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prayer was only acceptable to God when offered in strict | it Yov@oubavnx, Psonthomphanech. It was (and still privacy, and that prayers made in assemblies or in is) a common custom in the East, to give a new name churches were unavailing. M.

upon preferring a man to any honour or dignity. Thus Nebuchadnezzar's chief officer gave to Daniel the appel

lation of Belteshazzar, upon his being placed in the ZADOK. 1. Son of Ahitub, of the race of

royal household. (Dan. 1.7.) To this custom allusion Eleazar; a priest of Israel. When David took refuge

is made in Revelations 2. 17, when the Spirit promises from Saul, at Ziklag, and bands of Israelites resorted to

to him who overcometh, a white stone, with a new him, Zadok, then “a young man mighty of valour,” |

name written in it. M. (1Chron. 12. 28,) joined him, with twenty-two captains of his father's house. He became the personal friend of David, who, when he came to the throne of Israel, ZEAL, is defined by Cruden to be “a mixed pasmade Zadok joint high-priest with Abiathar, of the sion, composed of grief and anger, fervent love and house of Eli, as Josephus says. In fact, Zadok is desire; for what a man loves earnestly, he is careful to always named before Abiathar in the Scriptures. When see it honoured, and grieved when it is dishonoured.” The David was obliged to fly from Jerusalem, on the rebellion word in Hebrew is X37 kinah, from X2P kanah, “to of Absalom, Zadok and Abiathar wished to accompany eat into, to corrode, to consume as fire.” The Septuahim; but David preferred their remaining in Jerusalem, | gint usually renders it by Snaos, which is derived from that they might send him intelligence of whatever I few, “to be hot.” Thus we say, “a fiery zeal.” The occurred there. (2Sam. 15.) After the defeat of Absa | Psalmist says, (Psalm 69. 10,) “ The zeal of thine house lom, David made use of the influence of Zadok and hath eaten me," or consumed me like fire. Abiathar with the elders of Judah, to procure an invita Zeal is described as arising from both good and evil tion for his return to his throne. (2Sam. 19.) When motives. In Numbers 25. 11-13, Phineas is comAdonijah raised a faction to cause himself to be anointed mended, because he was zealous for his God. But king, in room of his brother Solomon, before the death Jehu (2Kings 10. 16) slew the priests of Baal, and the of David, Zadok was one of the few who adhered to family of Ahab, to gain public applause, saying, “Come Solomon, whom he anointed king, by desire of David: see my zeal for the Lord;” not out of single and pure Abiathar having joined the party of Adonijah. (1 Kings love of God, for he continued in the sins of Jeroboam, 1.) Wherefore, on the death of David, Solomon deposed | the idolatrous worship of the golden calves. Abiathar, and elevated Zadok to the entire dignity of Zeal is attributed to God, as well as to man, e. g. the high-priesthood. (1Kings 2.)

Ezekiel 5. 13, “I the Lord have spoken it in my zeal.” It is not known when he died. He was succeeded by | It is frequently used to express the ardent human feelhis son Ahimaaz, who officiated under Rehoboam. ings, as jealousy, (Numb. 5. 14,) and envy (Isai. 11.13.)

II. Zadok, high-priest; son of Ahitub, and father The word is also used to express the Lord's anger, as of Shallum; he was also father of Jerusha, wife of King

(Zech. 1. 14,)“ I am jealous for Jerusalem, and for Zion Jotham.

with a great jealousy." III. Zadok, son of Baana; one of those who re

The “ Judgment of Zeal” is an expression among paired the fish-gate at Jerusalem, after the Captivity.

the Jews signifying the legalized licence of the people (Nehem. 3. 4.) ®M.

in putting to death upon the spot an offender detected in an open and atrocious breach of the law, or in

utterance of blasphemy, without waiting for the proZALMUNNA. Zebah and Zalmunna were princes | cess of a trial, and the sentence of a judge. of Midian, who, in their hostile incursions against the It was in pursuance of this licence that the Jews people of Israel, slew the brethren of Gideon, judge of sought to kill Our Lord, by throwing him headlong Israel, at Tabor. Gideon defeated and took Zebah and from the mount at Nazareth, when they thought him Zalmunna, whom he slew, to avenge the slaughter of his guilty of blasphemy. (Luke 4.) Under the Jewish brethren. (Judges 3.) M.

