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YARN. Solomon is described as having received or to sell any instrument of husbandry, such as a plough, yarn from Egypt. (1 Kings 10. 28,) “And Solomon had or a harrow. Latterly, however, when the Jews became horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn; the king's subject to the Gentile nations, and were obliged to merchants received the linen yarn at a price.” See also maintain their armies, the Rabbins say, it was permitted 2Chron. 1. 16; and article WEAVING.
to sow just as much as was necessary for that purpose. During the Sabbatic year, the Jews lived upon the
surplus produce of the former years. God had promised YEAR, JJW shanah, from 1730 shanah, to iterate, that the produce of the sixth year should be treble that to repeat. “A year, the iteration or repetition of the of any other year. (Levit. 25. 21.) The spontaneous solar light's revolution over the whole face of the earth, fruits of the earth during the Sabbatic year was left free by its annual and diurnal motion and declination;" or for the use of the poor, the stranger, and the animals; as Buxtorf, though not with such philosophical strictness, this was a kind of tribute paid by the people to the “the year is called 7V shanah, from iteration or Creator of all things; and was also calculated to inculcate repelition, because it is iterated by the sun's returning humanity. In this year, slaves were released, and debts to the same point whence he set out, and always revolves cancelled. (Exod. 21. 2; Deut. 15. 1,2.) or returns upon itself by its own path.” It is well ob. It has been a question whether all debts of every served by the learned Mr. Kennedy, Scripture Chronology, kind were cancelled in the Sabbatic year. The Rabbins page 37, that we cannot define 730 as applied to the say that all simple debts were, but not those of mortgage sun, without defining at the same time, the tropical or security. year. (Gen. 1. 14; 5. 3; Deut. 32. 7.) Parkhurst. | The remission of debts related only to those due by
From the enumeration of days of the Deluge, (Gen. 7,) native Hebrews; not to those due by proselytes or st appears, that in the beginning, the year of the Hebrews strangers. Some have thought that the Sabbatic year consisted of three hundred and sixty-five days; in twelve began in Nisan, (March,) like the Sacred or Ecclesiastical months, eleven of which contained thirty days, and the year; but it is generally thought, with more probability, twelfth, thirty-five days. It is supposed that they to have begun like the Civil year in Tisri, (September,) inserted an intercalary month at the end of one hundred after the harvest was made; for had it commenced in and twenty years, at which period their new year would Nisan, the people would not have been able to get in the be out of its place by thirty days. From the time of harvest of the sixth year. Moses' mission, the years were lunar, consisting of It is believed by Bishop Patrick, Morery, and others, twelve lunar months, or three hundred and fifty-four that the calculation of the Sabbatic year did not comdays; because the festivals were regulated by the moon. mence from the time that the Jews came into Canaan, As this computation would however, in progress of because they were at war with the inhabitants, but from time, throw all the festivals out of place, it was necessary the time when they had rest, and peaceable possession to accommodate the lunar years to solar, which they of the land. Morery fixes the first Sabbatic year in accomplished by adding a whole month to the year Tisri, the year of the world 2594. Maimonides makes whenever requisite, which was sometimes at the end of it the twenty-first year after entering Canaan.
