Sidor som bilder



neglect of this duty the subject of bitter, but in this accounts of modern travellers. " It was on the 24th of case, unmerited, reproach to Job in his sufferings: March,” says Hoste, “that I departed from Alexandria

“Is not thy wickedness great? and thine iniquities for Rosetta; it was a good day's journey thither, over a infinite? For thou hast taken a pledge from thy brother level country, but a perfect desert, so that the wind plays for nought, and stripped the naked of their clothing. with the sand, and there is no trace of a road. We Thou hast not given water to the weary to drink, and travel first six leagues along the coast; but when we thou hast withholden bread from the hungry.” (Job leave this it is about six miles more to Rosetta, and from 22. 5-7.)

thence to the town there are high stone or bark pillars The indignant and powerful reply of the patriarch in a line, according to which travellers direct their shows how deeply he felt the scandal of these imputa- journey." W. tions, the most severe that could be uttered against an Oriental chief:

WEALTH. In Genesis 13. 2, we read, “And “If I have withheld the poor from their desire, or Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold." have caused the eyes of the widow to fail; or have | The wealth of the patriarchs almost entirely consisted in eaten my morsel myself alone, and the fatherless hath their flocks and herds. The Arab tribes, which claim not eaten thereof; (for from my youth he was brought to be descended from Abraham, and still wander in or up with me, as with a father, and I have guided her from near the regions which the patriarch traversed, still my mother's womb;) if I have seen any perish for want follow a mode of life which affords the most instructive of clothing, or any poor without covering; if his loins illustrations of the primitive, described in the Book have not blessed me, and if he were not warmed with of Genesis. The wealth of their sheiks and other the fleece of my sheep; if I have lifted up my hand persons of distinction is nearly the same as that of against the fatherless, when I saw my help in the gate; Abraham. It is true that few are rich in “ silver then let mine arm fall from my shoulder-blade, and mine and in gold;" but many are very rich in cattle, and arm be broken from the bone.” (Job 32. 16-22.) in the same kinds of cattle which are assigned to

Buckingham, in his travels among the Arab tribes, Abraham in Genesis 12. 16: "And he had sheep and says, " A foot-passenger could make his way at little or oxen, and he asses, and men-servants and maid-servants, no expense, as travellers and wayfarers of every descrip- and she-asses and camels." The number of the patrition halt at the sheik's house, where, whatever may be arch's cattle is not given; but, in considering the the rank or condition of the stranger, before any ques- number which makes an Arab rich, we may have some tions are asked him as to where he comes from, or idea of the property in cattle which made Abram “very whither he is going, coffee is served to him from a large rich.” Burckhardt says that the wealth of an Arab pot, always on the fire; and a meal of bread, milk, oil, consists almost wholly in horses and camels. But this honey, or butter, is set before him, for which no money must be understood with limitations, for there have is asked or even expected by the host, who in this man been tribes which, in favourable situations, have few ner feeds at least twenty persons on an average every day camels or horses, but extensive flocks of sheep and in the year from his own purse; at least I could not goats. Burckhardt proceeds to say, "No Aral family learn that he was remunerated in any manner for this can exist without one camel, at least; a man who has expenditure, though it is considered as a necessary con- but two is reckoned poor; thirty or forty place a man sequence of his situation, as chief of the community, in easy circumstances, and he who possesses sixty is that he should maintain this ancient practice of hospi- rich." The standard of wealth is, of course, lower in tality to strangers. We had been directed to the house poor tribes. The same author mentions sheiks who of Eesa or Jesus. Our horses were taken into the had as many as three hundred camels; and one, who court-yard of the house, and unburdened of their was his guide to Tadmor, was reputed to possess one saddles, without a single question being asked on either hundred camels, between two and three hundred sheep side; and it was not until we had seated ourselves that and goats, two mares, and one horse. In the richest our intention to remain here for the night was communi- tribes, a father of a family is said to be poor with less cated to the master of the house; so much is it regarded than forty camels, and the usual stock of a family is as a matter of course, that those who have a house to from one to two hundred. Although some Arab families shelter themselves in, and food to partake of, should pride themselves on having only camels, there is no share their comforts with wayfarers.”