polity, in order to prevent this licence being abused to

purposes of private revenge, it was necessary that the ZAMZUMMIMS, D'OID projects of wickedness, alleged crime should be committed in the presence of from Doi zamam, to think mischief. Ancient and ten Israelites, and that the offender persisted in his very wicked giants, who dwelt beyond Jordan, in the guilt, after being warned to desist. country afterwards inhabited by the Ammonites. (Deut. The “Image of Jealousy,” literally, the idol of zeal, 2. 20.) They are thought to be the same as the Zuzims mentioned in Ezekiel 8. 3, is thought by some commentioned in Genesis 14., being also so called from their mentators to be Baal, to whom Manasseh erected altars swiftness. M.

in the Temple, (2Kings 21. 3,4,) on which account the

Lord was moved to great indignation against Jerusalem. ZANOAH. I. A city of Judah, (Josh. 15.34-56,) But, by the 14th verse of the same chapter of Ezekiel, on the mountains. The inhabitants assisted to repair we shall see that the idol was Thammuz, which is the valley-gate of Jerusalem, after the Captivity. (Nehem. generally thought to be the same as the Adonis of the 3. 13.) The name and site are still to be traced in Greeks; indeed, the Vulgate translates it Adonis, who, Zanua, a village on the slope of a hill on the route from from his history, is appropriately called “the idol of Jerusalem to Gaza.

jealousy;" for the heathens fabled, that being beloved II. Zanoah, of the tribe of Judah, son of Jebuthiel. by Venus (the Syrian Astarte), his rival, Mars, in his (1 Chron. 4.8.) M.

jealousy, sent a wild boar to kill him while hunting;

and they represented Venus as mourning for him with ZAPHNATH-PAANEAH, (Gen. 41, 45,) the poignant grief; which gave rise to festivals, or rather name which Pharoah gave to Joseph, upon the latter's solemn days, called Adonia, in which the women interpreting his dream. It is generally interpreted to mourned and wept, in imitation of Venus; as the women mean “the revealer of secrets;" but the Vulgate renders did, described in Ezekiel 8. 4, as mourning for it “Saviour of the world:” “Et vocavit cum lingua Thummuz. M. Ægyptiaca, Salvatorem Mundi.” The Septuagint gives

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ZEALOTS, a political party among the Jews, who cence of any participation in his brethren's offence are believed to have arisen with Judas the Gaulonite, or towards Joseph; but that, on the contrary, he had done Judas the Galilean, who, when Judea became a Roman | all in his power to dissuade them. The tribe of whom province, and a census was taken in order to lay on Zebulon was the founder received their lot in Canaan, taxes, exhorted the people to pay no tribute, and to in the northern part, along the coast of the Mediterassert religious liberty by force of arms. The Zealots ranean, one extremity bordering on that sea, the other were so called from the fiery zeal they affected for their on the sea of Tiberias; fulfilling Jacob's blessing, (Gen. country, especially during the siege of Jerusalem, when, 49. 13,) “ Zabulon shall dwell at the haven of the sea.” under the pretence of patriotism, they committed every The tribe of Zebulon distinguished itself in the wars of atrocity, plundering, murdering, and oppressing the Deborah and Barak against Sisera. (Judges 4.6; 10.14.) people in such a manner that Josephus says the in- They appear at that time to have been also celebrated vading Romans themselves were considered a lighter as scribes. Zebulon was one of the tribes appointed to evil. They profanely seized upon the high-priesthood, stand on Mount Ebal, to pronounce the curses, at the to appoint whom they would to that sacred and heredi- formal publication of the blessings and curses. (Deut. tary office; they assassinated the most eminent citizens; 27. 13.) Zebulon was the only entire tribe that joined cast out and plundered the priests, and occasioned such | David at Hebron, to make him king. (1Chron. 12. 33.) distractions in Jerusalem, that the besieged were inca- This tribe, with that of Naphtali, were the first carried pable of offering an united and efficient resistance. The away captives beyond Euphrates, by the Assyrians. Zealots appear, from the account of Josephus, to have (1 Chron. 5. 26.) Our Lord during his ministry frebeen mad with wickedness. They revelled amid their quented the countries of Zebulon and Naphtali more murders in every debauchery, put on women's clothes, than those of any other tribes. (Isai. 9. 1; Matt. 4. dressed their hair and anointed themselves, and painted | 13,15.) their faces in the manner of women, and plunged into 11. Zebulon, a city of Galilee, near Ptolemais. It excesses not to be recorded. To add to the miseries of was called Zabulon Andron, or Zebulon of Men, on the Jews, the Zealots were divided amongst themselves, account of its populousness. It was a beautiful city. and formed into two factions, one headed by John of During the Jewish war it was plundered and burnt by Giscala, and the other by Simon, son of Gioras, whose Cestus, the Roman general, the inhabitants having prehostilities augmented the destruction of Jerusalem. On | viously fled, leaving their effects behind them. M. the taking of the city by Titus, John was killed, Simon hid himself in a sewer, with provisions for some time;