vo vears, but most usually at the end of three years. IV. The Year of Jubilee, which was the seventh This intercalary month was added at the end of the Sabbatical year, or every forty-nine years, though for Ecclesiastical year, immediately after the month Adar, the sake of round numbers, it is generally called the and was called, Ve Adar, the second Adar, or more fiftieth year. It was a year of solemn rest, and of literally, “ And Adar," for Ve is, in IIebrew, the conjunc- perfect and general release and remission. (See art. tion “and.” Concerning the Jewish year, Maimonides Jubilee.) says, that the months were lunar, but the year solar. | Lightfoot calculates that Our Lord suffered in a year After the Babylonish Captivity, the Jews used the solar of Jubilee. Morery fixes the first Jubilee in the autumn year; but on becoming subject to the Macedonian of the year of the world 2637; and Maimonides in the government, they were obliged to resume the lunar. sixty-fourth year after the Jews came into the Holy The modern Jewish year is lunar, having twelve months Land. in the common years, and thirteen in the intercalated V. The Prophetic year, containing three hundred and years, (as above mentioned,) and its commencement is sixty-five days: this is the computation used in Daniel fixed at the next new moon after the autumnal equinox. 7 and 12; and in Revelations 11 and 12. Tradition The intercalary year is called Meubar. Besides the says that the ancient year of the Chaldees was three civil and ecclesiastical year, (see art. Month,) the Jews hundred and sixty days, which Abraham retained and had:
transmitted in his family. 1. The Year of Plants and Trees, which begins The Jews have used different eras at various times, in Shebat, (the month answering to our January,) on from which they have computed the beginning of their the fifteenth day, according to the school of IIillel ; years: i. e., from the lives of remarkable persons, as in because at this time they paid the annual tithe fruits Genesis 7. 2, from the birth of Noah; from the departure of their plants and trees.
out of Egypt, as in Exodus 19, 1, and other parts of the II. The Year of Beasts, beginning the first day of Pentateuch; from the building of the Temple, as in Elul, (August,) because they then paid the tithe of the Kings 9. 10; from the reigns of their kings, as 1 Kings lambs born within the year, from Elul to Elul.
6. 1, and other places; from the Babylonian Captivity, III. The Sabbatic Year, (Levit. 25,) which was kept | as in Ezekiel 1. 1. every seventh year, as a Sabbath, or rest for the land. Afterwards they computed from the era of the During this year, it was forbidden to plough, sow, plant, Seleucidæ, which is called in Maccabees, the era of the or perform any agricultural labour; according to Maimo- Greeks, and began from the time that Seleucus Nicanor nides, it was unlawful even to remove withered leaves or obtained sovereign power, 312 B.C.; and this era they branches, to cestry caterpillars, uproot brambles, pick used for about a thousand years. In 1Maccabees 12 stones from tlie ficí Is, shelter uzrije fruits, &c., &c., - land 14, we find traces of reckoning according to the
years of the Asmonean princes, as in Matthew 2. 1; | months of being completed: in this, his second year, he Luke 1. 5.
chose three thousand military, &c., guards. Since the completion of the Talmud, the Jews have “The same principle may account for the phrase used the Creation of the world as the era whence to (arto dietns) used to denote the age of the infants date their years; and the modern Jews admit into their slaughtered at Bethlehem, (Matt.2.16,) from two years calendar the festivals and holy days of the Christians, in old and under. This difficulty has been strongly felt order to know the days on which they may not trade by the learned, and has been made the most of by the with them.
antagonists of Christianity. This is regulated at once The solar year is divided by the Jews into four | by admitting the existence of this mode of calculating quarters, called Tekuphat, or revolutions of time: viz., time, or, rather, of expressing a mode of calculating Tekuphat Nisan, the vernal equinox; Tekuphat Tisri, time; by the idea that they were all of nearly equal the autumnal equinox; Tekuphat Tebeth, the winter age, being all recently born; some not long before the solstice; Tekuphat Tammuz, the summer solstice. close of the old year, others not long since the beginning
It is a tradition among the Jews, that on the first day of the new year. Now, those born before the close of of the new year God judges all the actions of the past the old year, though only a few months, or weeks, year, and regulates all the events of the opening one. would be in their second year, as the expression implies; Wherefore they use the month Elul (the last in their and those born since the beginning of the year would be year) as a time of penance and repentance, performing well described by the phrase "and under,' i.e., under ceremonial ablutions, making confession of sin, reciting one year old. Some two years old, though not born a the penitential psalms, giving alms, fasting, &c.
