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1404

SYNCHRONICAL TABLE OF

SCRIPTURAL EVENTS.

BEFORE
CHRIST.

COTEMPORARY EVENTS IN PROFANE HISTORY,

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alienates the hearts of ten tribes from him, who make Jeroboam their king.

The priests and Levites, and other Israelites, who feared God, maintain the kingdom of Judah three years; after which time Rehoboam falls to idolatry.

Shishak, king of Egypt, spoils Jerusalem and the temple..

Abijam, the son of Rehoboam, succeeds his father in the kingdom of Judah, and reigns three years.

He obtains a great victory over Jeroboam, kills 500,000 men in one battle, and taketh Beth-el.

Asa, in the 20th year of Jeroboam, succeeds his father Abijam, and reigns forty-one years.

Nadab, in the second year of Asa, succeeds his father Jeroboam in the kingdom of Israel, and reigns not full two years.

Nadab is slain at the siege of Gibbethon by Baasha, who having made himself king over Israel, utterly destroys the whole race of Jeroboam, and reigns twentyfour years. At this time lived the prophets Jehu, Hanani, and Azarias.

Asa destroys idolatry, and, enjoying ten years of peace, strengthens his kingdom with forts and a standing army.

Zerah, the Ethiopian, with an innumerable army, invades Judah; Asa overcomes him, sacrifices to God of the spoil, and makes a solemn covenant with God.

Elah, the son of Baasha, succeeds his father in the kingdom of Israel.

In the second year of Elah's reign, and the 27th of Asa's, Zimri, one of his captains, conspires against him, kills him, and reigns in his stead.

Omri reigns in Israel in the 31st year of Asa.

Omri, having reigned six years in Tirzah, removes the seat of his kingdom to Samaria.

Ahab succeeds his father in the kingdom of Israel, and reigns twenty-two years in Samaria.

Jehoshaphat succeeds his father Asa in the fourth year of Ahab, king of Israel, and reigns twenty-five years in Jerusalem.

Jehoshaphat being settled in his kingdom, and having demolished the high places and groves, in the third year of his reign he sends Levites with the princes to instruct the people in the law.

Ben-hadad, king of Syria, lays siege to Samaria, who, by the direction of a prophet, is beaten off, and a vast number of the Syrians slain.

Ahab, in the 17th year of the reign of Jehoshaphat, makes his son Ahaziah his associate in the government of his kingdom. Jehoshaphat also makes Jehoram his son copartner with him in the government of Judah.

Ahah is slain at Ramoth-gilead.
Ahab being dead, the Moabites revolt from Israel.

Jehoram succeeds his brother Ahaziah in the kingdom of Israel in the latter end of the 18th year of Jehoshaphat, and reigns twelve years.

Elijah is taken up into heaven in a fiery chariot.

Jehoshaphat, grown old, gives to his sons many gifts, with fenced cities in Judæa.

Jehoram, by the death of his father, has the kingdom of Judah to himself, which he holds four years. At this time the Edomites, who ever since King David's time had lived in subjection to Judah, revolt.

Jehoram sets up in Judah, and even in Jerusalem itself, the idolatrous worship of Baal.

Ahaziah succeeds his father in the kingdom of Judah, and reigns one year in Jerusalem.

Jehoram, king of Israel, and Ahaziah, king of Judah, lead their armies to Ramoth-gilead against Hazael. Elisha sends a young prophet with instructions to anoint Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat, king over Israel, who, being proclaimed king, marches to Jezreel, kills Jehoram, and causes Jezebel to be cast out at a window, where she is eaten by dogs.

Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab, seeing her son Ahaziah dead, usurps the kingdom of Judah, destroying those that had right to the succession; but Jehosheba takes Jehoash, being then an infant, and son to her brother Ahaziah, and hides him in the Temple.

Jehoiada, the high-priest, brings out Jehoash, now seven years old, and anoints him king, causes Athaliah to be slain, and restores the worship of the true God.

[Probable age of the commencement of Etrurian greatness. The Etrurians appear to have been at one time masters of the whole of Northern Italy.]

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SACRED AND PROFANE HISTORY.

1405

SCRIPTURAL EVENTS,

BEFORE CHRIST.

COTEMPORARY EVENTS IN PROFANE HISTORY,

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Jehoash, in the 23rd year of his reign, gives orders for the repair of the Temple, committing the charge thereof to Jehoiada, the high-priest.

Jehoahaz succeeds his father, Jehu, in the kingdom of Israel, and reigns seventeen years.

Jehoash, the son of Jehoahaz, king of Israel, is taken into the consortship of that kingdom by his father, in the 27th year of Jehoash, king of Judah, and reigns sixteen years.

Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada the high-priest, for reproving the people of Judah, that fall to idolatry after the decease of Jehoiada, is stoned to death in the court of the house of the Lord by the commandment of King Jehoash, who the next year after is murdered by some of his servants, as he lay in his bed; and Amaziah, his son, succeeds him.

