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Larger she seems, her voice no mortal sound,

with reference to the simple and crude materials of which As the inspiring god, near and more near, Seizes her soul.- Æneid, vi.

they are composed. A. This 21X aub, or preternatural inflation, was called by the Greeks Treuma tv wvos, pneuma puthonos, and

WITNESS. See TRIAL. was supposed to have been produced by the absorption

WIZARD. See WITCH. of some spiritual essence into the body; in fact, it was believed to be a case of demoniacal possession. The wizards and witches of Canaan pretended to have the

WOE. “Woe to such an one!" is, in our language, power of filling themselves with the dix aub, whenever a threat or imprecation, which comprises a wish for they pleased, and they even pretended that they could some calamity, natural or judicial, to befall a person introduce into their own bodies as “ spirits of divination," but this is not always the meaning of the word in the departed souls of former prophets and diviners. Scripture. We have the expression, “Woe is me!"

In the history of Saul and the witch of Endor, we find that is, Alas! for my sufferings; and “ Woe to the the woman, asking the monarch“ whom should she women with child, and those who give suck!" that is, bring up?” meaning thereby from what 18 aub, or

Alas! for their redoubled sufferings in times of distress! spirit of divination, he would wish to have a response. It is also more agreeable to the gentle character of the Her terror on the unexpected appearance of Samuel in compassionate Jesus to consider him as lamenting the his proper person, shows that she was neither able, nor sufferings of any, whether person or city, than as impredid she desire to raise a ghost, but that she merely cating, or even as denouncing them; since his character intended. like the Pythoness, to exhibit herself inflated of Judge formed no part of his mission. If, then, we and inspired by Samuel's spirit of divination, but God should read, “Alas for thee, Chorazin! alas for thee, interfered by a sudden miracle, and presented to her Bethsaida!” we should do no injustice to the general astonished view Samuel himself.

sentiments of the place, or to the character of the person It is not necessary to inquire whether this woman speaking. This, however, is not the sense in which woe really possessed any supernatural powers or not; there is always to be taken, as when we read, “Woe to those is nothing in the sacred narrative to determine the ques- who build houses by unrighteousness, and cities by tion one way or the other, for the appearance of Samuel

blood;" “Woe to those who are rebellious against God," was no result of her enchantments; on the contrary, it &c., in numerous passages, especially in the Old Testafilled her with equal astonishment and alarm. Neither, ment. The import of this word, then, is in some indeed, is there anything in Scripture which positively degree qualified by the application of it: where it is asserts the reality of witchcraft; magical arts are always directed against transgression, crime, or any enormity, classed with idolatrous practices, and seem to have been it may be taken as a threatening, a malediction; but in borrowed in all cases by the Jews from their pagan the words of Our Lord, and where the subject is sufferneighbours. The TEVSA mekashephah, or “ poisoner,” | ing under misfortunes, though not extremely wicked, a which, as we have before said, is rendered “ witch” in kind of lamentatory application of it should seem to be the authorized version of the Scriptures, is described by most proper. (See Campbell's Dissertations.) A. some of the Rabbins as “a trafficker in drugs to produce abortion,” and it is singular that this was notoriously a trade amongst those who were reputed witches in Eng WOLF, 3x1 zeeb, aukos, lukos. The wolf has land in former times, and is still practised by persons of grown familiar to our minds as a ravenous beast, and the same description in various countries. C.

the enemy of the fold. The sacred text intimates that the habits of the wolf are not only carnivorous, but that

his delight and constant exercise from morning till night, WITHS, 77' yether. In Hebrew, the word trans

and from night till morning, are to surprise the unprolated with, is generally used to imply ropes or cord of

tected, and to tear the weak to pieces. This account of any kind. In Judges 16. 8, we read that Delilah bound

his habits coincides with the observation of travellers, Samson with “seven green withs which had not been dried.” “Green ropes," as distinguished from “dry ropes,” is the proper meaning, the peculiarity being in the greenness, not in the material. It may imply any kind of crude vegetable, commonly used for ropes, without restricting it to withs, or tough and pliable rods, twisted into a rope. Such ropes are used in the East, and while they remain green are stronger than any other. In India the legs of wild elephants and buffaloes newly caught are commonly bound with ropes of this sort. Josephus says that the ropes which bound Samson were made with the tendrils of the vine. At the present day ropes in the East are rarely made of hemp or flax. Except some that are made with hair or leather, they are generally formed with the tough fibres of trees (particularly the palm-tree), and roots, with grasses, and with reeds and rushes. These ropes are, in general, tolerably