complete twelvemonth (perhaps, in fact, barely six The festival of the New Year, called the Rosch months); others under one year old, yet born three, four, Hashanah, is ushered in by the sounding of a ram's or five months, therefore a few days younger than those horn from the place where the Law is read in the previously described according to the time which he had synagogue, in order, they say, to warn them of God's | diligently "inquired of the wise men,' in their second judgments; the horn is blown all day, from sun-rise to 1 year, and under. The influence of this remark on the sun-set, at intervals. In the morning they go to the proper placing of the birth of Our Lord before the death synagogue clothed in white, as an emblem of purifica | of Herod is considerable; it lessens, too, the number of tion (after the penances of the former month); and infants slain, and shortens the interval between the some wear the clothes intended for their burial, as a appearance of the star to the Magi, and their visit to mortification. They use many prayers for a happy | Jerusalem." (Taylor's Calmet.) M. year, and for pardon of sins; with thanksgivings for past favours. The Pentateuch is brought out, and five different persons read the account of the sacrifice that used to be YESTERDAY, Vox emesh, from yuo mashah, offered on this day; the Haphtorah, or portion, is read to withdraw, remove, recede, the receding of time. from the Prophets by a young person, and a blessing The word is often used in Scripture to denote not merely invoked upon their prince. At home, they serve up at the preceding day, but past time in general. Exodus table honey with leavened bread, sweet fruits, various 21. 27, “If the ox was wont to push with his horns in herbs, and every thing that may seem to presage a time past,” (Heb. yesterday ;) Isai. 30. 33, “ Tophet is fertile year. They eat small fishes and pomegranates, ordained of old,” (Heb. from yesterday.) Heb. 22. 8, praying that their merits and good works may be multi- “ Jesus Christ, the same yesterday and for ever.” It also plied as the fishes in the waters, and as the seeds in the implies “lately,” as 2 Samuel 15. 19,20, “ Thou art a pomegranates. They salute each other on meeting with stranger and in exile : whereas thou camest but yester6. Be thou written in a good year," and spend the day in day.” Joh 8. 9, “ We are of yesterday, and know devotion and hearing sermons. As the ancient Jews nothing." M. used to lay their sins on the head of the scape-goat, so the modern Jews in Germany lay theirs upon the fish; YOKE. In the Hebrew Scriptures we find three they go, after dinner, to the brink of a pond, and shake different kinds of yokes mentioned, viz., 5w gnol, 410 their clothes over it, as typical of casting off their sins mul, and T03 Izemed. Swy gnol is derived froni 554 into it; they found this custom on Micah 7. 19: “ He gnalal, to work. It is used to express the yoke borne will have compassion upon us; he will subdue our by a heifer working. (Numb. 19. 2.) The red heifer iniquities: and thou wilt cast all their sins into the commanded to be slain for the lustral purposes, is depths of the sea.” The festival of the New Year, or directed to be one on which the yoke (gnol) never came. Rosh Hashana, generally lasts two days. (See Buxtorf, The Ark of God was sent home by the Philistines in a Synagoga Judaica, and Picard's Ceremonies of the cart drawn by two kine never before bearing a yoke, Jens.)
(gnol, 1Sam. 6. 7.) It appears to have been also put There have been some difficulties in Scripture con- on the necks of slaves, (refractory ones probably,) for cerning the use of the word “year,” arising from the this kind of yoke is the one almost always named in manner in which the Orientals computed time, fre- Scripture to signify oppression, tyranny, subjection to quently reckoning a part as the whole; a few hours as the enemy. It is used to express the yoke of the Assya day; part of a year, as the entire twelvemonth, &c. rian, (Isai. 14. 25,) and the yoke of the king of Baby