ZECHARIAH. See ZACHARIAH. but being forced by hunger to come forth, he was captured, and carried to Rome, to adorn the triumphal

ZEDEKIAH, last king of Judah before the Babyprocession of Titus, and then publicly executed. M.

lonish captivity. He was uncle to Jehoiachin, his

predecessor on the throne. His name was originally ZEBAH, a prince of Midian, slain by Gideon.

Mattaniah; but when Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem, See ZALMUNNA.

and carried away Jehoiachin captive to Babylon, he

made Mattaniah king in Jehoiachin's stead, in the ZEBEDEE, a fisherman of Galilee, father of the twenty-first year of his age, changing his name to Apostles James the Elder, and John the Evangelist, Zedekiah, (2Kings 24. 17,) after exacting from him an whom Jesus called while they were fishing with their | oath of fidelity. (2Chron. 36. 13.) But Zedekiah was father. The wife of Zebedee was Salome, one of the an impious and irreligious man, and did evil in the pious women who attended Our Lord on his crucifixion. sight of the Lord, and by his example encouraged the No particulars concerning Zebedee are now known. I people in wickedness. In the first year of his reign he The name is the Greek form of the Hebrew, 721 sent envoy's to Babylon to Nebuchadnezzar, probably Zabdi. M.

to pay his tribute, and by them, Jeremiah wrote a proZEBOIM. I. One of the cities of the Plain,

phetical letter to the captives in Babylon. (Jerem. 29.) destroyed by fire from heaven at the same time as

In four years after, Zedekiah went to Babylon, (Jerem.

1. 59,) or sent a deputation, (Baruch 1.) to request Sodom and Gomorrah. It is believed to have been

Nebuchadnezzar to restore the sacred vessels taken from rebuilt near its former site, as Eusebius and Jerome mention a city of that name as existing in their days on

the Temple. The ninth year of Zedekiah's reign was the the west side of the Dead Sea. The destruction of

Sabbatic year, in which, according to the Law, the slaves

should be all released by the people. In this year, Zeboim, and its neighbouring town Admah, is men

Zedekiah revolted against Nebuchadnezear, notwithtioned in Deuteronomy 29. 23. See also Hosea 11. 8. II. Zeboim, a city of Benjamin. (Neh. 11. 34.)

standing his oath of allegiance; being apparently III. Zeboim, a valley in the tribe of Benjamin, lying

encouraged to do so by the ambassadors sent to him towards the wilderness of Judah. (1Sam. 13. 18.)

from the kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, and

In the Chaldee it is rendered, “the valley of serpents,"

Sidon. Jeremiah warned prophetically both them and from 'yai seboim, orzebagnim,“ speckled vipers,"

Zedekiah, of the evil success of their enterprise, (Jerem. with which that region was said to abound. Others,

27,) but was disregarded; for Zedekiah had suffered however, translate Diyai zeboim, as “hyænas,” the

himself to be deluded by the falsehoods of a pretended striped wild beasts. M.