The Wolf, strong; but are in no degree comparable to our hempen who concur in representing the wolf as continually on ropes. They are very light in comparison, and wanting the prowl with an unsated appetite, and seizing every compactness, in most cases they are also rough and coarse opportunity of doing harm, where its fears are not strong to the eye. The praises which travellers bestow on enough to overcome its thirst of blood. Indeed this ropes of this kind must not be understood as putting animal is fierce without cause, kills without remorse, and, them in comparison with those in use among ourselves, by its indiscriminate slaughter, seems to satisfy its maligbut with the bands of hay which our peasants twist, and nity rather than its hunger.

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The wolf is weaker than the lion or bear, and less circumstances, makes the birth of a son an object of courageous than the leopard; but he scarcely yields to desire, and a matter of importance, parents receive with them in cruelty and rapaciousness. His ravenous equal thankfulness, and are ready to provide for the temper prompts him to destructive and sanguinary wants of, and bestow undistinguishing marks of affection depredations; and these are perpetrated principally in on, their progeny of either description. But it is difthe night. This circumstance is expressly mentioned in ferent in the East, where from the influence, in some several passages of Scripture. “The great men,” said places, of a cruel and debasing superstition, in others of Jeremiah, (5. 6,) “have altogether broken the yoke and licentious customs, the one class is the lord and tyrant burst the bonds; wherefore a lion out of the forest shall of the other; the one has honour and dignity written on slay them, and a wolf of the evenings shall spoil them.” their forehead, while that of the other is branded with The rapacious and cruel conduct of the princes of Israel, the indelible stigma of degradation; the one composes is compared by Ezekiel, (22. 27,) to the mischievous all the society that is known, while the other is either inroads of the same animal: “Her princes in the midst strangled as soon as born, or is shut up an exile for life thereof are like wolves ravening the prey, to shed the slave of her master's will and pleasures. blood, to destroy lives, to get dishonest gain.” And The difference in the respective destinies of the sexes Zephaniah, (3.3,) says, “Her princes within her are has interwoven itself with the opinions and feelings of roaring lions, her judges are evening wolves, they gnaw the natives, and whether it be from prejudice associating not the bones till the morrow.”

whatever is honourable with the name of man, or from The disposition of the wolf to attack the weaker the secret impulses of nature shrinking from the proanimals, especially those which are under the protection spect of adding one more to a race of whom servitude is of man, is alluded to by Our Saviour in the parable of the hereditary portion, the birth of a son is universally the hireling shepherd (Matt. 7. 15), “The wolf catcheth hailed with unbounded demonstrations of delight; them, and scattereth the flock.” And the Apostle whereas that of a daughter, like an insupportable calaPaul, in his address to the elders of Ephesus, gives the mity, seals up the lips in the silence of grief. “ Among name of this insidious and cruel animal to the false the Mussulmans of India,” says Mrs. Meer, " the birth teachers, who disturbed the peace and perverted the of a boy is greeted by the warmest ebullitions of unaf. faith of their people: “I know this, that after my fected joy in the houses both of the parents and their departure shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not relations. It is immediately announced by a discharge sparing the flock.” (Acts 20. 29.)

of artillery, where cannons are kept, or by musketry in Jacob's prediction that “ Benjamin shall ravin as a the lower grades of the native population, even to the wolf," is supposed by commentators. to refer to the fierce meanest peasant, with whom a single matchlock proand unjust contest in which that tribe engaged with the claims the honour as effectually as the volley of his other tribes (Judges chapters 19 and 20), and in which, superiors.” after gaining two victories, they were almost extermi. Among the Arabs a similar custom prevails, for in nated.