“ This may contribute to explain a passage or two lon. (Jerem. 28. 2,4.) It is with this kind of yoke that which are not commonly seen in this light. (1Sam. Rehoboam threatened to oppress his subjects, (1 Kings 13. 1.) 'A son of one year old was Saul in his kingdom, 12. 11;) and that the Lord threatened to lay upon Israel and when he had reigned two years over Israel, Saul a “yoke” of iron if they proved disobedient. (Deut. chose him three thousand men of Israel,' &c., i. e., say 28. 48.) It appears to have been composed of bars, for he was inaugurated in June, he was, consequently, one the word nie mototh, which signifies bars, (sometimes gear old, as king, on the first day of January following, translated bands,) is frequently used in conjunction with though he had only reigned six months; the son of a | it, as in Ezekiel 24. 27, “ When I have broken the bands year: but after (and on?) this first of January, he was (niw mototh,) of their yoke (gnol.) This yoke had in the second year of his reign, although, according to apparently chains, which fastened it on the neck. (Lam our computation, the first year of his reign wanted six | 1. 14,) “The yoke of my transgressions is bound by his
in day." cer and in exile : whereas 15. 19,20, « Thou de
irected ted to be stain Numb. 1970s the yoken sy
hand; they are wreathed, and come up upon my neck.” Genesis 24. 22, to express bracelets. " And the man It seems to have been heavy and oppressive; Isai. 47, 6, took a golden earring and two bracelets (tzemedim), for “ Upon the ancient hast thou very heavily laid thy yoke, her hands." An acre of land is also called Izemed; (gnol,)” and to have bowed down the necks of those bear- being as much land as a pair of oxen would plough in a ing it, so as to have made them stoop. Leviticus 26. 13, day. (Isai. 5. 10.) Thus, in Latin, an acre is called “I am the Lord your God, which brought you forth out jugerum, from jugum, a yoke, scil. of oxen. See Parkof the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bond-hurst. M. men; and I have broken the bands of your yoke, and made you go upright.” 212 mut, appears to have been YOUNGER. It has been remarked, that under a much lighter kind of yoke, borne occasionally by ser
the Jewish dispensation, it was frequently the will of vants, in the prosecution of their domestic employments, God to prefer the younger sons before the elder, notto support burdens or vessels at the ends. The word withst.
withstanding the right of primogenitureship, as Shem signifies a bar, and is so translated in Numbers 4. 10.
before Japheth; Isaac before Ishmael; Jacob before Esau; In 1Chronicles 15. 15, it is used in the plural to express Joseph, Judah, and Levi, before Reuben: Ephraim the staves by which the Ark was borne.
before Manasseh; Moses before Aaron; and David before It was probably such a yoke as is still worn by milk-1
all his brethren. In some of these cases the elder had men and water-carriers across their necks, having a ves
| forfeited his right of primogenitureship by transgression, sel suspended by a chain at each end. In Numbers
as Esau and Reuben; but not so the others. The cause 13. 23, the word is taken to express the staff or pole
of the proceeding of God's providence may be conjecwhich the spies used to carry between two, the large tured to have been twofold: first, as a memorial of the cluster of grapes gathered at Eshcol. This yoke mut is sin of Cain, first-born of Adam, by which Seth and his never used in as heavy and oppressive a sense figura- | posterity were preferred before him: and, secondly, as a tively as the yoke gnol. The difference is marked in the
type of the future preference of the Christian, or Hebrew in Jeremiah 28. The yoke or oppressive
younger Church, before the Jewish, or elder church, in government of the king of Babylon is called gnol; the
consequenee of the forfeiture of the latter by unbelief. M. yoke worn by Jeremiah in the spirit of prophecy, is called mut: it would have been painful to the prophet to YOUTH. The ancients considered youth in a have borne about the heavy yoke of slavery or punish- much more extended view than we do. They considered ment; he therefore adopted the lighter one of domestic it relatively with strength, activity, vigour; and while a servitude; the yoke or pole of wood. (See Jeremiah man retained those attributes, he was reckoned a vouno 28. 10,13.)
man, or a youth without reference to the number of his yos tzemed, from Toy tsamad," to couple, is always years. Thus Benjamin is viewed as a mere youth, when used to express a double yoke for joining together a pair upwards of thirty years old. And in Numbers 21. 28, of oxen: as gnol in its primary use was a yoke for a Joshua is called a young man when about forty. The single beast. Tzemed does not occur used figuratively word frequently translated in our version young man, is for oppression or subjection; it is used only in its literal 7572 bachur, derived from ind bachar, to choose; it meaning. It seems to have been composed of chains or signifies primarily a choice man; one who may be links fastened by a hasp; for the word is used in chosen for some particular qualities. M.