Jehoahaz dies, and Jehoash, his son, succeeds in the kingdom of Israel.

Jeroboam the Second is this year taken into the consortship of the kingdom of Israel by his father, Jehoash, going to war against the Syrians,

Amaziah provokes Jehoash, king of Israel, to battle. Jehoash overcomes him, and takes him prisoner, breaks down 400 cubits of the wall of Jerusalem, and, having spoiled the Temple and the king's house of a vast treasure, returns to Samaria.

Jehoash dies fifteen years before Amaziah, and Jeroboam the Second, his son, reigneth in Samaria forty-one years.

Amaziah, finding a conspiracy against him at Jerusalem, flies to Lachish, where he is murdered ; after whom comes his son Uzziah, or Azariah, in the 27th year of Jeroboam the Second, and reigns fifty-two years in Jerusalem.

Now is held the 13th Jubilee under the two most flourishing kings; in whose times live sundry great prophets in both kingdoms; Isaiah and Joel in Judalı; Jonah, Hosea, and Amos, in Israel. Jonah sent into Nineveh, the metropolis of Assyria, where both king and people at his preaching repent.

Jeroboam, king of Israel (under whom that kingdom came to its full height of glory), dies; after his death all things fall into confusion, and the state is reduced to anarchy, which lasts eleven years and a-half.

Zachariah, the son of Jeroboam, the fourth and last of the race of Jehu, begins his reign over Israel in the 38th year of Azariah, or Uzziah, king of Judah, and reigns six months.

Shallum, the son of Jabesh, at the end of six months murders him in the sight of the people, and reigns one month, in the 39th year of Uzziah, king of Judah.

Menahem, the son of Gadi, going from Tirzah to Samaria, kills Shallum.

Pul, king of Assyria, invades the kingdom of Israel.

Pekahiah succeeds his father, Menahem, in the 50th year of Uzziah, king of Judah, and reigns two years.

Pekah, one of his captains, kills the king in his own palace at Samaria, and reigns twenty years.

Jotham succeeds his father, Uzziah, in the kingdom of Judah, at the age of twenty-five years, and reigns sixteen years in Jerusalem.

Jotham subdues the Ammonites, and makes them tributary for three years.

Ahaz succeeds his father, Jotham, in the 17th year of Pekah, king of Israel, and reigns sixteen years.

This year Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, king of Israel, are confederate against Judah, which strikes a great terror into that nation; the prophet Esay sends a gracious message. Rezin and Pekah now lay siege to Jerusalem, and therein to Ahaz, but are beaten off.

The king of Israel slays of the men of Judah 120,000 in one day, with a great many of the nobility, and carries away 200,000 captives; but these, by the advice of the prophet Oded, are released and sent home.

Hoshea, the son of Elah, murders Pekah, king of Israel, and gets the kingdom into his own hands. Hoshea, by reason of the tumults and disorders which ensued, cannot be said to have reigned till nine years

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Commencement of the 25th, or Ethiopian dynasty, in Egypt.

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after, the state continuing all that time in great confusion, without any form of government.

Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, comes up against Hoshea, and makes him to serve him, and pay him tribute.

Hezekiah succeeds his father, Ahaz, in the kingdom of Judah, and reigns twenty-nine years in Jerusalem.

Hoshea, king of Israel, having consulted with So, king of Egypt, refuses to pay tribute to Shalmaneser; Shalmaneser lays siege to Samaria, and towards the latter end of the third year takes it, and carries away the Israelites captive into his own country. This was the end of the kingdom of Israel, when it had stood divided from the kingdom of Judah 254 years.

Sennacherib, king of Assyria, coming up against Judah, besieges their fenced cities, and takes many of them, but is pacified by a tribute.

Sennacherib, not observing the articles of peace, lays siege to Jerusalem. An angel of the Lord slays 185,000 men in the Assyrian army; and the next morning Sennacherib departs, and returns to Nineveh, where, not long after, whilst he is worshipping in the house of Nisroch, his god, he is slain by his own sons.

Manasseh, at twelve years of age, succeeds his father, Hezekiah, and reigns fifty-five years. God delivers him up into the hands of the Assyrians, who, in the 22nd year of his reign, carry him away captive to Babylon; but upon his repentance God restores him to his liberty and kingdom.

710

708
703

698 693

688

687

686
685

684

[Candaules, king of Lydia, deposed and murdered by Gyges, who founds the dynasty of the Mermnadæ.]

Romulus, the founder of Rome, murdered; and the supreme power usurped by the senate.

[The Medes under Deioces revolt from the Babylonians, and make Ecbatana the capital of their kingdom.]

Numa Pompilius elected second king of Rome.

Corcyra, the metropolis of the island of that name, founded by the Corinthians.

Commencement of the 26th, or Saite dynasty in Egypt,

[Deioces, king of Media, extends his conquests to the river Halys.)

The city of Gela, in Sicily, founded by the Rhodians and Cretans.

