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WARWASHING OF HANDS.

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and purity of ourived for purirea in vessels

It has been questioned whether wars are, under any our coffee-pots in general appearance; it is the same circumstances, justifiable on the Christian system; but which the Orientals use in all their ablutions. It is at all events, it is clear that they can only be consistent evident that a person cannot conveniently thus wash with the new law of mercy given to the world by Our his own hands without assistance. If he does, he is Lord and Saviour when undertaken on the clear and obliged to fix the basin, and to take up and lay down obvious ground of necessity and of self-defence. We the ewer several times, changing it from one hand to may be assured, for the words of truth have spoken it, the other. Therefore a person never does so, except that as his Gospel is diffused over the earth, wars shall when alone. If he has no servant, he asks some bybe no more, “kingdom will rise no more against king- stander to pour the water upon his hands, and offers a dom, nor nation against nation,” and the promise made return of the obligation, if it seems to be required. to the world by the herald angels who proclaimed the | Snow-water was held in peculiar estimation. From advent of the glorious and beneficent Messiah will be the whiteness and purity of snow, the ancients believed fulfilled; the whole earth will echo back to the angelic that its water was better suited for purification than messengers with one acclaim, “Glory to God in the any other; and we read that it was preserved in vessels highest; on earth, peace, good-will towards men.” T. for personal ablution. It was believed that it not only

whitened the skin, but that it also strengthened it, by WARS OF THE LORD. This is the title of a

preventing perspiration and contracting the fibres. book quoted by Moses in the Pentateuch; the work has

In Mark 7. 2-5, we find the Scribes and Pharisees long been lost, and commentators are not agreed as to

upbraiding the disciples for eating with unwashed the probable nature of its contents. We have given our

hands, and Our Lord reproving them for their hyconjectural opinion in the preceding article. T.

pocrisy and lip-service: “ For this people honoureth me with their lips, when their heart is far from me.”

The practice of so frequently washing hands appears WASHING. See Bath; BATHING.

to have been founded on the traditions which alleged WASHING OF HANDS. We learn from the that defilement was contracted by the touch of so many Rabbinical traditions that the punctilious washing of different things, far beyond what the legislator contemhands before eating was a matter by which the Pharisees plated. Indeed, it was almost impossible for one who distinguished themselves, not only from the heathen, but held these traditions to avoid the frequent defilement of also from “ the men of the earth,” as they called the his hands. And it was held that the bands being common people of their own nation. In 2Kings 3. 11, defiled, communicated their defilement to the meat we read that “ Elisha poured water on the hands of which they touched, rendering it unclean; the hands Elijah.” This was the act of an attendant or disciple, were constantly and curiously washed before eating, and it was so much bis established duty that the mere even when the man knew not that his hands were mention of it sufficed to indicate the relation in which defiled, as he could not be certain that they had received Elisha had stood to Elijah. It is also an indication that accidental pollution. It was for this reason, among the Hebrews were accustomed to wash their hands in the others, that the Pharisees refused to eat with the commanner which is now universal in the East, and which, mon people, who were less attentive to these solemn whatever may be thought of its convenience, is unques trifles. It appears that the hand only was washed for tionably more refreshing and cleanly than washing in the eating of ordinary food; but the hand and arm to the water as it stands in a basin, which is a process the elbow for eating such food as had been offered at regarded by the Orientals with great dislike. The hands the altar. They also washed their hands in the comare, therefore, held over a basin, the use of which is only mon way, by having water poured upon them, for to receive the water which has been poured upon the common food; but for the holy food, they were careful hands from the jug or ewer that is held above them. to dip their hands in the water. There were other This cannot very conveniently be managed without the minute regulations in this matter, which distinguished aid of a servant or some other person, who approaches ceremonial washings from those which had nothing but with the ewer in his right hand, and the basin in his left, personal cleanliness in view. and when the hands have been placed in a proper posi When the Pharisees returned from the market, they tion over the basin, which he continues to hold, lets fall were careful to wash, lest in the concourse they should a stream of water upon them from the ewer, suspending have received some accidental pollution. This they it occasionally to allow the hands to be soaped or rubbed could not well avoid, as it was held that the mere together. In modern times, no towel is offered, as every contact of the clothes of “the people of the earth"—the one dries his hands in his handkerchief, or however else unwashed multitude-conveyed pollution, and rendered he pleases; but, in ancient times, we know from the purification necessary. Hence we are told by Maiclassical writers, that the servant whose duty it was to monides, that in walking the streets they were careful attend to the washings of his master, or his master's to go by the side of the way, that they might not be guests, girded himself with a long piece of linen cloth, defiled by touching the common people. This was, the end (or both ends)of which being left hanging loose, indeed, a literal exemplification of the feeling, “Stand supplied the towel with which the hands were wiped after by, for I am holier than thou.” On returning, they being washed. Indeed, the towel round the waist was washed by plunging their hands into water; whereas, a proper and essential part of the equipment of the unless holy food were to be eaten, the common pouring servant who discharged this office. The water is of water (in the traditional manner) sufficed for those usually tepid, and always so after a meal, in order to who remained at home, and had not knowingly conclear the grease contracted by eating with the hands. tracted any pollution. Gill supposes that the whole In the East, the basin, which, as well as the ewer, is person was washed on returning from market, but we usually of tinned copper, has commonly a sort of cover, have the sanction of Lightfoot in thinking otherwise. rising in the middle, and sunk into the basin at the There appears no good reason for the supposition exmargin, which, being pierced with holes, allows the pressed in the Oriental versions, that the articles water to pass through, thus concealing it after it has been bought at the market were washed when brought defiled by use. The ewer has a long spout, and a long home, for there were necessarily many articles which narrow neck, with a cover, and is altogether not unlike could not be washed. For the eating of fruits, wash

