbing those whom they suspect of carrying wealth describe how Abimelech, by planting an ambush of about their persons. The Koords usually place them- “liers in wait," succeeded in surprising the city of Sheselves in ambush near a well, in order to gain possession chem, which he levelled to the ground. The similarity of the persons of young women who come to draw | between the historian's account and the poetic descrip water; or near the groves planted round ponds, which tion extracted from Homer is very striking, and the are sometimes found in the vicinity of Oriental cities, same artifices are, in our own day, practised by the and are favourite haunts of the merchants who come to Koords and Turkomans whenever they assault a village enjoy the refreshment of pure air, coolness, and shade. in Turkey or Persia. It may be added, that during the We learn from Deborah's Song of Triumph, that this late war in Affghanistan, much loss was occasioned by also was the custom of the Canaanites, from whom the the Affghan “liers in wait,” who occupied almost every Koords are most probably descended. “They that are covert on the line of the British march for the purpose delivered from the noise of archers in the places of of intercepting stragglers. C. drawing water, there shall they rehearse the righteous acts of the Lord, even the righteous acts towards the inheritance of his villages in Israel: then shall the WALK, 757 halak. The Hebrew verb not only people of the Lord go down to the gates." (Judges 5. 2.) signifies to advance with a steady step, but also to auga. Homer whose long residence in Ionia, if indeed that ment a moderate pace until it acquires rapidity. It is was not the place of his nativity, rendered him very used in this sense by the evangelical prophet with the familiar with Asiatic customs, describes with great spirit greatest propriety in the following passage. “Erent the course pursued by “liers in wait" before the gates of youth shall faint and be weary, and the young men sh a beleaguered city:

utterly fall; but they that wait upon the Lord Shaw

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renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings spies must have exhibited some share of artistic skill as as eagles; they shall run and not be weary; and they well as massive strength. An ancient tradition preserved shall walk and not faint.” (Isai. 40. 30,3].)

in the Talmud declares, that the walls of the Canaanites Walk is often used in Scripture for conduct in life, or were connected with their temples, so that sanctity might a man's general demeanour and deportment. Thus we be united with security, and this would account for the are told that Enoch and Noah “ walked with God,” that elaborate care bestowed upon their construction, and the is, they maintained a course of action conformed to the admiration with which they inspired persons already will of their Creator, and acceptable in his sight; draw-acquainted with the colossal edifices of Egypt. This ing near to him by public and private devotions, mani- view is confirmed by the Scriptural account of the festing, by their piety, a constant sense of his presence, escape of the spies sent to explore Jericho. They and by their purity of life, a reverence for the moral lodged, we are informed, in the house of Rahab; now in laws which he had established for the guidance of his most idolatrous countries, women such as Rahab was, creatures. In many parts both of the Old and New | are engaged in the services of the temples, and the Testament, we find God promising to walk with his wages of their guilt form a regular and recognised people; and his people, on the other hand,, desiring the portion of the revenue for the support of idolatry. By influence of God's Holy Spirit, that they may walk in residing, then, in one of the mural temples, Rahab was his statutes. “To walk in darkness," (IJolin l. 6,7) is enabled to let down the spies safely from the walls, and to be involved in unbelief, and misled by error; “ to rescue them from the strict search made by the king of walk in the light," is to be well informed, holy and Jericho happy; “to walk by faith,” is to expect tlie things pro- The miracle by which the walls of Jericho were thrown mised or threatened, and to maintain a course of con-down was not merely a signal instance of the Divine duct perfectly consistent with such a belief;, “ to walk Power by which the Israelites were to be assisted in the after the flesh,” is to gratify the carnal desires, to yield conquest of Canaan; it was at least in an equal degree, to the fleshly appetites,,and be obedient to the lusts of a manifestation of the impotence of deadi idols to withthe flesh; " to walk after thie Spirit," is to pursue spiri stand the wrath of the living God; and this view of the tual objects, to cultivate spiritual affections, to be spiri- case explains the reason why the ark of the covenant tually-minded, which is life and peace..