tribe wholly destitute of sheep and goats. It is A remarkable allusion is made to the difficulties which observable that Abraham is not stated to have had any wayfarers had to encounter on account of the bad con- horses. The horse was not much in use among the dition of the roads and highways of Palestine, in the Israelites till the time of Solomon, nor does it appear to prophet's description of the Aourishing estate of the have been very common then, or afterwards. Horses Messiah's kingdom.

are even now by no means so common among the 6 Say to them that are of a fearful heart, Be strong, Arabs as the reports of some travellers would lead us to fear not: behold, your God will come with vengeance, conclude. Among the Aeneze tribes, Burckhardt could even God with a recompense; he will come, and save not find more than one mare to six or seven tents; but you. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and they are rather more numerous in some other tribes. the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. Then shall the | Upon the whole, it seems that the property of these lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb Arab sheiks, whose wealth is rumoured far and wide in sing: for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and the East, seems in most cases very moderate, when streams in the desert. And the parched ground shall estimated by European standards of value. It may be become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water: in useful to remember this, when riches in cattle are menthe habitation of dragons, where each lay, shall be grass tioned indefinitely in the Old Testament. We may with reeds and rushes. And an highway shall be there, conclude, however, that Abraham's wealth approximated and a way, and it shall be called the way of holiness; more nearly to that of Job than to that of most of the the unclean shall not pass over it; but it shall be for | present Arab sheiks. those: the wayfaring men, though fools, shall not err We shall now attempt to estimate the value of the therein.” (Isai. 35. 4-8.)

property which constituted Job “the greatest of all the This passage receives elucidation from some of the men of the East.” The statement given fortunately

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enables us to see the amount of property which con- | abode in or near their country. The Egyptians them. stituted wealth in these primitive times. In Job 1, 3, selves hated pastoral pursuits. we read, “ His substance also was seven thousand sheep, For az account of the sources of wealth to the and three thousand camels, and fire hundred yoke of Hebrews when Palestine became a kingdom, see art. oxen, and five hundred she-asses, and a very great : COMMERCE. A. household, so that this man was the greatest of all the men of the East." This statement concerning the WEANING. Most Oriental people suckle their quantity and character of the property which consti children much longer than is usual in Europe, and the tuted extreme wealth in those early times is very same custom may be traced in the Bible. When the valuable. From what we have already mentioned it time is come to wear the child, a fortunate day is looked will appear that the cattle only here assigned to Job is for, and the event is accompanied by feasting and reliimmense, according to the present state of property | gious ceremonies. When Samuel was weaned he was among the Arabian emirs, who seem to bear the nearest | old enough to be left with Eli for the service of the resemblance to this patriarch in their condition of life. | Tabernacle; in 2Chronicles 31. 16, nothing is assigned As we are accustomed to estimate property in money, it for the provision of the children of priests and Levites will be interesting to state the value in money of the until after three years of age, which renders it probable cattle here enumerated. From all the information we that they were not weaned sooner; and in the Second possess, we should say that the average in the same Book of Maccabees, (7. 27,) a mother says, “O my country might now be between thirty and forty thousand son, have pity upon me that bare thee nine months in my pounds—perhaps nearer the latter sum than the former. womb, and gave thee suck three years, and nourished In this we estimate the camels at ten pounds, the oxen thee, and brought thee up unto this age.” When the at one pound each, and the sheep at three for one Persian ambassador was in England, he attributed to the pound, which are, we believe, about the average prices custom of early weaning the greater forwardness of our in Western Asia. About the asses the average is more children in mental acquirements than those of his own difficult to determine, as so much depends upon their country, where male children are often kept to the breast breed and use. Their small number seems to intimate till three years of age, and never taken from it till two high value, and they were probably used for riding, so years and two months. that, perhaps, we may suppose them to have been on an The practice is nearly the same in other Asiatic counaverage about the same value as the camels. But in tries. In India, the period is precisely three years. But this calculation we must not overlook the fact, that everywhere a girl is taken from the breast sooner than a money is of so much the greater value in the East than boy; in Persia in two years, in India within the year. in England, that such a man would seem incomparably The Hindoos do so because they think that if they did greater than with us, particularly in a condition of life | not she would become sterile. resembling the patriarchal, so that a sheik, or emir, When the child is weaned, the Persians make "a whose whole property may be worth five or six thousand great feast," to which friends and relatives are invited, pounds, will be considered a very rich man, and is such, and of which the child also partakes, this being, in fact, relatively to the circumstances of his people. These his introduction to the customary fare of the country, facts may suggest some ideas as to the greatness of The practice is the same among the Hindoos. The cusJob, whose possessions were indeed princely. But, | tom of giving a feast to the friends and relations on the moreover, it appears that all his wealth did not consist day that the child was weaned, is one that may be traced in cattle. He was not a nomade. He belonged to that to very remote antiquity, for in Genesis 21. 8, we read condition of life which fluctuated between that of the that “ Abraham made a great feast the same day that wandering shepherd and that of a people settled in Isaac was weaned.” A. towns. That he resided, or had a residence, in a town is obvious; but his flocks and herds evidently pastured in the deserts, between which and the town his own WEAPONS. See Arms, &c. time was probably divided. He differed from the Hebrew patriarchs chiefly in this, that he did not so