whatever house a son is born, one of the domestics, after In times of great famine, when they can get no prey, announcing it hastily to the family, runs to the door, wolves are said to destroy one another; for when they which she beats with all her might to attract notice, meet together, bemoaning themselves, as if by general exclaiming all the while, “ A male child! a male child is consent, they run round in a circle, and the first which born!" The Persians, too, who participate in the through giddiness falls to the ground is devoured by notions of their Eastern neighbours, observe the greatest the rest. They are frightened at the throwing of stones, ceremony in announcing such an event to the father. at the sound of bells, and at the singing of men or “Some confidential servant," says Morier, “is usually women. When they prowl after sheep, they choose a the first to get the information, when he runs in great cloudy and dark day, that they may escape the more haste to his master, and says, 'Mujdeh,' or, good news, safely, and go against the wind to prevent the dogs by which he secures to himself a gift, which generally smelling them. Externally and internally the dog and follows the intelligence.” wolf so nearly resemble each other that they almost Among the common people, the man who brings the seem modelled alike, and yet they have a perfect news frequently seizes the cap or shawl of the father as antipathy to one another.

a security for the reward to which he holds himself In the sacred writings the wolf is everywhere opposed entitled. The reverse of all this, however, takes place to the sheep and goats, as if his cruelty and rage were on the birth of a daughter. There are no expressions of reserved especially for these creatures. See Luke 10.3; joy; the servants and other members of the household Matt. 7. 15; 10. 16; Isai. 11.6; 45. 25. A.

meet and pass each other with downcast looks, and in profound silence; and instead of showing any eagerness

to communicate the intelligence to the father, every one WOMAN, 70X' ishal, yuvn, gyne, was created strives to avoid his presence, and keep out of his way. as a companion and assistant to man; equal to him in In the land of Cutch and Cattawar, when a person asks authority and jurisdiction over the animals; but, after a father whether a wife has a son or a daughter, if the the fall, God subjected her to the government of man. latter, he answers “Nothing," and this expression, in the (Gen. 3. 16,) “Thy desire shall be to thy husband, | idiom of that country, is horribly significant. “In and he shall rule over thee.”

every part of the East," says Mr. Ward, “a female is From the very moment of their birth the social infe- despised as soon as she is born, she comes into the world riority of women in the East is marked. It is difficult | amidst the frowns of her parents and friends, disapto convey to the mind of a European an idea of the | pointed that the child is not a boy. Every mother lively sensations of grief or joy which are experienced among the tribe of Rajpoots puts her female child to by people in the East on the birth of their children, death the moment it is born. While I was in Bengal, I according as these prove to be male or female. With was, informed of the case of a Rajpoot who had spared us the style of manners, or rather the salutary influence one of his daughters, and she lived till she attained the of the Christian faith, has placed both sexes on an equal age when Indian girls are marriageable. A girl in the footing in society; and accordingly, except in some few house of a Rajpoot was, however, so extraordinary a instances where the inheritance of property, or other circumstance that no parent chose to permit his son to

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marry her. The father then became alarmed for the clothes of the family at the fountain, or in the flowing honour of his family, and he therefore took her aside stream, and to perform many other menial services. one day, and with a hatchet cut her to pieces."

The in-door occupations, such as baking bread, &c., In the Sandwich Islands, according to the testimony were all performed by women. In Genesis 18. 6 we of Mr. Ellis, it was customary to spare the life of a read that when Abraham entertained the angels, he female child, but, from the moment of its birth, it was “hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said, Make doomed to feel its humiliating and degraded position. ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead It was not allowed to be fed with a particle of food from it, and make cakes upon the hearth.” It may seem the father's dish, or that had been cooked at the father's | extraordinary to see a lady of such distinction as Sarah, fire. Whereas a boy, whose birth had given his family the wife of a powerful chief, occupied in this menial importance in the eyes of society, was, from his earliest service. But even now this duty devolves on the women years, admitted to partake of his father's food, eat his of every household, and among those who dwell in meals with him, and was daily loaded with a thousand tents, the wife of the proudest chief is not above supercaresses.