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WASHING OF HANDS

WASHING OF FEET.

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n ected that in certain that they were

ing was deemed superfluous; and he who did wash | mission; we need not therefore have recourse to was regarded, even by the Pharisees, as an ostentatious Reland's strange theory, that sand is really a liquid man.

Four requisites to its validity are added by the commen• The Law directed that in certain cases the Jews | tators. 1. The person must be on a journey. 2. He should wash their hands, to signify that they were must have diligently searched for water. 3. It must be guiltless of the blood of an unknown person found at the stated time of prayer. 4. The sand must be murdered. Pilate was probably aware of this custom, clean.” A. for, from Matthew 27. 24, we find, “When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, he took water and WASHING OF FEET. The Orientals used to washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am wash the feet of strangers who came from off a journey. innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it.” | because they commonly walked with their legs bare. He knew that this symbolical act was calculated to their feet being defended by sandals only. (Gen. 18. 4 make an impression, and would be distinctly under- | 24. 32; and 13. 24.) This office was commonly perstood. To himself, also, the adoption of this ceremony formed by servants and slaves. Abigail answers David. was perfectly natural, as the rite was common among who sought her in marriage, that she should think it an the Greeks and Romans as one of expiation for an act | honour to wash the feet of the king's servants. (1Sam. of unintentional or unwilling homicide.