prophet, Hananiah, who predicted the overthrow of Nebuchadnezzar, though Jeremiah had proved the

fallacy of Hananiah's pretended inspiration, by propheZEBULON or ZABULON. I. The sixth son of sying his death in the course of the year, which was Jacob and Leah,, born B.C. 1748. His name signifies fulfilled. (Jer. 28.) Nebuchadnezzar, upon the revolt, “ dwelling," from 5 i zabal, to dwell.” His sons were marched against Zedekiah, and took all the fortified Sered, Elon, and Jahleel. (Ged. 46. 14.) We have no places, except Lachish, Azekah, and Jerusalem. Nebuparticulars concerning him in the Scriptures; but a tra chadnezzar besieged Jerusalem on the tenth day of the dition says that he lived to the age of 124, surviving tenth month (our January) of the Holy year. But the Joseph by about forty years; that on his death-bed he king of Egypt marching to assist Zedekiah, (Jerem. 37.) Eummoned his family, and solemnly attested his inno- the Chaldean army raised the siege and marched against

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the Egyptians. Jeremiah, who predicted the return and the Ephraimites, at a wine-press, afterwards called by ultimate success of Nebuchadnezzar's army, was ill- his name. His head was cut off and sent to Gideon, treated by the princes of Judah, and thrown into prison. judge of Israel. (Judges 7.) (Jerem. 37, and 38.) And though Zedekiah consulted him frequently, he had neither the courage to release the Prophet, nor the resolution to follow his counsel of ZELOPHEHAD, son of Hepher, the grandson of submitting to the Chaldeans as the instruments of God. Manasseh, son of Joseph. He had no sons; but five The army of Nebuchadnezzar, after defeating the daughters, Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah; Egyptians, resumed the siege of Jerusalem, which they who, when the Land of Promise was divided among the took after two years.

males of the tribes, presented a petition to Moses and Zedekiah fled away by night through secret places, the elders, to be allowed to represent their father, and to but was taken in the plains of Jericho, and carried receive his portion, that the family should not become captive to Nebuchadnezzar, who was at Riblah, a city extinguished: alleging that their father was not any of which Jerome states to have been the ancient Antioch the seditious company of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, of Syria. Nebuchadnezzar reproaching him for his on whose families a curse descended; but that he died perfidy and ingratitude, as Josephus tells us, (Antiq. x.) in the wilderness “ in his own sin,”(Numb. 27. 3,) which caused his children to be put to death before his face, did not affect his children. The petition was granted; and then put out the eyes of the unfortunate king, and a law in consequence promulgated, securing the loaded him with fetters of brass, and sent him captive to father's inheritance to the daughters, in default of sons, Babylon, after a reign of eleven years. Thus were on the condition of their marrying in their own tribe, fulfilled the prophecies of Jeremiah, (32. 4,5; 34. 3,) (Numb. 36. 3,6,) that the inheritances should not be and of Ezekiel, (12. 13;) the first, that he should be removed from tribe to tribe. Wherefore the daughters brought before Nebuchadnezzar; the second, that thoughof Zelophehad married their uncles' sons. From the he should go to Babylon and die there, yet he should expression that Zelophehad died in the wilderness in his not see it. The time of Zedekiah's death is unknown. own sin, some of the Jews, following a conjecture of The Rabbins say, that having been invited to a feast by Rabbi Akkiba, say that he was the man who was stoned Nebuchadnezzar, he was made drunk, and committed some for gathering sticks on the Sabbath day. The Targum indecent actions, and on recovering his senses, he died with of Jonathan also is of the same opinion; but some of shame and remorse. Josephus says, that Nebuchadnezzar the Rabbins censure it as a rash judgment. M. buried him magnificently; which fulfilled the prophecy of Jeremiah, (34, 5,) that they should burn odours at his funeral, as at those of former kings of Judah; and