WEASEL, 7507 choled. This destructive animal is much wander about, without any certain dwelling-lery, nutious to pou

very injurious to poultry, killing their young, and suckplace,” as they. Yet, withal, he was a cultivator, as

ing their eggs; on this account, and also because of its appears from his oxen being mentioned by “ yokes," and

rank smell, it is universally detested, and its name has from their being occupied in ploughing (ver. 14) when

become proverbially synonymous with mischief and cunthe Sabeans fell upon them, as well as from various

ning. Bochart was of opinion that the Hebrew word circumstances which come out in the discussion.

7507 choled should be translated “the mole;" observing This mixed condition of life, which is still frequently

that the Syriac chuleda, the Arabic chold, the Turkish exhibited in Western Asia, will, we apprehend, ac.

chuld, all signify the mole; and Russell's valuable work count sufficiently for the diversified character of the

informs us that it is also called khuld atAleppo. C. allusions and pictures which the Book contains,—to the pastoral life, and the scenes and products of the wilderness, to the scenes and circumstances of agri WEAVING. The origin of the arts of spinning culture, and to the arts and sciences of settled life and and weaving is lost in remote antiquity; they appear to advancing civilization. See Notes to Pictorial Bible, have existed among the earliest institutions of civilized Job 1. 3.

society, and to have been called into existence by the With respect to Abraham's gold and silver, there can very first perception of artificial wants. According to a be no doubt that it arose from the same source which Greek tradition, which ought not to be wholly rejected supplies the conveniences of life to the existing nomade because it is mingled with mythological fable, the first tribes, namely, the sale of animals for slaughter, and of notion of weaving was derived from observation of the butter, cheese, and wool, to the townspeople. Ile web of the spider; the legend declares that Minerva would naturally accumulate much property from this changed Arachne into that insect because the nymph source in Egypt, the inhabitants of which depended surpassed the goddess of wisdom both in drawing fine chiefly for their supplies upon the pastoral people who threads from the spindle, and producing rich fabrics at

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the loom. There can be no doubt that the weaving art embroidery were hereditary in certain Egyptian families. is more ancient than the spinning; its first productions Incidentally from the Book of Chronicles, we find that were in the form of matting, and were simple inter- | the same practice continued for an unknown period lacings of shreds of bark, strips of lacustrine plants, or among the Hebrews; in the very curious and interesting vegetable stalks, such as straw and rushes. These mats genealogical tables at the commencement of the Chroare to the present day a substitute for cloth among the nicles, we find mention of this practice: “ The sons of uncivilized nations of the Pacific Ocean, and the inte Shelah, the son of Judah, were, Er, the father of Lecah, rior of Africa. The process of invention must have and Laadah, the father of Mareschah, and the families been naturally directed, in hot countries, to the obtain- of the house of them that wrought fine linen, of the ing a lighter and more flexible material for the weaver house of Ashbea.” (1Chron. 4. 21.) But the custom than the cumbrous bark or the heavy straw, and the had fallen into disuse when the Chronicles were comfibres of various water-plants most probably were the piled, for the historian immediately afterwards adds, earliest subject of experiment. The want of beauty in These were ancient things.” these fibres must have led to trying the effect of rolling | Weaving, however, was, for the most part, a domestic several of them together, and also to a search for plants employment, and if we may judge from the aspect oi which would yield fibre of long staple, and, at the same those delineated as engaged in it on some of the Egyptime, sufficiently fine to allow of several being united tian monuments, it was far from being regarded as a together.

