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APPENDIX.

SYNCHRONICAL TABLE OF SACRED AND PROFANE HISTORY.

THE FIRST AGE OF THE WORLD.

BEFORE

CHRIST. In the beginning God created the heaven and 4004 the earth, &c, and last of all man after his own image.

Man falls from his first state, but is promised a Saviour of the seed of the woman.

The world first peopled after Adam and Eve 4003 had left paradise.

About this time Cain and Abel offer sacrifice, 3875 and Abel is murdered by his brother. Seth born.

3874 Enos born.

3769 About this time men begin to call upon the name of the Lord. Cainan born.

3679 Mahalaleel born.

3609 Jared born.

3544 Enoch, the seventh from Adam, born.

3382 Methuselah born.

3317 Lamech, the father of Noah, born.

3130 Adam died, aged 930 years.

3074 Enoch in the 365th year of his age taken up 3017 to God.

BEFORE

CHRIST Seth died, aged 912 years.

2962 Noah, the father and Patriarch of the new 2948 world after the Flood, born.

Enos; the third from Adam, died, aged 905 2864 years. Cainan died, aged 910 years.

2769 Mahalaleel, the fifth from Adam, died, aged 895 2714 years.

Jared, the sixth from Adam, died, aged 962 years 2582

God commands Noah to preach repentance, and to 2469 build the ark, 120 years before the Flood.

To Noah, aged 500 years, is born Japheth, and 2448 two years after, Shem.

Lamech, the ninth from Adam, died, aged 777 2353 years. He is the first man whom the Scriptures mention to have died a natural death before his father.

Methuselah dies a little before the Flood, in the 2349 969th year of his age. He was the oldest man.

The Flood comes upon the earth in the 600th year of Noah's age.

THE SECOND AGE OF THE WORLD.

SCRIPTURAL EVENTS.

BEFORE
CHRIST.

COTEMPORARY EVENTS IN PROFANE HISTORY,

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The Flood ceases, and Noah, with his family, and the creatures he carried in with him, comes out of the ark, and offers a burnt offering.

Eber born.

Peleg born : so called, because in his days the earth was divided.

About this time Nimrod begins to exalt himself, by laying the first foundation of the Assyrian monarchy.

Åbout this time the posterity of Nimrod begin to build the city and tower of Babel, so called from the confusion of languages which God sent among the workmen.

Reu born.

Mizraim, the grandson of Ham, leads colonies into Egypt, and layeth the foundation of a kingdom, which lasted 1663 years; whence Egypt is called the land of Ham, and the Egyptian Pharaohs boasted themselves to be the sons of ancient kings.

Terah, Abram's father, born.
Noah dies, aged 950 years, 350 years after the Flood.

Abram born; he was 75 years of age when his father Terah died, aged 205 years; so that Terah begat not Abram in the 70th year of his age, but Nabor and Haran, and in the 130th year of his age begat Abram. See Acts 7. 4.

Sarai Abram's wife, (called also Iscah) Haran Abram's brother's daughter, born ten years after her husband.

About this time Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, subdues the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Bela; who serve him twelve years.

Terah, with his family, leaves Ur, of the Chaldeans, and dwells at Haran,

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1921

1920

1913

ABRAM, in the 75th year of his age, is commanded by God to enter upon the land of Canaan.

In the year following a famine in the land forces him to go with his family into Egypt. From this first coming into Egypt to the departure of the children of Israel are reckoned 430 years.

Abram and Lot in this same year return into Canaan; but the land not being sufficient for both their flocks, they part. Lot goes to Sodom.

Bera, the king of Sodom, with four other kings, rebel against Chedorlaomer. Lot being taken prisoner, Abram rescues him.

God promises Abram a son. Canaan is again promised.

Sarai, being barren, gives Hagar to Abram.
Ishmael, Hagar's son, born.

God makes a covenant with Abram, and in token of a greater blessing, changes his name into Abraham.

Lot is commanded to flee from Sodom, and obtains leave to go into Zoar Sodom, Gomorrah, and all the cities in the vale of Siddim, destroyed.

Isaac born, in the 100th year of Abraham's age. Not long after to Lot are born Moab and Ammon, his sons at the same time, and his grandsons.

Hagar and Ishmael are cast forth.
God tempts Abraham to offer Isaac.
Sarah dies at Hebron in the 127th year of her age.
Isaac marries Rebekah in the 40th year of his age.
Shem, the son of Noah, dies.
Jacob and Esau born.