ZELZAH, a place in Judah, but on the borders of that they should lament for him, saying, “ Ah Lord.” Benjamin. Here Rachel died and was buried. (Gen. The Rabbins say, that the mourners lamented over him, 35. 20.) It was near Ramah, a city six miles from saying, “ Alas, King Zedekiah is dead, who drank up | Jerusalem, on the way to Bethlehem. A small square the dregs of former ages," i. e., suffered for the crimes of building, surmounted with a dome, or cupola, is shown all his predecessors. In 1Chronicles 3. 16, Zedekiah is here as Rachel's tomb. Maundrell believed that the called the son of Zechariah or Jehoiachin, because he place might be truly the spot of her interment, though succeeded him.

the monument itself is of Turkish architecture: probably II. Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah. A false prophet replacing that by Jacob. In the vicinity the slaughter of Samaria, who encouraged Ahab, king of Israel, to of the Innocents by Herod took place, wherefore Rachel fight against the Syrians, putting iron horns on his is figuratively represented as lamenting for them. (Matt. head, and saying that Ahab should thus toss Syria. | 2. 16-18.) M. When contradicted by Micaiah, son of Imlah, a true prophet, Zedekiah smote him on the cheek. It is not

L ZENAS, a doctor of the law, and disciple of known what became of him; but from Micaiah's pro- St. Paul, who in his epistle to Titus (3. 13,) observes, phecy to him, that he should fly into an inner chamber that he wishes to see Ženas and Apollos at Nicopolis, to hide himself, it appears that after Ahab's fall he was and desires of Titus that nothing be wanting for their in danger of being put to death, (and perhaps was so,) as journey. He is said to have been afterwards Bishop of the cause of that king's death by his falsehoods.

Diospolis in Palestine. M. III. Zedekiah, son of Maaseiah. A false prophet, who always contradicted and withstood Jeremiah. He bad a colleague, Ahab, son of Kobaiah; and upon these I. ZEPHANIAH, son of Maaseiah. (2Kings men Jeremiah denounced that they should become a pro- 25. 18.) He was the deputy (or as the Jews call it, the verbial curse among the Jews in Babylon, saying, “The sagan,) of Seraiah, the high-priest, in the reign of ZedeLord made thee like Zedekiah, and like Ahab, whom kiah. It was the sagan's office to perform the duties of the king of Babylon roasted in the fire.” (Jerem. 29, 22.) the high-priest, whenever he was incapacitated by illness, Whence it appears that they were burned to death. or any other cause. Zephaniah was frequently sent by From the next verse, “Because they have committed Zedekiah to consult the Prophet Jeremiah for the king. villainy in Israel, and have committed adultery with (Jerem. 21. 37.) After the taking of Jerusalem by the their neighbours' wives, and have spoken lying words in Chaldæans, Zephaniah and Seraiah were carried to Ribmy name, which I have not commandeth them; even Ilah, where they were put to death by Nebuchadnezzar's know, and am a witness, saith the Lord,” the Rabbins order, (B.C. 588.) have conceived that these men are identical with the II. Zephaniah, a Levite, of the family of the two elders who endeavoured to seduce, and then falsely Kohathites. (1 Chron. 6. 36.) accused the chaste Susannah. (See History of Susannah.) III. Zephaniah, son of Cushi, and grandson of

IV. Zedekiah, the grandfather of Baruch. (Baruch Gedaliah, was the ninth of the minor prophets. He is 1. 1.) M.

said to have been of an illustrious family. Concerning

his actions and death we know nothing. He began to ZEEB, IN} a wolf. The name of a prince of prophesy in the early part of Josiah's reign. He deMidian, confederate with Oreb; defeated and slain by nounced the judgments of God against the Jews on

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account of their wickedness. He prophesied against the angel, that the two olive-trees, supplying the candlethe Philistines, Moabites, Ammonites, and Ethiopians, stick with oil, were Zerubbabel, prince of Judah, and (ch. 2,) and foretold the destruction of Nineveh; and Joshua, the high-priest, son of Josedech. Josephus also declared the restoration of the Jews, and their says that when Darius, Hystaspes' son, came to the future flourishing condition, (ch. 3.) M.