was commanded to be borne in triumphant circuit round Walking for the sake of exercise is rarely practised in the walls of the devoted city. We may also conclude the East; indeed the indolent Orientals are quite unable that it was in consequence of its reliance on its tutelary to comprehend the conduct of Europeans in walking for idols that Joshua pronounced the dreadful On cheren, mere recreation, without any immediate purpose of busi- on Jericho. (See art. Vow.) ness. They attribute this to a spirit of restlessness! From the triumphal song of Moses, in which, at the which they believe to be a kind of curse inflicted upon close of the wanderings in the Desert, he recited all the Christian nations, and in a dispute between Turks, it is providential mercies which had been shown to the not uncommon for one of the parties, as his worst exe Israelites, we find that, in his time, there were several cration, to wish that his opponent should be condemned walled cities in the regions south of Palestine. "The “to walk like a Frank.” Among the females, this dis- Lord our God delivered into our hands Og also, the like of locomotion is carried to a still greater extent, king of Bashan, and all his people: and we smote him and there is scarcely any epithet which would be more until none was left to him remaining. And we took all offensive to a Turkish or Persian lady than to be called his cities at that time, there was not a city which we “ a walker." This appears also to have been the case took not from them, threescore cities, all in the region of with the Egyptian ladies, for there are but few instances Argob, the kingdom of Og in Bashan. All these cities of their being represented on the monuments in walking were fenced with high walls, gates, and bars; beside attitudes. D.

unwalled towns a great many. And we utterly destroyed

them, as we did unto Sihon, king of Ileshbon, utterly WALLS. In the preceding article we have noticed destroying the men, women, and children, of every city." the dangers to which the peaceful inhabitants of cities (Deut. 3. 3-6.) were exposed from the sudden incursions of predatory On account of the importance of the walls, the first tribes, and shown that ancient Canaan suffered severely care of conquerors who captured a city was to lay them from marauders and liers in wait. On this account, the level with the ground, and this greatly aggravated the Canaanites took particular care in securing their cities sufferings of the inhabitants, who not only became the by fortifications and walls, a circumstance which greatly prey of the immediate victors, but were left exposed to alarmed the spies who were sent to explore the land by the insults of all other spoilers. Hence the sacred Moses, and on which they dwelt very emphatically in bistorian dwells strongly on this circumstance when the disheartening report which they brought back: describing the conquest of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. “We came unto the land whither thou sentest us, and 1“ In the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, surely it floweth with milk and honey, and this is the which is the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, fruit of it. Nevertheless the people be strong that dwell king of Babylon, came Nebuzar-adan, captain of the in the land, and the cities are walled and very great.” guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, unto Jerusalení: (Numb. 13. 27,28.) The earliest walls with which we and he burnt the house of the Lord, and the king's are acquainted, are built in what is called the Cyclopic house, and all the houses of Jerusalem, and every great style of architecture, that is, they are composed of man's house burnt he with fire. And all the army of enormous masses of stone, built up in their rough state, the Chaldees, that were with the captain of the guard, having the interstices filled with smaller blocks, and a brake down the walls of Jerusalem round about," rude kind of cement. From the massive Egyptian ruins, | (2Kings 25. 8--10.) and particularly from those of the Memnonium, which During the captivity, the Jews always regarded the we have copied to illustrate this article, it seems pro- rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem as equivalent to the bable, that the squaring and preparation of stones for restoration of their name and nation, a circumstance building was practised at a very early age, and it which sufficiently explains the great importance attached may be reasonably conjectured, that the walls which to that enterprise when it was undertaken by Ezra and excited such wonder and terror in the basons of the Nehemiah.

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Notwithstanding the greater durability of stone and most opulent possessors held their treasures, in the brick, many of the Easterns prefer to build the walls of following language, to which the experience or knowtheir houses with mud and brick. Frequent allusions ledge of his hearers must have given a propriety and are made to this circumstance both in the Old and New force that we cannot feel: 'Lay not up for yourselves Testament, but the most important are thus enumerated treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, in Dr. Jamieson's edition of Paxton's Illustrations of and where thieves break through and steal, but lay up Scripture.