25. 44.) When Paul recommends hospitality, he The practice of frequent ablutions was not peculiar would have a widow, assisted by the church, to be to the Hebrews: we find it rigidly enjoined by the one who had washed the feet of saints. (1Tim. 5. 10.) Mohammedan law. We quote the following extract In a moral sense, to wash the feet signifies, to purify from Taylor's History of Mohammedanism. “The from earthly and carnal affections. Sonna of the Mohammedans exactly corresponds with Our Saviour after his last supper, gave his final lesson the gwo Mishnah of the Jews, and comprehends of humility by washing his disciples' feet. (John 13.5,6.) all their religious traditions. From it we take the fol- “ After that He poureth water into a basin and began lowing account of the greater purification, Ghasl. It to wash the disciples' feet, and wipe them with the tonel must be remembered that there are seven species of wherewith he was girded. Then cometh He to Simon water fit for rightly performing religious ablutions; that Peter, and Peter said unto him, Lord, dost Thou wash is to say, rain, sea, river, fountain, well, snow, and ice- | my feet?” When we read that Christ poured water water. But the principal requisites for the lustration into a basin, we know that it was intended for washing Ghasl are three: 1. Intention. 2. A perfect cleansing. the feet, for hands were washed by water being poured 3. That the water should touch the entire skin and upon them. The traditionary regulations of the time every hair. And there are five requisites of the tradi- determined that the basin for washing the feet should tional law, or Sonna: 1. Appropriate phrase, Bismillah, hold from two logs (or about four pints,) to nine cabs, ('In the name of the most merciful God,') must be (about four pints and a half); as they held a less pronounced. 2. The palms must be washed before the quantity of water was not consistent with cleanliness. hands are put into the basin. 3. The lustration Wodú We see much reason to conclude that the Jews nerer must be performed. 4. The skin must be rubbed with did introduce the feet or any other members inlo the the hand. And 5. It must be prolonged .... (We vessel containing the water. The operation upon the omit the cases in which this lustration is required.) feet appears to have been performed as the persons The second lustration, Wodú. The principal parts, reclined at table, without its being needful for them to indeed, the divine (they are called divine because taken make any change in their posture. The servant came, from the Koran,) institutions of the lustration Wodú, and gently raising the foot, inserted under it a basin of are six: 1. Intention. 2. The washing of the entire water; he then laved the foot and rubbed it with his face. 3. The washing of the hands and fore-arms up to right hand, while he held it with his left, finally wiping the elbows. 4. The rubbing of some parts of the head. it with the towel with which he was girded. Our Lord 5. The washing of the feet as far as the ancles. And 6. inculcated humility upon His Apostles by Himself washing Observance of the prescribed order. And the institutes their feet, an act which was considered so servile, that of the traditional law about this lustration are ten. it was never performed by superiors to their inferiors, 1. The preparatory formula, Bismillah, must be used., and rarely by equals to each other. The Rabbinical 2. The palms must be washed before the hands are put writers let us know by whom this service was usually into the basin. 3. The mouth must be cleansed. 4. performed, namely, by the servant for his master, by the Water must be drawn through the nostrils. 5. The wife for her husband, by the son for his father, and by entire head and ears must be rubbed. 6. If the beard the disciple for his master. The last, indeed, is not said be thick, the fingers must be drawn through it. 7. The | expressly, but is implied in the general rule, that, toes must be separated. 8. The right hand and foot should “All works which a servant does to his master, a be washed before the left. 9. These ceremonies must disciple does to his master, except that of unloosing bis be thrice repeated. 10. The whole must be performed shoes.” (T. Bab Cetubot, fol. 91. 1.) A., in uninterrupted succession. .... (We omit the cases in which this lustration is required.) . “Of purification by sand. The divine institutions WATCH. The division of the night into four respecting purification by sand are four: 1. Intention. watches, each of three hours' length, ending at nine, 2. The rubbing of the face. 3. The rubbing of the midnight, three, and six respectively, was introduced hands and fore-arms up to the elbows. And 4. The into Judea by the Romans, and is mentioned only in observance of this order. But the Sonnite ordinances the New Testament. Among the earlier Jews, the are three: 1. The formula Bismillah. 2. The right night appears to have been divided into two portions, hand and foot precede the left. And 3. That the and consequently the watch was only once relieved. ceremony be performed without interruption. The Mohammedans have borrowed the permission to use sand for water, in case of necessity, from the Jews. Indeed, WATCHERS. Angelic beings mentioned by Nebio Cedrenus mentions an instance of sand being used for a chadnezzar in the description of his dream. (Dan. 1 Christian baptism. Their necessity dictated the per- | 13-17.) The Chaldeans believed that God bad deken

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WATCHERS-WATCHMAN.