throne, after Cambyses, that Zerubbabel, having a great personal friendship for that monarch, returned to Babs

lon, and was appointed one of the royal body-guards. ZEPHATH, a city of Simeon, near to Mareshah, In the celebrated discussion, mentioned in Esdras 3 and a town in the south of Judah. The name signifies a 4, in the court of Darius, as to which was the strongest, watch-tower, from no tzephath, that which beholds; the the king, wine, women, and truth, maintained by three stations of watch-towers frequently became towns. | young men of the guards, Zorobabel argued successfully This city was also called Hormah, or Anathema, on for women and truth, and gained the prize-a purple account of the great destruction made here of the king garment, cups of gold, a gilded bed, a chariot with of Arad's troops by Israel, (Numb. 21. 1-3,) and also bridles of gold, a head-tire of fine linen, a chain of gold, the slaughter of the inhabitants by the tribes of Judah the seat next to Darius, and the title of the king's and Simeon after Joshua's time. (Judges 1. 17.)

cousin. (Josephus, Ant. 11. ch. 3). Zerubbabel, then,

according to Josephus, reminded Darius of his former ZEPHATHAH. The valley of Zephathah, men

promise to rebuild Jerusalem, to which that monarch tioned 2Chronicles 14. 10, was probably so called from

assenting, Zerubbabel returned to Jerusalem with the being near Zephath beforenamed. In this valley Asa,

king's grants, and recommenced the work which had king of Judah, defeated Zerah, king of Cush (in Arabia been forbidden by Cambyses. It was at this period that Petræa.)

the Samaritans obstructing the Jews, Zerubbabel rent 1. ZERAH or ZARA, son of Simeon, and grand- | as ambassador to Darius, in behalf of his countrymen; son of Jacob; head of a family in Israel. (Numb.

and succeeding in his mission, returned to Jerusalem, 26. 13.) He is called Zohar in Genesis 46. 10; and

where it is probable he died. He left seven sons and hence his family were termed Zarhites.

one daughter. M. II. Zerah or Zarah, king of Cush (in Arabia Petræa.) He came against Asa, king of Judah, with an army of a million infantry, and three hundred war

ZIBA, a servant, or steward, in the household of chariots. Asa met him with three hundred thousand | Saul, king of Israel. (2Sam. 9.) Some of the Jews say spearmen of Judah, and two hundred and eighty thou

that he was a Canaanite; and therefore did not recover sand bowmen of Benjamin, in the valley of Zephathah;

his liberty on the death of Saul, but remained in serviand Asa, praying to God, was enabled to overthrow the tude attached to the royal household, when David came Cushites, who fled in disorder; and Asa pursued them

to the throne. David being desirous of showing kindto Gerar, and took much spoil. M.

ness to any survivors of Saul's house, for the sake of

Jonathan, inquired of Ziba if any such remained, and ZERETH. A Hebrew measure, in our version was by him acquainted with the existence of Mephitranslated a span. It was half a cubit, or ten inches bosheth, a son of Jonathan, who was lame, and dwelt at and a half. It was understood to be as much as a man | Lodebar, a place probably beyond Jordan, as the name could measure, with his hand expanded, from the thumb

seems to signify, “ Lod on the other side,” nay T7 to the little finger. The word is derived from 177 zarah, David accordingly sent for Mephibosheth, and spoke to “compass about.” M.

kindly to him, and restored to him the estate of his grandfather Saul, (which on the death of the latter had