intending the preparation of the bread, or even kneading All the laborious work in the East is performed by and baking it with her own hands. Tamar, the daughter females, and even now the unmarried women of the of a king, seems to have acquired distinction as a good family have to draw water from the wells. Agrecably baker of bread (see 2Sam. 13. 5-10), and there are few to this custom Rebecca went instead of her mother to of the heavy duties which fall upon the women of the fetch water from the well, and the servant of Abraham | East which they are more anxious to do well, and get expected to meet an unmarried female there who might credit for, than this. It is among the very first of an prove a suitable match for his master's son. These Eastern female's accomplishments. The other duties of young women go forth to perform this humble service the kitchen still often devolve upon the wives, even in adorned with their trinkets, which are often of great families of distinction. When Dr. Richardson was at value.

Jerusalem, he was, as a physician, consulted about the Rebecca, when she repaired to the well, was in a complaints of the ladies of a Turk of high consideration, pastoral country, the manners of which are everywhere called Omar Effendi. “I was surprised," says the simple, and moreover she was well known to be the doctor, “to hear many of them ascribe their complaints daughter of the great chief of the place, who might in to fatigue, which I was informed arose from their these circumstances repair to the well without being employment in the kitchen.” accompanied by a protector. But in the neighbourhood Even now it is very rare for an Eastern lady to be of towns, when the young women on whom the office able to write: their minds are left wholly uncultivated, devolves go beyond the gates, morning and evening, to and what time they can spare from their household draw water, it is not deemed respectable to go otherwise occupations is principally devoted to embroidery, of than in groups; and hence the very improper conduct which they work great quantities. . of the woman of Samaria in appearing at the well | This want of education joined to their other disalone, at a time when strangers were wont to make | advantages, naturally disqualifies them from being their appearance at such a place of public resort. (John companions to their husbands; indeed, in all parts of 4. 7-30.) Only one traveller, of dignified mien and of the East, females are spoken of as being much inferior unsullied virtue, was found at the village well on that to men in wisdom, and nearly all their sages have occasion, and the privacy was by his divine wisdom proudly descanted upon their great ignorance. In the improved to greater advantage than it might, humanly Hindoo book called Karral, it is said, “All women are speaking, had there been a company of lively young ignorant." In other works it is said, “ Ignorance is a women along with her. But still her going unattended woman's jewel;" “ Female wisdom is from the evil by others of her sex was a gross impropriety; and, to one.” “The feminine qualities are four: ignorance, fear, those acquainted with Eastern manners, was sufficient shame, and impurity.” “To a woman disclose not a to reveal the looseness and profligacy of her character. secret.” “Talk not to me in that way, it is all female

The patriarchs did not commit their flocks and herds wisdom.” solely to the care of menial servants and strangers; they! In ancient times the Egyptian women carried on a tended them in person, or placed them under the super- trade in making and selling linen, girdles, &c. This intendence of their sons and daughters, who were bred commerce is mentioned by Herodotus; but, according to to the same laborious employment, and were taught to Maillet, is lost to the women of Egypt in general, perform without reluctance the meanest services. being only retained by the Arabs of that country who Rebecca, the only daughter of a shepherd prince, went live in the mountains. The Arabian historians say that to a considerable distance to draw water; and it is the women used to deal in buying and selling things evident from the readiness and address with which she woven of silk, gold and silver, of pure silk, of cotton, of let down her pitcher from her shoulder, aud gave drink cotton and thread, or simple linen cloth, whether made to the servant of Abraham, and afterwards drew for all in the country or imported; the men in wheat, barley, his camels, that she had been long accustomed to that rice, and other productions of the earth. The same humble employment.