ZABAD, 7i zabad, a gift.
him in his bed. Zabad is called Jozachar, in the account 1. Zabad, of the tribe of Judah; son of Nathan, of the transaction. (2Kings 12. 20,21.) and father of Ephtal; a descendant of Hezron, father of IV. Zabad, of the tribe of Judah. One of those who Caleb. (1 Chron. 2. 36,37.) A long genealogy, without had married foreign wives in Babylon; and put them any apparent reason, is given in this place of the away at the command of Ezra, after the return to Jerudescendants of the daughter of Sheshan, great-grand-salem. (Ezra 10. 27.) M. mother of Zabad, by an Egyptian husband, a proselyte. The Rabbins say that it is the pedigree of Ishmael, who slew Gedaliah, the governor over the cities of Judah, ZABADEANS. (1 Macc. 12. 31.) Believed to placed by the king of Babylon after he took Jerusalem, be the same as the Nabatheans mentioned by Josephus. (Jerem. 41. 2.) which Ishmael, they say, was grandson of (See art. NABATHEANS.) M. Elishama, tenth in descent from Zabad.
II. Zabad, of Ephraim, son of Tahath, and father of Shuthebah. (1 Chron. 7. 21.) Zabad and ZACHARIAH, 179721 i. e., the memo ry of the Shuthebah were killed during the lifetime of Ephraim, Lord. their ancestor, (son of Joseph,) by the men of Gath, in a I. Zachariah, the head of a family of the tribe of strife concerning plunder of cattle. Lightfoot thinks Reuben. (1Chron.) that the men of Gath made an incursion into Egypt to II. Zachariah, son of Jeroboam the Second, (son of plunder; and the Ephraimites were slain in defence of Joash,) ascended the throne, B.C. 784. He was not their cattle. But the Targum thinks that the Ephraim - inaugurated till after an interregnum of about twentyites were the aggressors; having mistaken the compu four years had elapsed since the death of his father. The tation of the time at the end of which Canaan was pro | cause of this interregnum is not now known; but it is mised to them, they made a premature invasion, and probable it was occasioned by civil commotions and were killed.
factions; for Zachariah after a short reign of six months, III. Zabad, son of Shimeath, an Ammonitess, who was murdered in public, perhaps in a popular outbreak, in concert with Jehozabad, son of Shimrith, an Ammo- by Shallum, son of Jabesh, who assumed the crown. nitess, slew Joash, king of Judah, B.C. 839. These It is only recorded of Zachariah that “ he did evil in the men were mongrel Jews, their mothers being aliens; sight of the Lord.” He was fourth in descent from they were of the household of the king, and murdered / Jehu, and in him was fulfilled the promise of God to
then the La Zachariah
Jehu, “Thy sons shall sit upon the throne of Israel | Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the unto the fourth generation.” (2Kings 15. 12; 10. 30.) | altar.” His murder fulfilled also the prophecy of Hosea, (1. 4,) The following are some of the reasons for this “I will avenge the blood of Jezreel upon the house of opinion: that Our Lord spoke to the Jews of ZachaJehu, and will cause to cease the kingdom of Israel." riah as of a well-known martyr, and Zachariah, son of
III. Zachariah, (or Zechariah,) of the family of Jehoida, is the only martyr of that name, of whom they Korah. A door-keeper belonging to the Tabernacles. were cognizant; that there is a remarkable similitude (1 Chron. 9. 21.)