pleasing or exhilarating occupation. The countenances • The flax and hemp tribe afforded facilities for the of too many, from their melancholy aspect, remind the preparation of thread from vegetable fibre superior to spectators of the description which Homer gives of the any other species of plants, and their valuable properties | sorrowing Penelope, whiling away the tedious and weary seem to have been first discovered in Egypt. In the | time of her husband's absence by the labours of the description of the destruction caused by the Ten Plagues, loom. The description would most probably apply to the flax-crop is mentioned as one of not less importance | many a Hebrew wife and mother during the long wars than any of the grain-harvests, and even so late as the in which their commonwealth was so often engaged, time of Solomon we find that flax-yarns were imported

Full opposite before the folding gate, into Palestine from Egypt.

The pensive mother sits in humble state; • The formation of thread from the twisting together of

Lowly she sat, and with dejected view, vegetable substances must soon have led to the trial of

The fleecy threads her wary fingers drew. - animal productions, such as wool and hair, for the spin

Odyssey xvii. ning of yarns. We find it recorded in the description

But the sombre aspect of the persons thus engaged is of the labours of the pious Hebrew women who worked easily explained when we remember that most of those the decorations for the Tabernacle that " those who were work-women were captives taken in war, fallen from wisehearted spun goats' hair,” and indeed the long hair their former high estate, and forced to bear the conof some of the breeds of goats peculiar to Asia furnishes | tumely of an imperious mistress. It will be remembered materials for the production of yarn at the present day.

with what bitterness of feeling Hector forebodes such a Homer is the first who decisively mentions wool: this | fate for his beloved Andromache:material, which subsequently became the most common

Thy woes, Andromache, thy grief I dread, of all, was in the age of the Trojan war so very precious

I see thee trembling, weeping, captive led; that its preparation was entrusted to the hands of queens

In Argive looms our battles to design,

And woes of which so large a part was thine. - Thad vi. and princesses. Their spindles, or distaffs, were made of the most precious materials, and the prepared wool, if the common tradition be true, that the Bayeux ready-dyed of some bright hue, was brought up in a tapestry was worked by Saxon ladies at the command of costly vase, so as to render it worthy of being touched the queen of William the Conqueror, this curious piece by royal or aristocratic fingers. When Menelaus stopped of work, which records the principal events of the with his frail consort at the court of Polybus, king of Norman conquest, will shew, that even in the middle Egypt, on his return from Troy, rich and rare gifts were ages, the woes of the vanquished were cruelly embittered bestowed by the representative of the Pharaohs on the

by their being compelled to emblazon the causes of their wandering son of Atreus. The Egyptian queen resolved | captivity in order to gratify the pride of their victors not to be surpassed in generosity by her husband:

and masters.

The upright loom used by women was simply a strong Alcandra, consort of his high command, A golden distaff gave to Helen's hand,

beam, over which the web was passed. The warp was And that rich vase with living sculpture wrought,

introduced by a shuttle nearly resembling a strong Which heap'd with wool, the beauteous Phyle brought; The silken fleece, empurpled for the loom, Rivall’d the hyacinth in vernal bloom.-Odyssey iv.