for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth “In the time of Job, and probably for a long succes- nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break sion of ages, the houses of all ranks in the land of Uz through, nor steal.' (Matt. 6. 19,20.) were built of mud; for he charges the adulterer with “To prevent these, as well as other accidents of no digging through the walls of his neighbour's house, with less frequent occurrence, and even more formidable chathe view of gratifying his vile propensities:- In the racter, the walls of houses which are composed of clay, dark, said the sorrowful and indignant patriarch, they or sun-dried bricks, are always built very thick. Great dig through houses which they had marked for them- thickness is the more necessary, that owing to the longselves in the day time: they knew not the light. (Job continued drouglots of summer, large chinks are often 24. 16.) These walls of dried clay, when moistened formed, which, where the impetuous floods descend in with copious showers, must have been liable to accidents the rainy season, would frequently occasion, but for this of this kind; and as the walls of Eastern houses are precaution in making them of extraordinary thickness, made very thick, in order to shelter the inhabitants more the complete destruction of the walls, or at least produce effectually from the oppressive heats, the term digging, great damage. And, indeed, even with all the care -as applied to them, is peculiarly expressive.

that is taken to make their walls of the approved dimen. “ The attempt feloniously to enter houses by per- sions, nothing is more common in the East than to see 'forating the walls, is not confined to the licentious walls bulging out in different parts, exhibiting the characters alluded to in this passage of Joh. It is the greatest deformity, and declining so much from the common way in which thieves and robbers commit perpendicular, that it is wonderful they stand at all. their depredations on such houses as they have marked The knowledge of this very familiar occurrence gives a for their prey. Windows and doors not being easily beautiful propriety to those expressions of Scripture; accessible, midnight plunderers never think of wasting 'As a bowing wall shall ye be, and as a tottering fence. their energies in fruitless endeavours to break into a (Psalm 62. 3.) “This iniquity shall be to you as a house, but as the soft and fragile walls of clay admit, breach ready to fall, swelling out in a high wall. (1sal. with a little labour and perseverance, of a hole being 30. 13.) dug in them large enough to introduce the human body, “The preceding accounts of the frailty of mud-walled all their ingenuity and efforts are directed towards effect- houses, and their liability to be dissolved into a heap of ing a silent entrance through these, and thus often, rubbish by the descent of the impetuous floods of the when the inmates awake in the morning, the first East, will serve to explain another passage of Scripture, intimation they receive of the burglary that has been which, for want of attention to the peculiarities of the perpetrated on their house is by a stream of light | region which is the scene of the Book of Job, has been pouring in through the broken wall. Hence it was involved in much obscurity:- Behold he put no trust in allusion to such practices that Our Lord, wlien dis- in his servants; and his angels he charged with follf: couraging an inordinate pursuit of earthly things, how much less in them that dwell in houses of clas; pointed out the brief and uncertain tenure by which the whose foundation is in the dust, which are crusher


1333 before the moth? They are destroyed from morning to figurative, but a literal sense, and considering them as evening: they perish for ever without any regarding it.' an allusion to the customs and peculiarities of the place, (Job 4. 18-20.) These words form part of the appeal where the scene of the memorable conference between which the midnight apparition addressed to Eliphaz. Job and his friends is laid.” , They contain a very striking contrast between angels In order to protect these mud-walls from the action and men; and the design of the argument, into which of the weather, they were plastered over with a very they are introduced, evidently leads us to consider that fine and well-tempered mortar; but should any hole contrast as extending to all the points of comparison remain unnoticed and uncovered by the plaster, a powerthat can be instituted between these two classes of cre- ful rain will penetrate it, and probably cause the destrucated beings—the exalted nature, intelligence, and purity tion of the entire building. A similar calamity must be of the one; and the feebleness, ignorance, and numerous expected when the mortar of which the plaster is comimperfections of the other. The object of the present posed is badly mixed and tempered. To this the remarks, which is simply an attempt to give the proper Prophet Ezekiel alludes, in a passage of superior subexplanation of the passage, confines our view of this limity: “Thus saith the Lord God; Because ye have contrast exclusively to their comparative durability; and spoken vanity, and seen lies, therefore, behold, I am that this also is a point of comparison contemplated in against you, saith the Lord God. And mine hand shall the argument, is obvious from the 19th and 20th verses, be upon the prophets that see vanity, and that divine in which the frail and transitory nature of man forms lies: they shall not be in the assembly of my people, the leading idea.