been confiscated,) and added the privilege of eating at ZERUBBABEL or ZOROBABEL, son of Sala the royal table, though it was arranged that he should thiel, of the house of David, according to St. Matthew, reside in the house of Ziba David also appointed Ziba St. Luke, Haggai, and Esdras; but son of Pedaiah agent and overseer to Mephibosheth's restored lands ; to according to 1Chronicles 3. 17,19. It has been conjec cultivate them for him, and bring the profits for Mephitured that he was actually the son of Pedaiab, and bosheth's use to Jerusalem, as Ziba had fifteen sons, and grandson of Salathiel, but having been brought up by twenty servants to assist him. In some years afterthe latter, was accounted his son; a custom not un- | wards, when David fled from Jerusalem in consequence common among the Jews. Among the Jews in the of Absalom's rebellion, Ziba came to meet him, bringing Captivity he bore the name of Zerubbabel, signifying | two asses saddled, for the use of any of the king's com“ the stranger in Babylon,” from 7 zur, a stranger, and panions who might be fatigued; and two hundred loaves sa babel, confusion, or Babylon. But on returning to of bread, a hundred bunches of raisins, a quantity of Jerusalem with the restored exiles, he bore the addi summer fruit, and a bottle (or large skin) of wine, for tional name of Sheshbazzar, or “joy in tribulation," the refreshment of the fugitives. from www shusa, joy, 3 be, in, and 773 izarar, tribula- David inquiring why Mephibosheth, to whom he had tion. He was the chief of the exiles who returned;

exiles who returned; | shown such kindness, did not come to him in his disand to his care Cyrus committed the sacred vessels of tress, Ziba, with a view to his own advantage, told the Temple. He restored the religious worship, and the David that he chose to remain in Jerusalem, expecting, usual sacrifices; and refused the Samaritans the permis on account of the civil commotions there, to be raised to sion they sought to assist in rebuilding the Temple, the throne of his grandfather. David believing zita, because the privilege was granted by Cyrus to the Jews and displeased with the ingratitude of Mephibosheth, only. (Ezra 4.2,3.) When the rebuilding of the Temple hastily bestowed on Ziba the whole of Mephibosheth's had been discontinued on account of the obstacles

estate, which was forfeited by treason, if Ziba's tale thrown in the way of the Jews by the envy of the Sama

were true. (2Sam. 16.) After Absalom's overthrow, ritans, Zorobabel was encouraged by the prophets Ziha came, with all his sons and his servants, to meet Haggai and Zechariah to recommence the work, and the David at Gilgal, and escort him over Jordan on his Lord showed Zachariah the vision of two olive-trees | return to Jerusalen. Mephibosheth also came to mets ncar the golden candlestick; which was explained by him, in a neglected and disordered state of dress, Will

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his hair and beard untrimmed, having borne the garb | posed to have been the origin of the classic Vulcan, the and signs of mourning during David's exile; and god of the anvil: the names bear a similarity, the 6 in excused himself for not having previously joined the Oriental language being interchangeable with v; so that king in his misfortunes, by alleging that Ziba, on the Tubal-cain might be pronounced”“ Tuval-cain," or former occasion, had deceived him, that instead of pre | “ Tvul-can.” Zillah had also a daughter, named Naaparing an ass to carry him, as Mephibosheth had ordered, mah, whom the Rabbins say had incestuous intercourse being too lame to walk, Ziba had left him unprovided with her brother Tubal-cain, and was the mother of with means of conveyance, and had gone forward and demons. abandoned him to David. The king appears not to The address of Lamech to his wives, Adah and have been fully convinced in his mind concerning the | Zillah, (Gen. 4. 23,) has occasioned much perplexity to matter, as he neither punished Ziba as one guilty of dis- | commentators; it refers to some occurrence which, obedience and calumny, nor seems to have been entirely though well known traditionally in Moses' time, has reconciled to Mephibosheth as an injured person; for to been so completely lost sight of in the course of the latter's earnest and affectionate speech, he replied, years, as to be now completely unknown; and the “Why speakest thou any more of thy matters? I have meaning and occasion of the address can ‘now only said, Thou and Ziba divide the land.” Nor did he be guessed at. The Rabbinical tradition (which has renew to Mephibosheth the privilege of the royal table. been followed by some Christians) is, that Lamech being (2Sam. 19. 29.)