between the cases of Abel and Zachariah, in the meIV. Zachariah, (or Zechariah,) a Levite, and teacher morial of requital recorded concerning them. In Genesis of the Law, sent with others by King Jehoshaphat | 4. 9, the Lord says to Cain, “ The voice of thy brother's throughout Judah to instruct the people. (2Chron. 17.) | blood crieth unto me from the ground ;” and in
V. Zachariah, (or Zechariah,) was a priest the son 2Chronicles 24. 22, the dying Zachariah says, “The of Jehoida, that priest who preserved Joash from the Lord look upon it and requite it;" that Abel was the murderous intent of his grandmother, Athaliah, after- first martyr to truth and piety, and Zachariah the last wards placed him on the throne of Judah, securing him mentioned in Scripture (up to the Christian era) as by the death of Athaliah. (2Chron. 22. and 23.) After suffering death for reproving the wickedness of his the death of Jehoida, Joash fell into wickedness, and times; that Zachariah was a remarkable type of Christ sanctioned idolatry among the people; Zachariah, moved himself, being put to death by the will of all the people; by the spirit of prophecy, stood forth and expostulated that his being called son of Jehoida in the Old Testawith the people, and denounced upon them the anger of ment, and the son of Barachias in the New, is no proof God, upon which they assaulted him with stones and against the opinion; because it was very common among slew him, “in the court of the Lord's house,” in the the Jews to have two names; and, besides, Jehoida and presence, and by the command of Joash. “Thus Joash | Barachiah mean the same thing, viz., “Praise God." the king, remembered not the kindness which Jehoida VI. Zachariah, or Zechariah, the eleventh of the his father had done to him, but slew his son.” (2Chron. Minor Prophets. The time and place of his birth are 24. 22.) It is to be remembered, that as Zachariah unknown. He was son of Barachiah, and grandson of died, he said, “The Lord requite it,” which was not Iddo; he prophesied after the return of the Jews from spoken in a feeling of revenge, but in a spirit of Babylon; he foretold exactly the siege of Babylon, by prophecy; and the Lord did avenge it by external wars, | Darius, son of Hysdaspes (ch.2); the coming of Christ, and the defeat of Judah, and by the assassination of and the blessings of his kingdom on earth (7.14); Joash.
Christ's entrance into Jerusalem on an ass's colt (9); The Jews consider the murder of Zachariah as pecu and the exact sum for which He would be betrayed (11). liarly heinous: they say it involved seven crimes: His book contains discourses adapted to inspire the 1. The murder of a priest. 2. Of a prophet. 3. Of a Jews with courage to rebuild the Temple, and to rejudge. 4. The shedding of innocent blood. 5. The establish its rites. Of his death nothing certain is pollution of the Temple. 6. The desecration of the | known. At the foot of Mount Olivet a tomb is shown, Sabbath. 7. And of the day of expiation; both of which said to be that of the Prophet Zechariah. solemn seasons they say chanced to fall on the day of VII. Zachariah, or Zechariah, son of Jeberechiah, the murder. The Gemara of the Talmud treatise mentioned in Isaiah 8.2, as one of his faithful witnesses. Sanhedrim relates, that when Nebuzaradan took Jeru He is thought to be the same as the Zechariah who salem, he observed blood bubbling up on a certain lived in the time of Uzziah, or Azariah, king of Judah, spot in the Temple; on asking what it was, and being told of whom it is said (2Chron. 26.5), that “He sought that it was the blood of sacrificed victims, be ordered God in the days of Zechariah, who had understanding some animals to be slain there, but perceiving that no in the visions of God.” ebullition of their blood took place, he threatened the 1 VIII. Zachariah, father of Abi, or Abijah, mother Jews to tear their flesh with iron combs unless they told of king Hezekiah. (2Kings 18. 2; 2Chron. 19. 1.) him the truth; and they then acknowledged that it was IX. Zachariah, or Zechariah, a Levite of the family the blood of a Jewish priest and prophet, who had of Asaph; one of those employed by Hezekiah in foretold all the evils that he (Nebuzaradan) was to bring cleansing and repairing the house of the Lord. (2Chron. on them, and they had slain him; then the king said, 22. 13.) “I will appease him," and caused the Rabbins to be X. Zachariah, father of Joseph, one of the Maccabrought and slain on the spot; but still the blood bees' captains, defeated at Jamnia by Gorgias, in consebubbled up: he then ordered the disciples of the schools quence of disobeying the orders of Judas Maccabeus. to be slain there; but still the blood bubbled up: next, (1 Macc. 5. 18-56.) the young priests were slain there, but to no purpose. I XI. Zachariah. (Luke 1.) A priest of the course of When some thousands had been immolated, he exclaimed, Abiah, husband of Elizabeth, and father of John the “ Zachariah, Zachariah! the best of thy people have Baptist. Zachariah and his wife, like Abraham and been slain for thee! wilt thou destroy them all?" Then Sarah, were old and childless. But about fifteen months the bubbling of the blood ceased. We must receive this before the birth of Christ, as Zachariah was burning Jewish story with great reservation, unless, indeed, incense, according to his office, in the Temple, the angel we consider it as typical, or containing some alle Gabriel appeared to him, and promised him a son, gorical mystery, like most of its kind. It serves, whose name should be John. Zachariah doubting, and however, to shew the light in which the Jews viewed asking a sign, the angel declared as a sign, that he this crime.