author states that the same practice still continues From the same authority we know that Rachel, the among the Arabs who live in the mountains. At the daughter of Laban, kept her father's flocks, and sub- present day we see offered for sale, in Oriental towns, mitted to the various privations and hardships of a | either at first or second hand, the outer garments woven pastoral life in the deserts of Syria. The classical by the Arab females, the admired carpets made by the writers, too, frequently represent the sons and daughters Eelaut women of Persia, and even the elegant emof kings, in times not long posterior to those of the broideries wrought by the town ladies in their secluded patriarchs, as engaged in these simple occupations. harems. See art. WIFE. Minerva appeared to Ulysses in the form of a very | That the same custom prevailed in Palestine, in the young shepherd, such as the sons of kings were wont time of Solomon, we infer from Proverbs 31. 10-31, to be. This primeval simplicity was long retained where the “virtuous woman" is described as “seeking among the Greeks. Homer often sends the daughters wool and flax, and working willingly with her hands;" of princes and nobles to tend the flocks, to wash the also, “she layeth her hands to the spindle, and her

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hands hold the distaff;" also, “she maketh fine linen, The apartments of the women are counted sacred and selleth it, and delivereth girdles unto the mer- and inviolable all over East; it is even a crime to chant.” From the whole of this chapter we infer that inquire what passes within the walls of the harem. women, among the Hebrews, filled at that time a more In the East, a greater affront can scarcely be offered a responsible place in society, and appear to have taken a man than to inquire about his domestic establishment. more active part in its engagements, than we should The most an old friend does is to say, “ Is your house otherwise have been led to imagine, or than is now often | well?” Hence it is extremely difficult to be informed witnessed in the East.

of the transactions in those sequestered habitations; and In former times, before trade was established with | a man, says Chardin, may walk an hundred days, one neighbouring nations, and home manufacture became an after another, by the house where the women are, and object of attention, every kind of drapery for the person, | yet know no more what is done there, tban at the the tent, or the house, was manufactured by the women, farther end of Tartary. This sufficiently explains who took pride in boasting that their husbands and Mordecai's conduct, who “walked every day before the children were solely attired by the labour of their hands. court of the women's house, to know how Esther did, As we have mentioned, this is still the case among and what became of her.” (Esther 2. 11.) some of the pastoral tribes of Asia, and among the The Arabs are not so scrupulous as the Turks about peasantry in various parts of the world, wherever the their women; and though they have their harem or influence of extended traffic and manufactures has not women's apartment in the tent, they readily introduce been so diffused as to render it cheaper for even the their acquaintances into it, or those strangers whom they poorest to purchase than to manufacture the articles take under their special protection. Pococke's conductor, they require. Even now, among some of the Orientals, in his journey to Jerusalem, led him two or three miles ladies of high station take the management of this to his tent, where he sat with his wife and others round branch of domestic economy, and work with their a fire. The faithful Arab kept him there for greater maidens. In most cases the usage is kept up, at least security, the wife being always with him, no stranger with respect to the finer works, from the influence of ever daring to come into the women's apartment unless habit, long after improved means of supply would render specially introduced. We discover in this custom, it more economical to obtain the required product by the reason of Jael's invitation to Sisera when he was

defeated by Barak. “Turn in, my lord, turn in to me, fear not." (Judges 4. 18.) She invited him to take refuge in her own division of the tent, into which no stranger might presume to enter, and where he naturally supposed himself in perfect safety. See HAREM.

For the personal appearance of Oriental ladies see article BEAUTY

A recent traveller, (Wilde,) speaking of the women of Egypt, says, "Few females of the better class are to be met with in the streets of Alexandria, but they throng the avenues of the capital in great numbers, and are nearly all dressed alike, the outer garment being a large black silk cloak enveloping the whole person, and coming over the head and low down on the forehead.” (See arts. DRESS, VEIL.) “A yet more inelegant costume (figure they have none,) I have never witnessed, than a Mooslim female of the upper class, waddling along wrapped in the voluminous folds of her immense cloak. Nothing whatever of a Cairo lady's person can be seen but the eyes; and they offer a striking contrast to the rather too accurately defined persons of the lower orders. I never

saw females walk so badly as they do. This probably The Eastern Embroidery.frame.