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gated the moral government of the earth to celestial | the exclamations are made in the form of addresses to spirits, who had the charge of making inquisition into their comrades, and generally consist of some expreshuman actions, and punishing the guilty. C.

sions, in the form of a dialogue, tending to enliven one another in the discharge of their solitary and monoto

nous task; some watchword, or set form of words, WATCHMAN. The best account of the precau similar to what a traveller informs us is used by the tions taken to secure the peace and protection of Jewish watchmen of the caravans in the desert, who, in going citizens during the night, is that published in Dr. Jamie these rounds, exclaim when they meet, ‘God is merson's edition of Paxton's Illustrations, from which we ciful,' while the other responds in the same elevated extract the following particulars.

tone, ‘Blessings be on you, or attend yourselves. This “The Orientals employed watchmen to patrol the city custom of the watchmen crying aloud in the course during the night, to suppress any disorders in the of the watches, and that, too, by saluting each other streets, or to guard the walls against the attempts of a when they met in the form of a set dialogue, was foreign enemy. To this custom Solomon refers in observed also by the ancient officers of this description these words: "The watchmen that went about the city among the Jews, the watchword being then, as we have found me, they smote me, they wounded me; the keep | seen it is still among the watchmen of the caravans, ers of the wall took away my veil from me.' (Song 5.7.) some pious sentiment, in which the name of Jehovah This eustom may be traced to a very remote antiquity; was specially expressed. Two remarkable instances of so early as the departure of Israel from the land of this occur in Seripture. The one is in the prophecies of Egypt, the morning watch is mentioned, certainly indi- Isaiah, where, speaking of the watchmen of the temple, cating the time when the watchmen were commonly who were always Levites, and among whom the same relieved. In Persia, the watchmen were obliged to regulations subsisted as among other watchmen, he indemnify those who were robbed in the streets, and addresses them under the poetical description of ‘Ye make satisfaction with their own blood for those who that make mention of the Lord,' i.e., Ye whose watchwere murdered; which accounts for the vigilance and word is the name of Jehovah. (Isai. 62. 6.) The other severity which they display in the discharge of their | instance is in Psalm 134, the whole of which, as is office, and illustrates the character of watchman given justly observed by Bishop Lowth, is nothing more than to Ezekiel, who lived in that country, and the duties the alternate cry of two different divisions of the watch. he was required to perform. If the wicked perished in | The first watch addresses the second, reminding them of his iniquities without warning, the prophet was to be their duty; the second answers by a solemn blessing. accountable for his blood; but if he duly pointed out The address and the answer seem both to be a set form, his danger, he delivered his own soul. (Ezek. 33. 5.) which each proclaimed aloud at stated intervals to notify These terms, therefore, were neither harsh nor severe ; | the time of night:they were the common appointments of watchmen in | “ First band of watchmen— Bless ye the Lord, all ye Persia. They were also charged to announce the pro servants of the Lord, who by night stand in the house gress of the night to the slumbering city: 'The burden of the Lord. Lift up your hands in the sanctuary, and of Dumab; he calls to me out of Seir, Watchman, bless the Lord. what of the night? watchman, what of the night? The “Second band of watchmen answer—'The Lord bless watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the thee out of Zion, the Lord that made heaven and night? (Isai. 21. 11.) This is confirmed by an observa earth. tion of Chardin, upon these words of Moses: "For a “The watchman, in a time of danger, seems to have thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it taken his station in a tower, which was built over the is past, and as a watch in the night;' that as the people gate of the city. We may form a tolerably distinct idea of the East have no clocks, the several parts of the of the ancient towers in Palestine, from the description day and of the night, which are eight in all, are an- which the sacred historian gives us of one, in the nounced. In the Indies, the parts of the night are entrance of Mahanaim:- And David sat between the made known, as well by instruments of music, in great two gates: and the watchman went up to the roof over cities, as by the rounds of the watchmen, who, with the gate unto the wall, and lifted up his eyes and looked, cries and small drums, give them notice that a fourth and behold a man running alone. The watchman cried part of the night is past. Now, as these cries awaked and told the king; and the king said, If he be alone, those who had slept all that quarter part of the night, there is tidings in his mouth. And the watchman saw it appeared to them but as a moment. There are sixty another man running; and the watchman called unto of these in the Indies by day, and as many by night; the porter, and said, Behold, another man running that is, fifteen for each division.