should be dumb until the fulfilment of the prediction. Jerome, Lightfoot, Whitby, and a great number of He accordingly returned out of the Temple dumb, and eminent commentators, believe this Zachariah to be he unable to communicate with the people. In due course of whom Our Lord speaks, (Matt. 23. 34,35,) “Behold of time Elizabeth was delivered of a son; and on the I send unto you prophets: and some of them ye shall eighth day, when the child was to be circumcised and kill and crucify; that upon you may come all the named, the kinsmen would have called him after his righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of father; but Zachariah wrote on a tablet, that his name righteous Abel, unto the blood of Zacharias, son of should be John. Whereupon he recovered from his
dumbness, and being inspired by the Holy Ghost, diately came down and received him joyfully. The her poured forth that prophetic hymn which is preserved in standers murmured, saying, that Jesus was gone to me the 2nd chapter of St. Luke's Gospel. This hymn has the guest of a sinner. Zaccheus, apparently in his om been called the death song of the Jewish Church, for it justification, says, “ Lord, the half of my goods I give in is the last of her authentic prophecies, unless we the poor; and if I have taken any thing from ang may account the Song of Simeon (Luke 2. 29) prophetic. | by false accusation, I restore him four-fold. And Jesie Tradition says, that when Herod sent soldiers to kill said unto him, This day is salvation come to this house John (afterwards the Baptist), with the other innocents, for so much as he also is a son of Abraham.” (Luke 19 they could not find him, because Elizabeth had sent | 7-10.) This is all that Scripture informs of Zaccheus. him into the wilderness; and Zachariah, refusing to He appears to have been an exemplary man, considering discover where he was concealed, was assassinated by the general character of the Publicans; he gave half his Herod's order, in the inclosure that surrounded the | property to the poor, whereas the Jewish law and altar of burnt-offering; and that neither the priests nor traditions required only a fifth: and he restored any the people knew of his murder, till one of the priests injustice he might haply commit in the execution of his entering the Temple found him dead, and his blood | office four-fold; though the law required only the congealed on the ground, and at the same time a amends of a fifth, in case of theft voluntarily restored. supernatural voice was heard to say, “ Zachariah is (Numb. 5. 7.) slain, and his blood shall not be wiped out till his Some have imagined that Zaccheus was a Gentile; avenger comes.” The marks of his blood are said to but his name is only the Hellenized form of the Hebrer have remained visible on the pavement. The Greek name Zaccai ; and that he was a Jew is evident, from Church honours Zachariah as priest, prophet, and mar- Our Lord saying of him that he was a son of Abraham. tyr. In the Roman Martyrology he is joined with Besides, those who murmured at Our Lord's becoming Elizabeth.