arises from their feet being so tender, owing to their purchase than by domestic manufacture. The whole walking so little, and remaining barefooted in the description of female occupation in Proverbs 3). 10-31 | harem. The bands are never seen, as it is a point of corresponds remarkably with the representation made etiquette to keep them concealed in the folds of the cloak. by Homer of the employment of the most distinguished | “Although these ladies appear in the most public ladies introduced in his epics. (See art. WEAVING.) We places, and mix in the most crowded assemblies, no see Penelope plying the spindle and loom, and tasking acquaintance, or relative, be he ever so near, brother, her maidens; we find the royal mother of Nausicaa father, or husband, ventures to recognise them abroad, beside the hearth, by the morning dawn, spinning as it would be considered a very great affront so to do, soft fleeces dyed with the sea purple; and even implying that the lady exposed herself so much that the glorious Helen is represented as “weaving a gor friends were able to recognise her in the public streets. geous web," representing the battles which nations Such are the manners of Egyptians towards each other: waged for her sake. The proximity of time renders | but the Frank who mixes in a crowd of Mooslim these indications interesting as illustrations; but others, ladies, will soon perceive that eyes, and elbows too, speak quite as much to the purpose, might be derived from most eloquently, and the gay titter that he hears on all existing Oriental usages; nor less so, indeed, from the sides, with the occasional drawing aside as if by accident, employments of English females, in even the highest of the face veil, done with an art that shows considerable walks of life, during the middle ages, if not at a com- progress in the science of coquetry, all tell him that the paratively recent period. At the present time, we need | immured life the ladies here spend is by no means only cross the Channel into Normandy, to witness | congenial to their inclinations. The state of morality in many striking analogies to the domestic usages described the higher circles consequent on this condition of society in Proverbs. See art. EMBROIDERY.

is just what might be expected. You frequently meet

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whole barems proceeding rank and file, to the bath, the | Pisces will fall; if three join in the brawl, the sea will tombs, or other places of public resort open to respectable dry up; but if four try their powers, what will become females, mounted cross-legged on their donkeys, and of the world?" In the Scanda Purana it is said, “It attended by their sable beardless guardians. At other is better for any one to fall into hell than to perform the times, some wealthy Tark mounted on his richly capari- duties of a householder with a woman who will not soned horse, attended by his groom and pipe-bearer, respect her husband's word; is there any other disease, and followed by his wives and children, who bring up any other yamd, than spending life with such a woman?" the rear on donkeys, with a servant at the head of each.” | A Hindoo philosopher describes some of the defects The same author, speaking of the Hebrew females at in young females which ought to deter any man from Jerusalem, says, “I must acknowledge that those marrying them. “Those who love to be at the house of Jewesses whom I met in Jerusalem were not so beautiful other people, who are great sleepers, who love dancing as those I have seen elsewhere. Many of them had and other sports, who are wounded by the arrows of light complexions, which with the highly marked and Kama (Cupid,) who love before their fathers betroth prominent features of the Hebrew countenance, is by no them, who have voices like thunder, who have tender, or means pleasing. Here they do not wear the yashmac, rolling, or cat eyes, who have coarse hair, who are older or face cover."