alone; and the king said, He also bringeth tidings. “ It is evident the ancient Jews knew, by means of (2Sam. 18. 24; and 19. 8.) When the tidings were some public notice, how the night watches passed away; announced, the historian observes, 'the king was much but whether the men simply announced the termination moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and of the watch, or made use of trumpets, or other sonorous wept. It is afterwards added, Then the king arose instruments, in making the proclamation, it may not be and sat in the gate; and they told unto all the people, easy to determine; and still less what kind of chro- saying, Behold the king doth sit in the gate; and all the nometers the watchmen used. The probability is, that people came before the king; for Israel had fled every the watches were announced with the sound of a man to his tent.' trumpet; for the prophet Ezekiel makes it a part of the | “From this description, it appears that the tower in watchmen's duty, at least in time of war, to blow the the entrance of Mahanaim had two pair of gates, at trumpet, and warn the people. (Ezek. 33. 5.)

some distance from each other; in a small room, which “ They were required not only at each watch of the was often found by the side of these fortified gates, the night, but at frequent intervals in the progress of it, to door of which opened into the passage between them, sat cry aloud, in order to give the people, who depend upon the king, waiting in fearful suspense the issue of the them for the protection of their lives and property, contest; for it cannot be supposed he sat in the passage assurance that they are not sleeping at their posts, or itself, which had been at once unbecoming his dignity, negligent of their charge. On these latter occasions, and incommodious to the passengers entering or leaving

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the city. We find a watchman stationed on the top of horse. These men continually passing to and fro with this tower, to which he went up by a staircase from the their wet bags through the narrow streets, are great passage, which, like the roof of their dwelling-houses, nuisances in the towns, from the difficulty of avoiding was flat, for the purpose of descrying at a distance those contact with them. The care taken to avoid them in that were approaching the place, or repelling the attacks some degree answers to that which people exhibit in our of an enemy. The observations made by the watchman | own streets to avoid carriages and carts. There are no were not communicated by him immediately to the draught vehicles in Asiatic towns, and the water-carriers king, but by the intervention of a warder at the with their bags, together with the “hewers of wood" outer gate of the tower; and it appears that a private bearing large fagots on their own backs, or on the backs staircase led from the lower room, in which the king was of horses or mules, form the only obstructions which sitting, to the upper room over the gateway; for by usually occur in the streets, narrow as they are. In a that communication he retired to give full vent to his time of public calamity, the water-carriers are the last sorrow."

to discontinue their labour, and their doing so is a sure

indication that the distress has become most intense and WATCH-TOWER. See Tower.

imminent, and is indeed a great calamity in itself. In

Deuteronomy 29. 11, there is particular mention made of WATER, one of the chief necessaries of life. In “the hewer of thy wood unto the drawer of thy water." the Sacred Scriptures, bread and water are commonly Water for the feet is a necessary and most grateful mentioned as the principal supports of human existence; | part of hospitality in the East. When Abraham enterand to provide a sufficient quantity of water, to prepare

tained the angels, his first request was, that they would it for use, and to deal it out to the thirsty, are among

not pass, but “Let a little water, I pray you, be fetched, the principal cares of an Oriental householder.

and wash your feet.” (Gen. 18. 4.) And where people Fetching water is one of the heaviest of the many wear sandals which are intended only to protect the heavy duties which devolve on females in the East, and soles, the feet soon become foul and parched, and to one which the most sensibly impresses us with a sense have the feet and ancles bathed is the most gratifying of of their degraded condition. They usually draw the water in the evening, and frequently in the cool of the morning also. From this drudgery married women are exempted, unless when single women are wanting. The young women of Guzerat daily draw water from the wells, and carry the jars upon the head, but those of high rank carry them upon the shoulder.