The dyeing of the wool facilitated the production of those“ garments of many colours” which we find from the history of Joseph to have been very highly valued in patriarchal ages. We refer to the article APPAREL for a representation of the horizontal loom, in which chequers or plaids were woven with threads of wool, previously coloured, a task usually assigned to male operatives. The loom was held fast by four blocks, securely imbedded in the ground; the workmen sat on the part of the web already finished, and after each shot of the shuttle used

The Upright Loom. a heavy beam to drive the thread of weft quite home. It must have required considerable experience and prac-knitting needle, and then pressed and held in its place tice to acquire manual dexterity and expertness in the

by a bar of metal, which in the Book of Genesis is called use of such cumbrous apparatus; indeed, we learn

| “the pin.” Hence we see that Samson displayed from ancient historians that the arts of weaving and considerable strength when he broke the snare of the

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for her Pricsafely trustill do his

wily Delilah, after having deceived her by a false | King Lemeul's description of a virtuous woman, which statement of the secret on which his superhuman power he has inserted in the Book of Proverbs: “Who can depended. “And Delilah said unto Samson, Hitherto find a virtuous woman, for her price is far above rubies? thou hast mocked me and told me lies; tell me where- The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, so with thou mightest be bound. And he said unto her, If that he shall have no need of spoil. She will do him thou weavest the seven locks of my head with the web. good and not evil all the days of her life. She seeketh And she fastened it with the pin, and said unto him, wool and flax, and worketh willingly with lier hands. The Philistines be upon thee, Samson. And he awaked She is like the merchant ships, she bringeth her food out of his sleep, and went away with the pin of the from afar. She riseth also while it is yet night, and beam, and with the web.” (Judges 16. 13,14.)

giveth meat to her household and à portion to her A vest of ornamental work seems to have been a maidens. She considereth a field and buyeth it; with favourite present from a fond wife to her husband. In the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard. She almost every example of embroidery pictured on the girdeth her loins with strength and strengtheneth her Egyptian monuments or recorded by ancient writers, we arms. She perceiveth that her merchandise is good; find the mistress of the house either superintending the her candle goeth not out by night. She layeth her work or actually engaged in it. Homer records that | hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the distaff: Andromache was engaged in this occupation when she She stretcheth out her hand to the poor, yea she reacheth received intelligence of the death of Hector:

her hand to the needy. She is not afraid of the snow Far in the close recesses of the dome,

for her household; for all her household are clothed with Pensive she ply'd her melancholy loom.

scarlet. She maketh herself coverings of tapestry; her A glowing work employed her secret hours,

clothing is silk and purple. Her husband is known in Confusedly gay with intermingled flowers, Now from the walls the clamours reach her ear,

the gates where he sitteth among the elders of the land. And all her members shake with sudden fear;

She maketh fine linen and sellelh it, and delivereth Forth from her hand the wary shuttle falls,

girdles unto the merchant.” (Prov. 31. 10-24.) Alarm’d, astonish'd to her maids she calls.-Iliad xxii. Isaiah represents King Hezekiah as declaring, “I Surcoats woven in varied colours or ornamented with have cut off like a weaver my life.” (Isai. 38. 12.) This embroidery, formed no small part of the ancient warrior's passage, which has perplexed many of the commentators, pride. An allusion is made to the custom in the most obviously alludes to the custom of cutting away the striking passage of Deborah's triumphal hymn. “The thrums by which the warp is attached to the loom so mother of Sisera looked out through a window, and cried soon as the piece is completed. W. through the lattice, Why is his chariot so long in coming? Why tarry the wheels of his chariot? Her

WEB. See WEAVING. wise ladies answered her, yea, she returned answer to herself, Have they not sped? Have they not divided the spoil? To every a man a damsel or two; to Sisera,