neither shall they be written in the writing of the house “ The ordinary way in which commentators explain of Israel, neither shall they enter into the land of these two latter verses is by considering them as clothed Israel; and ye shall know that I am the Lord God, in the figurative garb of poetry; by supposing that Because, even because they have seduced my people,

houses of clay' is a term metaphorically put for the saying, Peace; and there was no peace; and one built human body, and that “to be crushed before the moth' up a wall, and, lo, others daubed it with untempered is an elegant allusion, in the hyperbolical style of Eastern mortar: say unto them which daub it with untempered imagery, to the slight, insignificant, and sudden causes, mortar, that it shall fall: there shall be an overflowing by which that slender frame is frequently dissolved; and shower; and ye, O great hailstones, shall fall; and a no doubt, when we consider that man is dust,' that stormy wind shall rend it. Lo, when the wall is fallen, "unto dust he shall return,' and that his clayey taber-shall it not be said unto you, Where is the daubing nacle is liable to be crushed,' and to fall to pieces, where with ye have daubed it? Therefore thus saith before a thousand accidents of as trivial a kind as the the Lord God; I will even rend it with a stormy wind touch of an insect's wing, this common interpretation in my fury; and there shall be an overflowing shower sufficiently harmonizes with Scripture and experience, to in mine anger, and great hailstones in my fury to conprevent its being rejected without good and substantial sume it. So will I break down the wall that ye have reasons. Accordingly it has been supposed by an intel daubed with untempered mortar, and bring it down to ligent traveller to refer to the fatal effects which the the ground, so that the foundation thereof shall be dismoth, in its egg or worm state, is well known to produce covered, and it shall fall, and ye shall be consumed in in Arabia:— A disease,' says he, ‘very common in that the midst thereof: and ye shall know that I am the country, is the attack of the moth-worm, which is sup- Lord. Thus will I accomplish my wrath upon the wall, posed to be occasioned by the use of the putrid waters and upon them that have daubed it with untempered which people are obliged to drink in several parts of mortar, and will say unto you, The wall is no more, Arabia; and for this reason, the natives always filter neither they that daubed it; to wit, the prophets of water, with the nature of which they are unacquainted, Israel which prophesy concerning Jerusalem, and which through a linen cloth, before drinking it. The disorder see visions of peace for her, and there is no peace, saith is not dangerous, if the person affected can extract the the Lord God.” (Ezek. 13. 8-16.) Here the Prophet worm without breaking it. With this view, it is rolled clearly alludes to the weather-coating of plaster, with on a small bit of wood as it comes out of the skin. It which the walls of clay were protected, and describes is slender as a thread, and two or three feet long. It the calamitous consequences of its being so badly temgives no pain nor trouble, as it makes its way out of the pered as to be unfit to resist the action of storms and body, unless what may be occasioned by the care which tempests. must be taken of it for some weeks. If unluckily it be A similar allusion occurs in the Prophet Amos: “The broken, it then returns into the body, and the most dis- | Lord God hath sworn by himself, saith the Lord the agreeable consequences ensue,-palsy, a gangrene, and God of hosts, I abhor the excellency of Jacob, and hate death. That the account of this eminent traveller and his palaces: therefore will I deliver up the city with all man of science, however, does not give the true meaning that is therein. And it shall come to pass, if there of the passage, appears from this circumstance, that it is remain ten men in one house, that they shall die. And totally inapplicable to the 20th verse, which is obviously a man's uncle shall take him up, and he that burneth a continuation of the sentiment of the preceding; for him, to bring out the bones out of the house, and shall although it is true, that, in the ordinary course of nature, say unto him that is by the sides of the house, Is there men are passing off the stage of life every hour and yet any with thee? and he shall say, No. Then shall every minute of the day, it cannot, except by a very he say, Hold thy tongue: for we may not make mention forced construction, be said that they are destroyed from of the name of the Lord. For, behold, the Lord commorning to evening; and with as little propriety can it mandeth, and he will smite the great house with be said, in the great majority of cases, that they perish breaches, and the little house with clefts.” (Amos for ever, without any regarding it. In order to preserve 6. 8-11.) the harmony and consistency of these two verses, then, From this passage it appears that the palaces of the it is obviously necessary to resort to a different interpre- | great, and the cottages of the poor, had their walls contation of their phraseology; and, admitting as we do, structed of the same fragile materials; they were affected that the frail and short-lived existence of man is the in the same manner by the storm and the tempest; and burden of the passage, we think that great force and when the cup of iniquity was full, they were dissolved beauty is imparted to it, by taking the words not in a by the same shower. C.

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