In the same way Rebecca carried her pitcher, and probably for the same reason, because she was the daughter of an Eastern prince. (Gen. 24. 45.) In Turkey and Persia, however, the poorer women only are subject to this servile employment, respectable families being supplied daily by men who make the supplying of water a distinct business. They carry the water about in a well-prepared goat-skin, which is generally slung to the back, the neck, which is usually brought under the arm, and compressed by the hand, serving as the mouth of this curious but exceedingly useful vessel. Persons of larger dealings have an ass which carries two skins at once, borne like panniers, and very prosperous' watercarriers have been known who had ox-skins carried on a

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Wasbing of Hands. refreshments after that of quenching thirst. The office is usually performed by servants. Mr. Roberts mentions that in passing through Hindoo villages it is common to see this office performed for the weary traveller. In the sandy deserts of Arabia and the bordering countries, no covering for the feet can prevent the necessity for this refreshment at the end of a day's journey. The fine impalpable sand or dust penetrates all things, and with the perspiration, produces an itching and feverish irritation, which next to the quenching of his thirst, it is the first wish of a traveller to allay, and to uncover his feet and get water to wash them, is a prime object of attention. If sandals only are used, or the feet are entirely without defence, it becomes still more Lecessary to wash them after a journey.

The first plague sent by the Almighty on Egypt to induce Pharaoh to let the Israelites go, was turning the waters of the Nile into blood. This was a dire calamity, for we are told that the waters of the Nile are among the sweetest and purest in the world. Very anciers writers inform us that the water was considered so nourishing that the priests abstained from giving"

Eastern Water.Carrier.

WATER-WAYFARING MAN.

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their sacred bull Apis, lest he should get too fat; and | villages, in the fields and gardens, and by the sides of others state that it never became impure, whether pre- | the roads and of the beaten tracks on the mountains, served at home, or exported abroad.

and a cup of cold water from these wells is no contempIt is said that the natives excite thirst artificially, tible present. “Fatigued with heat and thirst,” says that they may drink the more of this delicious water; Carne, “we came to a few cottages in a palm wood, and and it is a saying among them, that had Mohainmed stopped to drink of a fountain of delicious water. In himself drunk of it, he would have desired to have this northern climate, no idea can be formed of the lived for ever, that he might always have enjoyed it. luxury of drinking in Egypt: little appetite for food is We may therefore judge what a calamity it was to the felt, but, when after crossing the burning sands, you Egyptians, “ to loathe to drink of the water of the river." reach the fresh line of woods on the brinks of the Nile, (Exod. 7. 18.)

and pluck the fresh limes, and mixing their juice with In the 24th verse of the same chapter we are told, Egyptian sugar and the soft river water, drink repeated that “the Egyptians digged round the river for water to bowls of lemonade, you feel that every other pleasure of the drink.” As similar operations are of frequent occur senses must yield to this. One then perceives the beauty rence in the East, we will give Dr. Richardson's account and force of those similes in Scripture, where the of one.

sweetest emotions of the heart are compared to the “On our arrival at Gatsulakh, we stopped in a low assuaging of thirst in a thirsty land.” wind-swept valley beside a precipitous sand-bank that | Water is used in the sense of purification, as the towered above our heads to the height of 100 feet.“ washing away of sin.” When clear, cool, and pleasant, Here, however, we were told there was water, though it is the symbol of great good, and when muddy and to our longing and inexperienced eyes every inch of thick, it denotes disease and affliction. Hence, the surface was covered with dry sand, without the slightest torments of wicked men after this life were by the indication of the fluid below.