WEDDING. As this subject bas been already so. a prey of divers colours, a prey of divers colours of fully treated of, we will refer the reader to the article needle-work, of divers colours of needle-work on both Marriage, and merely quote from Herschel's Skelch of sides, meet for the necks of them that take the spoil.” the Jews the following account of a Jewish wedding: (Judges 5. 28-30.) The repetition of the “divers | “The ceremonies attending a Jewish marriage illustrate colours” in this passage, is a strong proof of the value | many important parts of Scripture, especially those that was anciently set on this embroidered work. Their referring to the union between Christ and the Church. value indeed was so great that the most minute directions In ancient times the ceremony of betrothing was the are given for the preparation of the sacerdotal robes to solemn engagement by which two persons were united be worn by the high-priest: “And these are the gar for life; and this, in the Talmud, is directed to take ments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an place at least twelve months before the parties live ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat; and they shall together. Thus, Mary, the mother of Our Lord, was 'a make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, virgin, espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, yet that they may minister unto me in the priest's office. would have been treated as an adulteress had she formed And they shall take gold and blue, and purple, and a connexion with any other man. In process of time, scarlet, and fine linen. .... And the curious girdle of this law became less strictly observed; and, although the ephod, which is upon it, shall be of the same, the betrothing still takes place some time before the according to the work thereof; even of gold, of blue, of marriage, (in many cases two or three years previous, purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.” (Exod. 28. if the parties are young,) yet it is not now done by 4-8.) Moses is the first who mentions the preparation giving a ring, but by a written agreement. This conof gold as threads to be interwoven with the moretract, if not dissolved by mutual consent, is so far precious cloths: “And they did beat the gold into thin binding, as to involve the party breaking it in a pecuplates, and cut it into wires, to work it in the blue, and niary penalty. in the purple, and in the scarlet, and in the fine linen, “The night before the celebration of the marriage is. with cunning work.” (Exod. 39. 3.) Cloth of golden called the 'watch-night,' and is kept as such by the tissue is not unfrequently delineated on the Egyptian family of the bride, and the maidens who attend her on monuments, and specimens of it have been found rolled the occasion. If the bridegroom's residence be at a about the mummies; but it is not easy to determine distance from that of the bride, he usually arrives some whether the gold thread was originally interwoven or time in the course of this night, or very early in the afterwards inserted by the embroiderer.

morning. The bridemaids watch anxiously for his Solomon was very anxious to introduce textile manu arrival, and as soon as they are apprised of his approach factures amongst his subjects, and for this purpose, he by the joyful shout set up by some of the members of imported linen-yarn from Egypt, and opened an export the family, who have been on the look-out to catch the trade with the Eastern seas through the port of Ezion- first glimpse of him, “The bridegroom cometh !' they Geber, and with the Mediterranean through the allied go forth to meet him. The precision with which this state of Tyre. His desire to protect domestic industry answers to the parable in the twenty-fifth chapter of was further shown by the prominence he has given to Matthew's Gospel, scarcely requires pointing out.

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“The bride and bridegroom do not meet at his to take place; and the weekly sabbath, on which this arrival; each being engaged apart until the afternoon song is sung, he regards as the type of that 'rest that of the marriage day. The morning is observed as a remaineth for the people of God.'" fast by both, and each should spend a great part of it The Rev. Pliny Fisk, the missionary to Palestine, in in devotion-he with his male friends; she with her the description of a Jewish wedding which he had parents and bridemaids. A due time before the hour witnessed, writes, “ At the opposite end of the court fixed for the ceremony, the bride begins to make her was a kind of gallery, where the bride was making self ready,' decking herself in the most splendid attire preparations for the ceremony, and in front of which that her means enable her to procure. Glittering hung stripes of different coloured paper, red, pale red, jewels, the golden embroidery,' and 'raiment of and yellow, some of them covered with gold leaf. needle-work,' mentioned in the forty-fifth Psalm, are by Now and then the bride showed herself through the no means confined to those who are really opulent; lattice, or wooden net-work, which stood in front of but the utmost efforts are made by the friends of every the gallery. It reminded us of Solomon's Song bride to render her wedding garments as splendid as My beloved looketh forth at the windows, showing possible. She and her bridemaids are usually dressed himself through the lattice.'” A. in white. The hair of the bride is cut off with much ceremony, and a veil placed upon her head; while her mother and other matrons give her exhortations WEDGE, one of the most common of the suitable to the first assumption of this mark of being mechanical powers, is formed by the junction of two in subjection.