[Little is known of the early progress of population in Europe ; its first colonists were the descendants of Japheth, who appear to have come out of Asia, through Scythia, and hence the early traditions of Greece and Italy ascribe a northern origin to the founders of most of their oldest cities. We have no certain record of the origin of navigation, but from the earliest times the Ægean Sea appears to have been most frequented by ships. The Greek islands between Europe and Asia are so close to each other, and approach so near to both continents, that sailors are hardly out of sight of land, at any period of their passage from Anatolia to Hellas]

1911
1910
1897

1896

According to tradition, China at this period has a regular succession of monarchs.

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1796

1773

1760

1755
1745

139

1729

Abraham dies, aged 175 years.

Heber, the fifth from Noah, dies: from him Abraham and his posterity were called Hebrews.

Esau marries Judith, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite.

Ishmael dies, aged 137 years.

Jacob by his mother's instruction obtains the blessing from Isaac which was designed for Esau ; upon which he is forced to flee into Mesopotamia.

Judah, from whom the Jews are so called, born.

Rachel bears Joseph: Jacob, desiring to depart, is persuaded by Laban to serve six years more.

Jacob, after he had been twenty years in Mesopotamia, sets forward on his journey homewards. He is reconciled to his brother Esau.

Rachel is delivered of Benjamin on the way betwixt Beth-el, or Beth-lehem, and Ephrath, and dies in childbed. Some think that Job lived about this time. • Joseph is sold to Ishmaelites and Midianites, who carry him into Egypt, where he is sold to Potiphar, and by him made overseer of his house.

Joseph is falsely accused, and cast into prison.
Isaac dies, aged 180 years.

Joseph interprets Pharaoh's two dreams; and is made governor of the land of Egypt.

Here begin the seven years of plenty in the land of 1 Egypt. About this time Manasseh and Ephraim, JCseph's two sons, are born.

Here begin the seven years of famine.

Jacob sends his ten sons into Egypt to buy corn; they are imprisoned by Joseph; but are set at liberty on condition of bringing Benjamin.

Jacob sends Benjamin. Joseph makes himself known to his brethren, and sends for his father.

Jacob goes with all his family into Egypt, in the third year of famine, and 130th year of his age, and is seated in the land of Goshen.

Joseph gets the money, lands, and cattle, of the Egyptians for bread; except the lands belonging to the priests.

Jacob dies, aged 147 years. He is carried into Canaan, and buried in the sepulchre of his father.

1718

1716

Supposed era of Deucalion's flood in Thessaly,

[During this period Egypt took the lead in civilization and the arts of life. The valley of the Nile being irrigated annually by the periodical overflowing of the river, early invited the attention of the agriculturist, and thus induced the Egyptians to adopt a settled life. The wealth which they acquired excited the cupidity of the pastoral and wandering tribes beyond the isthmus of Suez, and a long series of wars, carried on with varying success, necessarily followed. In general it may be stated, that agricultural pursuits were the original sources of civilization; those engaged in the cultivation of the earth were forced to collect in towns and villages to protect themselves, their properties and their families, from the wandering tribes of hunters, who had no resource but plunder whenever there was a deficiency of game.

It is probable that the Greek legends of the wars between the Centaurs and the Lapithæ relate to a state of things not very different from the relations between the Egyptians and the Hyksos; for in all ancient his tory we find that Nomade races, and the tribes possessed of fixed residences and permanent occupations, regarded each other as natural enemies.

Recent discoveries appear to prove that some ancient civilized race was exterminated in America by the Nomade progenitors of the Red Indians.]

[About this period many of the races in Western Asia, particularly those who inhabited Syria and Palestine, began to lay aside their wandering habits of life, and fix themselves in permanent dwellings. To this age must therefore probably be attributed the commencement of the erection of those fortifications by which the companions of Caleb were so daunted in a later age. Cyclopic architecture seems to prove that it had its origin in a rocky and varied country, such as Palestine, where it would naturally be suggested to the builders of the first cities by the physical defences which their native fastnesses afforded. According to Oriental tradition, the Philistines, or some nation of cognate origin, were the most celebrated proficients in the art of building among the ancient nations on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean.]

Prometheus, the inventor of many useful arts, is supposed to have flourished in Greece at this period.