than yourself, who are full of smiles, who are very athNotwithstanding all their care for the concealment of letic, who are caught in the hell of useless and strange their women, the Orientals, watch them narrowly, and religions, who despise the gooroo, and call the gods carry jealousy to an extent of which we have no statues, have nothing to do with them." Solomon says, example in European countries. Russell tells us, that “ The contentions of a wife are a continual dropping; “the Turks of Aleppo, being very jealous, keep their and “ It is better to dwell in a corner of the house-top, women as much at home as they can. Necessity than with a brawling woman in a wide house." (Prov. however obliges the husbands to suffer them to go often 20. 9.) And the Tamul proverb has it, “She is like the to the bagnio, and Mondays and Thursdays are a sort of thunder of the rain, and is ever dropping." licensed days for them to visit the tombs of their For the Levitical laws respecting women, see Leviticus deceased relations, which furnishes them with an oppor- 15. 19; 12. 2; 15. 25. Respecting apparel, ornaments, tunity of walking abroad in the gardens and fields; they &c., see articles DRESS, HEAD-DRESS, ORNAMENTS, &c. have so contrived, that almost every Thursday in the We will conclude this article with M. Aimé-Martin's spring bears the name of some particular sheik, (or eloquent contrast, between the situation of European saint,) whose tomb they must visit on that day. By and Oriental women. “Whatever be the eustoms or the this means the greatest part of the women of the city laws of a country, it is the women who give the direcget abroad to breathe the fresh air at such seasons, tion to its manners. Whether free or subject, they reign, unless confined (as is not uncommon.) to their houses because they derive their power from our passions. But by order of the bashaw, and so deprived even of that this influence is more or less salutary according to the little freedom which custom has procured them from degree of estimation in which they are held; be they their husbands. The prohibitions of the bashaws are our idols or our companions, courtesans, slaves, or beasts designed, or pretended to be designed at least, to prevent of burden, the re-action will be complete, they will the breach of chastity, for which these liberties of make us what they themselves are. It appears as if going abroad might be supposed to afford an opportunity. nature attached our intelligence to their dignity, just as For the same reason it may be apprehended that St. we attach our happiness to their virtue. Here, then, is Paul enjoins the being chaste and keepers at home."" a law of eternal justice; mane cannot debase women

That the manners and speech of the Oriental women without becoming himself degraded, he cannot elerate are not as gentle and quiet as their appearance would them without becoming better. Let us cast. our eyes leave one to suppose, many travellers assert. Roberts over the earth, and observe the two great divisions of the says, “ The termagants of the East are certainly not human race,—the East and the West; one-half of the inferior to those of their own sex in any part of the old world continues without improvement, and without world: in some respects, perhaps, the females are more ideas, beneath the weight of a barbarian civilization; timid and retired than those of Europe; but let them there the women are slaves; the other half progresses once go beyond the prescribed bounds, and let their towards equality and enlightenment, and we there see powers be brought fairly into action, and they are com- women free and honoured. plete furies. Has any one caused a woman's child to “Contrast with a European family an Eastern one; the cry, does a neighbour intimate that she is not what she former is based upon equality and love, the latter upon ought to be, or that some of her friends are no better polygamy and slavery, which leave to love its brutal than they should be, the whoop is immediately sounded, fury, but which deprive it of its sweet sympathy, and and the brawl begins. She commences her abuse in her its divine illusions. A man may shut himself up with best and highest tone of voice; vociferates all the scandal | a number of women, but it is impossible that he can she can think of, and all she can invent. Sometimes love several. See him then reduced, amidst a crowd of she runs up to her antagonist, as if about to knock her young beauties, to the saddest of all conditions, that of down; again she retires, apparently to go home; but no, possessing without loving, and without being beloved. she thinks of something more which ought not to be Inebriated with the coarsest pleasures, without family in lost, and again returns to the contest. At intervals the midst of his slaves, without affection in the midst of (merely to vary the scene,) she throws up dust in the his children, he imprisons his companions, and makes of air, and curses her opponent, her husband, and her chil- his house a place of punishment, crime, and prostitution. dren. Should the poor woman not have been blessed And, after all, does this animal life yield him happiness? with a progeny, that will not be overlooked, and a thou- No, his senses become blunted, his mind becomes enersand highly provoking and indecent allusions will be vated, and he vainly pursues unto the brink of the tomb made. See her fiery eyes, her dishevelled hair, her the sensual delights which, while they excite him, elude his uplifted hands, and she is more like a fury from another grasp. Polygamy is a purely animal state, it gives us only region than a human being."

slaves, marriage gives us a companion; the former estaAn Eastern sage says, “Should one woman scold, the blishes debauchery in the house of the man, the latter for whole earth will shake; should two commence, the sign ever banishes it and sanctifies the house of the citizen.

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