ancients-represented under the symbol of a lake whose “Our flasks were all drained, and we alighted and laid waters were full of mud and dung. ourselves down on the sand, wishing for the arrival of Water sometimes signifies the element of water, (Gen. our camels to bring us a fresh supply. Meanwhile, as 1.10,) and metaphorically, trouble and affliction. (Psalm we were admiring the operations of the industrious beetle 56. 1.) Water is put for children or posterity, (Numb. rolling his ball over the smooth surface of the desert 24.7; Isai. 48. 1;) for the clouds, (Psalm 104. 3.) Water the sheikh of the caravan began to clear away the sometimes stands for tears, (Jerem. 9. 1,7;) for the arenaceous accumulation from a very unlikely spot, ordinances of the Gospel, (Isai. 12. 3; 35. 6,7; 55. 1; which, however, soon discovered signs of water beneath. John 7. 37,38.) “Stolen waters” denote unlawful He then proceeded to deepen the excavation, by basket pleasures with strange women. (Prov. 9. 17.) The ing out the sand, singing at the same time an appropriate Israelites are reproached with having forsaken the Arab tune. They continued digging and singing for fountain of living water to quench their thirst at broken about ten minutes, when abundance of the wished-for | cisterns, (Jerem. 2. 13,) that is, with having quitted the fluid flowed amain. At the joyful sight men, women, worship of the all-sufficient God, for the worship of vain dogs, and asses, all crowded round to dip their eager and senseless idols. lips in the wave. We all drank of it, and though it is Many waters, on account of their noise, number, muddy and brackish in the extreme, our first sentiment disorder, and the confusion of the waves, are the symbols was that of universal approbation. It is extremely of peoples, multitudes, nations, and tongues. The symbol good, flowed from every tongue after it had tasted the is so explained in Revelations 17. 15, and Jeremiah 47. water. We tried it a second time; but the voice of 2; waters signifying an army or multitude. The applause stuck in our throats."

comparison of the noise of a multitude to the noise We may here observe, that the well-water of Egypt of many or mighty waters, is used by Isaiah, (17. 12,13.) is detestable, a circumstance which, no doubt, greatly “Woe to the multitude of many people, which make a enhances the estimation in which the water of the noise like the noise of the seas, and to the rushing of Nile is held.

nations that make a rushing like the rushing of mighty In Exodus 15. 22-25, we find the Israelites "mur waters. The nations shall rush like the rushing of muring at the bitter waters of Marah: “And Moses many waters, but God shall rebuke them, and they shall cried unto the Lord, and the Lord showed him a tree, Alee far off, and shall be chased as the chaff of the which when he had cast into the waters, the waters

| mountains before the wind, and like a rolling thing were made sweet.” And again, when the children of | before the whirlwind.” A. Israel pitched in Rephidim, “there was no water for them to drink.” “And the people murmured against Moses, and said, Wherefore is this, that thou hast

WAX, 2297 donagh, a soft, yielding substance, brought us up out of Egypt to kill us, and our children,

formed by melting the combs in which bees deposit their and our cattle, with thirst ?" And the Lord commanded honey. It is believed that the Jews were unacquainted Moses “to smite the rock in Horeb, and there shall |

| with the art of making artificial waxes from the resins. come water out of it, that the people may drink. And WAY. See Road. Moses did so, in the sight of the elders of Israel.” (Exod. 17. 1-6.) To furnish travellers with water is even in present

WAYFARING MAN. In consequence of the times reckoned of so much importance, that many of hilly nature of Palestine, and the badness of its roads, the Eastern philanthropists have been at considerable journeys were usually performed on foot, a practice expense to procure them that enjoyment. The nature which, to a great extent, continues to the present day. of the climate, and the general aspect of the Oriental | There were no inns or taverns in the primitive ages of regions, require numerous fountains to excite and the world; wayfarers depended on the voluntary hospisustain the languid powers of vegetation, and the sun tality of those whom they casually met, and they could burning with intense heat in a cloudless sky, demands do so with safety, because it was considered not merely for the fainting inhabitants, verdure, shade, and coolness; honourable, but an act of positive duty to open one's hence, fountains of water are met with in the towns and house to the traveller and stranger. Eliphaz makes the

le murmur thou hast formed by melting the that the

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