1715

1708
1707

1706

1704
1703
1702
1689

1667
1635

Joseph dies, aged 110 years.

The book of Genesis ends in the death of Joseph, containing the history of 2369 years: next to which in |

SACRED AND PROFANE HISTORY.

1401

SCRIPTURAL EVENTS.

BEFORE
CHRIST.

COTEMPORARY EVENTS IN PROFANE HISTORY,

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order of time the book of Job follows, written (as it is generally believed) by Moses.

Levi dies in Egypt, aged 137 years.

Here begins the bondage of the children of Israel, when a king rose up in Egypt, who knew not Joseph.

Aaron born three years before Moses.

Pharaoh commands that all the males of the Israel. ites be cast into the river.

Moses is born, and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter.

Moses, having slain an Egyptian, flees into Midian, where he marries Zipporah the daughter of Jethro, a priest, and lives with him forty years.

Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, born.

Whilst Moses keeps his father in law's sheep at Mount Horeb, God appears to him in a burning bush, and sends him to deliver Israel. Moses and Aaron declare to Pharaoh 'the message on which they are sent to him from God, but are charged with mutiny; and more grievous labours are laid upon the Israelites. God lays ten plagues upon the Egyptians.

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THE FOURTH AGE OF THE WORLD. UPON the fourteenth day of the first month, (which 1491 ) [It is plausibly conjectured that the Pharaoh who was May the 4th, upon Monday, with us,) in the evening,

oppressed the Israelites was not a native Egyptian, but the passover is instituted.

some foreign conqueror who had subdued Lower Egypt. Upon the fifteenth of the same month, at midnight,

According to the traditions of the Arabs, which were the firstborn of Egypt being all slain, Pharaoh and his

probably derived from the Jews, he was an Amalekite, servants send away the Israelites; who on the selfsame

and therefore connected by race with the old enemies of day, being the complete term of 430 years from the first

the Egyptians, the Hyksos, or Shepherd-kings. The pilgrimage of their ancestors, reckoning from Abraham's

destruction of his host in the Red Sea may have enabled departure out of Charran, commence their departure.

the Egyptians to throw off the galling yoke to which At the Red Sea Pharaoh with his host overtakes

they were subjected, and thus prepared the way for the them; Moses divides the waters, and the children of

victorious career of their greatest monarch, Sesostris. It Israel pass through on dry ground; Pharaoh and his

is most probable that the extensive conquests ascribed army following them are overwhelmed by the waters.

to this monarch were effected during the period that the Upon the fifteenth of the second month (our June

Israelites remained wanderers in the Desert.] the 4th, being Thursday) the Israelites come to the wilderness of Zin, where for want of food they murmur

[About this period commerce began to rise into against God and their leaders. Manna is sent from

importance, and several cities acquired distinction, heaven, upon which they lived for forty years.

either as favourable marts for trade, or convenient haltAt Rephidim, the people murmur for want of

ing-places for caravans. It appears that many nomade water: Moses gives them water from the rock in Horeb.

races engaged themselves as carriers for the merchants The Amalekites falling upon the rear of the Israel

and manufacturers of the cities, by which means they ites are discomfited by Joshua.

helped to advance civilization without abandoning their God publishes the Ten Commandments with a

own barbarous and erratic habits. Although no express terrible voice from Mount Sinai, and gives Moses the two

mention is made of the Israelites having met with any tables of the Law in stone. Moses goes down from the

of these trading caravans during their wanderings in the mount, and seeing the people keeping a festival in honour

Desert, the regulations respecting traffic in the Levitical of an idol, breaks the tables of the Law. He burns the

Law render it highly probable that such an intercourse idol, and puts 3000 of the idolaters to death. God

was not infrequent, and was deemed worthy of being commands Moses to make new tables of stone.

noticed by the inspired legislator. ] In the first six months of this year, the tabernacle 1490 is set up in the desert at Mount Sinai, and Aaron and

[It is supposed that cotton goods began to be manuhis sons are consecrated for the priesthood. From the wilderness of Paran, near Kadesh-barnea,

factured in India and in the Assyrian provinces about twelve men are sent to discover the land of Canaan.

this period. Babylonian garments became important The people are about to return into Egypt. God

objects of traffic in the succeeding century. denounces that all who are now twenty years old and

Spinning and weaving had been established long

before in Egypt, as is manifest from the account given upward (except Caleb and Joshua) shall die in the wilderness.

of the furniture of the tabernacle.] In Kadesh-barnea the Israelites continue many 1489 The reign of Danaus in Egypt. days; but that in some places they continued many

The city of Sparta founded. years, appears from there being in the space of thirty

1486 Arcas establishes the kingdom of Arcadia. seven years but seventeen encampings mentioned.

1484 Danaus, expelled from Egypt, settles in Argos.

1480 The city of Troy founded by Dardanus. Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, for raising a mutiny 1471 against Moses and Aaron, are swallowed alive into the earth, with 250 of their associates.