his guest, did so only on the grounds of his being a sinner, XII. Zachariah, son of Baruch. A rich citizen of not of his being a Gentile, or of the uncircumcision. Jerusalem, and an eminent patriot at the time of the Lightfoot (Horæ Hebraicæ in Evangel. S. Lucer) siege by the Romans. He was obnoxious to the turbu- says, that Zaccai, father of the celebrated Rabbi lent Idumeans and zealots, who desired to destroy him Jochanan, lived contemporaneously with the Zaccheus by some mockery of justice, that they might seize his of the Gospel; and that he brought up his son Jochanan effects, and be delivered from his reproaches, and from to commerce for forty years, before Jochanan dedicated his influence. Wherefore they set up a sham tribunal himself to literature and religion, and obtained the of seventy judges, chosen from the populace, and tried Rabbinate; whence some have imagined that Zaccai him on a false charge of intending to betray the city to was identical with the Zaccheus of Scripture. But, the Romans. But Zachariah easily refuted the accusa- Lightfoot observes, Zaccai was a Rabbin, and of the tion, and boldly rebuked the seditious for their wicked- sacerdotal race; circumstances incompatible with the ness and the confusion into which they had thrown the calling of a Publican. To which may be added, that no affairs of the city. The seventy judges felt constrained trace of his conversion to Christianity appears in the to acquit him; but two of the zealots assaulted him in a Rabbinical writings, wherein he is commended as a man fury, and slew him in the Temple, and then hurled him of eminent (Jewish) piety. And besides, Our Lord down into the valley beneath. (Joseph. The Jewish saying, "Now is salvation come to this house," implies War, book iv., ch. 5.) The date of this transaction is | prophetically, that the precepts and example of Zaccheus A.D. 67, three years before the taking of Jerusalem. In would be the means, humanly speaking, of rendering bis the Valley of Jehoshaphat, opposite Jerusalem, a monu family converts to Christianity, which certainly was not ment is shown, said to be Zachariah's tomb. It is cut the case with respect to Rabbi Jochanan, the celebrated in the rock, having four pillars on each side, with son of Zaccai, who died president of the Sanhedrim at capitals supporting a pyramidal roof. This Zachariah Jamnia. Some have supposed, but not with good fourhas been supposed by Grotius, and others, to be the dation, that Zaccheus was St. Matthew, who was a person spoken of by Our Lord, in Matt. 23., as before | Publican, and who entertained Our Lord at his house, quoted. But the murder of this man had not then | (understanding him to be the same person as Levi, occurred; and it is evident that Christ did not speak (Luke 5. 27,) at which the Scribes and Pharisees cavilled, prophetically of a future martyrdom, but of one past and as in the case of Zaccheus. But if Matthew and Leri recognised. Had he spoken prophetically, and menaced are identical, as is the general opinion, whence the thiri the Jews on aecount of a crime still uncommitted, they name of Zaccheus? The Jews frequently bore two names, could not have understood him, and his words would but not three. necessarily have no effect. Besides, this Zachariah was It has been affirmed that St. Peter consecrated neither Christian nor prophet; and not of eminence or | Zaccheus bishop of Cæsarea, in Palestine. There was a sanctity to be the subject of a prophecy from Our Lord. | bishop of Cæsarea, in the second century, of that name, His appellation, also, “son of Baruch,” is different from who has probably been confounded with Zaccheus, the that of “son of Barachiah;” in the Greek, the former is Publican. The people of Jericho show there the remain Bapovy, the latter is Bapayias, which does away | of a square tower, which they affirm to have been los with the supposed identity of the name. M.
house of Zaccheus; but Dr. Robinson thinks that this tradition did not take rise till the fifteenth century.
II. Zaccheus. An officer of Judas Maccabeus, lert ZACCHEUS. (Luke 19. 2.) A chief of the with Simon and Joseph to besiege two strong cast Publicans or Taxgatherers; collector or comptroller of of the Idumeans. But Simon's men being bribed. " the revenue for a district. He was a rich man, and an seventy thousand drachms, suffered some of the beste inhabitant of Jericho; and when Our Lord came to that to escape. The traitors were put to death by Maccabeus town, Zaccheus, being desirous of seeing him, climbed but it does not appear that Zaccheus was implica up into a sycamore tree, for being of a low stature, he The castles were ultimately taken. (1 Macc. 1o. was hindered by the crowd from perceiving Christ; Our III. Zaccheus was the name of an heretical n Lord, pleased with his zeal, desired him to descend, for who lived in retirement on a mountain near Jerusa He would abide at his house that day; Zaccheus imme- | about the end of the fourth century. He taugat