out hunting, a young man told him that a wild beast Some commentators have thought that David did not was concealed in a particular place; and Lamech, going (as the words seem to imply,) leave half the estate to thither, unawares killed Cain, who was lurking in the Ziba; but that the expression “I have said,” meant, thicket; and being alarmed on account of the vengeance “My former grant shall stand," i.e., the land shall be denounced against him who should kill Cain, and angry Mephibosheth's, and Ziba shall cultivate it for him. with the person who had been the cause of his misBut the majority of the Rabbins say that David did chance, he slew the young man himself; and in the actually divide it between them; and that the sentence recorded speech informed his wives of the occurrence.. was manifestly unjust, Ziba not making any defence, or The Chaldee paraphrase understands interrogatively refuting Mephibosheth's; and some of the Hebrew doc- the words of Lamech, not “I have slain a man to my tors affirm, that in consequence of David's injustice, a wounding, and a young man to my hurt,” according to bath-col, or voice, from heaven declared, that thus would our version; but “Have I slain a man?” and expounds God divide his kingdom between Jeroboam and Reho- it as though Lamech were defending himself from some boam. M.

accusation: “I have not slain a man that I should bear

sin for him; nor destroyed a young man, that my seed ZIF, the second month of the Jewish ecclesiastical should be consumed for him.” year, and eighth of the civil year. It answered to part Others think that Lamech having been the first person of our April and May. It was afterwards called Jyar. to commit polygamy, drew upon himself the resentment We only meet with the name of Zif in 1 Kings 6. 1, as of his kindred, and his wives being apprehensive that he the month in which the foundations of Solomon's temple might slay some one, or be slain himself, he endeavours was laid; and it was probably on that account that it to soothe them by reasoning, observing that he has not was called Zif, 1' i.e., brightness or splendour. This deserved evil by killing any one; Have I slain a man in month contains but twenty-nine days; and its fasts and my contest? and pointing out to them that if it were festivals in the Jewish calendar are as follow:

forbidden to kill Cain under a seven-fold penalty, surely 10th day. A fast for the death of Eli and taking of he, Lamech, who was a much less guilty person, would the ark. (1 Sam. 4. 8.)

be protected under a penalty of much greater magnitude. 14th. The second Passover, for those who were But the conjecture of Lowth appears the most simple unable to celebrate it in the last month. (Numb. and ingenious. He conceives that the speech of Lamech 9. 10,11.)

is an apology for some justifiable homicide that he had 23d. Simon Maccabæus takes Gaza. A feast. committed in self-defence, on some man who had

28th. A fast for the death of Samuel. (1Sam. assaulted and wounded him; and he comforts his wives, 25. 1.) M.

who are anxious about the issue, by reminding them

of the protection extended to Cain's life, a more guilty ZIKLAG, a city in the south part of Canaan. man than himself. Lowth renders the speech: In the division of the land, under Joshua, Ziklag fell to

Hadah and Zillah, hear my voice; the lot of the tribe of Judah, (Josh. 15. 31;) but was

Ye wives of Lamech, hearken to my speech ; "

For I have slain a man because of my wounding, afterwards allotted to Simeon, who had a portion out

A young man because of my hurt. of Judah. (Josh. 19. 5.) But the Philistines kept pos

If Cain shall be avenged seven times, session of it till Achish, king of Gath, bestowed it upon

Certainly Lamech seventy and seven ! David, when he took refuge with Achish from the wrath

Houbigant's translation, of which Lowth approves, of Saul; since which time it always appertained to the gives the same sense, at the beginning of the 23rd verse, kings of Judah. In the absence of David, the Amalek

but more clearly expressed: ites took and plundered it. David was at Ziklag when

I, being wounded, have slain a man: numbers of the different tribes resorted to him, to assist

Being assaulted, a young man. him against Saul; and at Ziklag he put to death the And Lowth adds proofs from the Hebrew of the Amalekite who boasted he had slain Saul in the battle correctness of this construction. M. at Mount Gilboa. (2Sam. 1.) M.

ZILPAH. Handmaid of Leah, whom she gave to

Jacob, and who became mother of Gad and Asher. ZILLAH, one of the wives of Lamech. (Gen.

| (Gen. 30. 9; and 46. 18.) 4. 19.) She was the mother of Tubal-cain, who invented the art of melting metals, and making them into instruments and weapons. The Arabians still call a *ZIMRI. A prince, or head of a family of the tribe plate of brass or iron, tubal. This son of Zillah is sup- of Simeon. When the Israelites, during their journey

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