In these thirty-seven years the Israelites by seven- 1 1452 teen encampings having compassed the hill country of Seir and Edom, come to the wilderness of Zin in the first month of the 40th year after their departure out of Egypt. Here Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron, dies. In the fifth month of this year Aaron dies at Mosera, leaving his son Eleazar his successor in the high-priesthood.

Og the king of Basan, coming out against Israel, is ' 1451 Erichthonius succeeds his father, Dardanus, in the destroyed with all his people; and his country possessed

kingdom of Troy. by the Israelites.

Balak, king of Moab, invites Balaam, a soothsayer out of Mesopotamia, to come and curse the Israelites.

1402

SYNCHRONICAL TABLE OF

SCRIPTURAL EVENTS.

BEFORE
CHRIST.

COTEMPORARY EVENTS IN PROFANE HISTORY.

1451

[Probable commencement of the greatness of the Philistines; they appear to have been originally a Nomade race, and not to have abandoned their plundering propensities after they had become a fixed nation.]

Balaam, instead of cursing Israel, blesses them.

Moses and Eleazar number the people from twenty years old and upwards, and find them to be 601,730 men, beside the Levites, from one month old and upwards, 23,000. Moses receives command for the parting of the Land of Promise among the Israelites.

The daughters of Zelophehad have their father's land parted among them, for want of issue male; this cccasions the law for succession in heritages.

God signifies to Moses that he shall die; and Joshua thereupon is declared to be his successor.

Moses goes up to Mount Nebo and there dies, aged 120 years. The Israelites mourn for him thirty days.

Upon the tenth day of the first month (Åpril 30), the Israelites, under the conduct of Joshua, go up out of the river Jordan into the promised land of Canaan. They pass through the river on dry ground. Joshaa sets up twelve stones for a memorial in the channel of Jordan, and taking twelve other stones out of the midst thereof, sets them up at Gilgal, the place where they next encamp.

Jericho taken, and the inhabitants put to the sword.

The Israelites are smitten at Ai, which is afterwards taken and destroyed.

The kings of Canaan combine against Israel, and are miraculously defeated.

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Joshua, now grown old, is commanded by God to divide all the land on the west of Jordan among the nine tribes remaining, and the other half tribe of Manasseh. Having got the whole land into his hands, he divides it among the children of Israel. Death of Joshua.

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After the decease of Joshua, and the elders who outlived him, there succeeds a generation of men which forget God, and mingle themselves with the Canaanites by marriage, and worship their idols. In this time of anarchy and confusion those disorders were committed which are reported in the five last chapters of the Book of Judges. God, being highly provoked, gives them up into the hands of Cushan, king of Mesopotamia; which first calamity of theirs holds them eight years.

Othniel, the son of Kenaz, and son-in-law to Joshua, stirred up by God, defeats Cushan, and delivers the Israelites; and the land rested forty years.

Othniel dying, the Israelites fall again to sin, and are given into the hands of Eglon, king of Moab, who, joining with the Ammonites and the Amalekites, overthrows the Israelites, and takes Jericho. This second oppression continues eighteen years.

Ehud, the son of Gera, is raised up by God to be an avenger of his people. He slays 10,000 of the most valiant men of Moab: and the land rests forty years.

Corinth founded by Sisyphus, the son of Æolus. Reign of Minos in Crete.

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After him Shamgar, the son of Anath, slays 600 Philistines with an ox-goad, and he also avenges Israel.

1307

1305

The Israelites, after the death of Ehud returning to their old sin, are given up by God into the hands of Jabin, king of Canaan; and this thraldom continues twenty years.

Deborah, a prophetess, and Barak, captain of the host of Israel, overcome Sisera, whom Jael afterwards kills in her own tent.

1285 1281 1276

1270

1252
1238
1236

The Israelites, sinning again, are delivered into the hands of the Midianites. "Gideon sent to deliver them.