inclined planes, and is used for splitting wood, rocks, “ The Huppo is a canopy supported on four posts, &c., by inserting the narrow edge, and driving the large enough to admit under it the bride and bride- wedge into a fissure. groom, with their special attendants, and the nearest In Scripture, wedge is used to express a mass of the relatives of the parties. This is usually erected in a unwrought precious metal; see Josh. 7. 21, where garden, where there is one; but, in towns, is sometimes Achan saw “ a wedge of gold of fifty shekels weight;" to be seen in the public street or square. When all and Isaiah 13. 12, “I will make a man more precious thirgs are ready, the bridegroom, accompanied by his than fine gold; eren a man than the golden wedge of friends, first repairs to the Huppo, where he is joined Ophir.” A. by the bride, closely veiled, and led by her bridemaids and female relatives. The rabbi reads the contract of WEEDS, 70 suph. This rendering of the Hebrew marriage, and then gives them an exhortation; the com word occurs only in Jonah 2. 6 of our translation of the pany sing a hymn, and the ceremony concludes by the Bible; but the word suph is to be found also in the bridegroom placing a plain gold ring on the fore-finger following places in the original: Exod. 2. 3,5; 13. 18; of the bride's left hand, saying, “Behold, thou art set 15. 4; Numb. 14. 25; 21. 4; Judges 11. 16; 1 Kings apart to me with this ring, according to the laws of 9. 26; Psalm 106. 7,9,22; 136. 13,14; Isai. 19. 6; and Moses and Israel.'

Jerem. 49. 21. “ The whole party then return to the house, the According to Parkhurst, as a collectire noun, it means newly-married pair walking first, arm-in-arm. As soon plants or weeds, which grow on the borders of a river as they arrive, they sit down to breakfast together, both or sea, and are continually brushed or swept by the having fasted until that time. A short time after this, waves. the chief-feast, or what may be called the marriage What is now called the Red Sea is, in Hebrew, Jax supper, takes place, which is a very joyful scene. The Suph, the “ Weedy Sea,” and it has been thought that bridegroom sits at the head of the table, with his bride this appellation was given it from the great quantity of at his right hand. In former times it was usual to weeds with which it abounded. continue the festivities for seven days; but this custom Thus both Diodorus Siculus and Artemidorus in is now very rare, and confined to a few of the wealthy Strabo (cited in Bochart, vol.i., p.282,) have taken parfamilies.

ticular notice of the AVLOU mniou, and OUKOS, fucks, “I may here mention a custom which throws light moss and seaweed (algæ), with which this sea abounds, on Our Lord's words in Matthew 9. 15. Besides the and from which they account for its remarkably green appointed fasts of the Jewish church, voluntary fasts colour. are kept by those who are, or wish to be thought, Dr. Shaw also in his Travels, is for translating Jax particularly pious. Many, like the Pharisee, fast twice Saph, “the Sea of Weeds," from the variety of alga in the week; namely, on the second and fifth days,- and fuci which grow on it, and at low water, particuour Monday and Thursday. It would be considered | larly after strong tides, winds, currents, are left in great very wrong, in those who are in the habit of observing quantities upon the shore. A. such fasts, to omit them for frivolous reasons; but if they are invited to a marriage, they are specially exempted from the observance of them. Hence Our Lord WEEK, YOU shabuang, a period of seven days. refers to the impropriety of fasting in the presence Under the usual name of a week, shabail is mentioned of the bridegroom, as to a custom well known among as far back as the time of the Deluge, (Gen. 7. 4,10; 8. the Jews.

10,12; 29. 27,28. It must therefore be considered a “When a Jew reads, that the marriage of the Lamb very ancient division of time, especially as the various is come, and his wife hath made herself ready,' he is nations among whom it has been noticed, for instance, forcibly reminded of the song, with which he has been the Nigri in Africa, appear to have received it from accustomed from his youth to commence every sab | sons of Noah. The enumeration of the days of the bath: ‘Go forth, my beloved, to meet the bride.' By week commenced at Sunday. Saturday was the last o the bride is meant the congregation or assembly of seventh, and was the Hebrew sabbath or day of resto Israel, which conveys precisely a similar idea to a Jew The Egyptians gave to the days of the week the sa that the words the Church' do to a Christian. It names that they assigned to the planets. From is on the sabbath of blessedness, in the days of the circumstance that the sabbath was the principal da Messiah, that this meeting between him and his bride is the week, the wbole period of seven days was he

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