Gideon dies, and the Israelites, falling back again to idolatry, worship Baal-berith for their god.

Abimelech, the son of Gideon, by the help of the Shechemites, is made king.

Abimelech utterly destroys the city of Shechem. He is killed at Thebez by a woman.

Tolah, the son of Puah, after Abimelech, judges Israel twenty-three years.

Supposed age of the Argonautic expedition.

Laius, king of Thebes, accidentally killed by his son ! Edipus.

War between the Athenians and Cretans, in con sequence of the murder of Androgeos, son of Minos, the Cretan monarch.

The city of Tyre founded.

The Athenians are released from the tribute which they paid to the Cretan monarch, Minos, by the taler of Theseus, who, on his father's death, becomes kung Athens.

The city of Carthage, founded by Queen Dido, Northern Africa.

Edipus expelled from his kingdom.

1235

1233

1232
1228

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The Nemean games instituted.
First Theban war; death of Eteocles and Polynices.
The second Theban war, called that of the Epigoni.
Supposed era of Semiramis, queen of Babylon,
The probable period of the Amazonian war.

1213 1210 1206

1194

Commencement of the Trojan war.

1188 1187 1184

Troy, after a siege of ten years, taken and destroyed by the Greeks.

Commencement of the 20th Egyptian dynasty,

1182

1175 1173 1164

Murder of Semiramis by her son Ninias.

1156

1155

Jair, the Gileadite, succeeds Tolah.

The Israelites, again forsaking God, worship the gods of several nations, and are given up into the hands of the Philistines and Ammonites; which fifth thraldom lasted eighteen years.

Jephthah, the Gileadite, being made captain of the host of Israel, subdues the Ammonites; before the battle he vows his daughter as a sacrifice.

Ibzan, the Bethlehemite, succeeds Jephthal, and judges Israel seven years.

Elon, the Zebulonite, succeeds Ibzan, and judges Israel ten years.

Abdon, the Ephraimite, succeeds Elon, and judges Israel eight years.

Eli, the high-priest, succeeds Abdon, and judges Israel forty years. The Israelites again provoke the Lord to anger, and he delivers them into the hands of the Philistines.

Samson, the Nazarite, as an angel had foretold, is born at Zora.

Samson is betrayed by Delilah, and delivered to the Philistines. He destroys himself and his enemies.

The Israelites take up arms against the Philistines, but with ill success. The ark of God is taken.

The Philistines send home the ark, and it is brought to Beth-shemesh.

The Israelites, by Samuel's persuasion, repent, and God delivers them from the invasion of the Philistines.

The Israelites require a king; whereupon God gives them Saul, the son of Kish, after Samuel had judged Israel twenty-one years.

David, the son of Jesse, the Ephrathite, born at Bethlehem-judah, thirty years before he succeeded Saul.

God rejects Saul, and sends Samuel to Bethlehem to anoint David king.

David, fearing he may fall into the hands of Saul, flees to Gath with 600 men.

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1060

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1055

Saul goes to Endor to consult with a witch. The Israelites are defeated by the Philistines, and his three sons being slain, Saul falls on his own sword.

The Athenian king, Codrus, offers himself a sacrifice for his country, and royalty is abolished in Athens after his death. His sons remove to Asia Minor, and found the Ionian colonies.

The kingdom of Sparta divided between two monarchs of equal power.

The coasts of Asia Minor colonized by the Ionians, who are followed by the Æolians, Dorians, &c., so that the whole eastern coast of the Ægean Sea becomes studded with Grecian cities; all of which rapidly acquired wealth and importance by attention to commerce.

Mitylene, the capital of Lesbos, built.
Magnesia, on Mount Sipylus, colonized.

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Abner carries Ishbosheth, Saul's son, to Mahanaiin, and there makes him king over the rest of Israel.

Abner, affronted by Ishbosheth, revolts to David.
Baanah and Rechab murder Ishbosheth.

The captains and elders of all the tribes anoint David a third time, and make him king over all Israel. He marches to Jerusalem and takes the fort of Zion,

The ark of the covenant brought from Kirjathjearim out of the house of Abinadab, and placed at Zion.

David imparts to Nathan the prophet his purpose of building a house for God; but is answered from God, that this should be done, not by him, but by his son Solomon.

Joab besieges Rabbah, the metropolis of Amnion.
Birth of Solomon.

1045

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