Iambic verse invented by Archilochus.
The Dodecarchy established in Egypt.

The Messenians under Aristomenes, revolt against the Lacedæmonians..

The Athenian government changed into an annual archonship.

Asia Minor subdued and occupied by the Cimmerians.

Chalcedon, in Bithynia, founded.

Egypt again formed into one monarchy under Psammetichus.

Saosduchinus, the Nebuchadnezzar of Scripture, ascends the throne of Babylon.

The Messenians, betrayed by the Arcadians, are finally subdued by the Spartans; some exiles who escape found the city of Messina in Sicily.

Tullus Hostilius chosen third king of Rome. Great sea-fight between the Corcyreans and Corinthians.

The battle between the Horatii and Curiatii.

Cypselus abolishes the aristocracy in Corinth, and usurps the government.

Byzantium, now Constantinople, founded by Pausanias, a Spartan king.

Phraortes, king of Media, makes himself master of Upper Asia.

Commencement of the war between the Romans and Sabines.

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656

654

This year Nabuchodonosor, king of Assyria, purposing to make himself universal monarch, sends Holofernes, his general, against Judæa, who lays siege to Bethulia, and there has his head taken off by Judith, a woman of the tribe of Simeon.

Amon, aged twenty-two years, succeeds his father, Manasseh, and reigns two years.

Josiah, a child of eight years old, succeeds his father, Amon, and reigns thirty-one years. In his time lived Jeremiah and Zephaniah, the prophets, and Huldah, the prophetess.

643

641
638

035

634
631
630
626

Thales, the great Ionic philosopher, born.

Tullus Hostilius slain: Ancus Martius is chosen fourth king of Rome.

Phraortes, king of Media, slain, with the greater part of his army, at the siege of Nineveh.

Phrygia subdued by the Lydians.
Asia Minor invaded by the Scythians.
The city and kingdom of Cyrene founded by Battus.

Nabopolassar unites the Babylonian and Assyrian kingdoms.

Tarquinius Priscus acquires great influence in Rome. Draco is appointed law-giver at Athens.

Large bodies of the Gauls cross the Alps, and settle in Northern Italy.

The Veientes subdued by the Romans.
Pharaoh Necho ascends the throne of Egypt.

The Milesian temple of Minerva destroyed by the Lydians.

"Nabopolassar makes his son Nabocolassar (Nebuchadnezzar the Great of Scripture) his colleague in the empire of Babylon.

625

624

In the 12th year of his reign, Josiah begins a reformation in Judah and Jerusalem, and carries it on successfully.

Josiah gives order for the repair of the Temple. Hilkiah, the high-priest, having found a book of the Law, sends it to the king, who hears it read all over to him. He causes the book of (the Law to be read over before all the people, and renews the covenant between God and his people.

. At this time a war breaks out between the king of Egypt and the king of Assyria. Josiah unadvisedly

622

620

616
614

610

SACRED AND PROFANE HISTORY.

1407

SCRIPTURAL EVENTS.

BEFORE CARIST.

COTEMPORARY EVENTS IN PROFANE HISTORY,

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engages in this war against Necho, king of Egypt, and is slain in the valley of Megiddo.

After the death of Josiah, the people anoint Shallum, one of his younger sons, to be their king. After three months' reign he is deposed by Pharaoh Necho, who makes Eliakim, his elder brother, king over Judah and Jerusalem, and changes his name into Jehoiakim; but Jehoahaz he carries along with him captive into Egypt, where he ends his days.

* Jehoiakim, at twenty-five years of age, begins to reign, and he reigns eleven years.

Uriah and Jeremiah prophesy against Jerusalem; the former is put to death, the latter is acquitted, and set at liberty. About this time Habakkuk also prophesies.

This year is Nebuchadnezzar the Great made by his father, a partner in the kingdom of Babylon.

Jehoiakim is put in chains to be carried to Babylon; but upon his submission and promises of obedience is left in his own house, where he lives a servant to Nebuchadnezzar three years.

Whilst Nebuchadnezzar pursues his victories over the king of Egypt, his father dies; which coming to his knowledge, he gives orders for the bringing away of the captives, and posts with a small company the nearest way to Babylon, where he is received as the lawful successor to his father's dominions. He causes to be brought to Babylon what he thinks fit of the vessels and furniture of the Temple, and places them in the house of his god, viz., Belus.

Jehoiakim, having lived three years in subjection to the king of Babylon, falls off, and rebels against him.

The Scythians in Upper Asia are invited to celebrate a solemn festival by the Medes, and are all treacherously massacred.

06

605

Great revolt of the slaves in Scythia.

603

602

599

The lyrical poetess Sappho flourishes at Mitylene. . 601 Great battle between the Lydians and Medes inter

rupted by an eclipse of the sun.

Nineveh destroyed by the Lydians and Medes. 600 Marseilles founded by the Phocæans.

Cyrus the Great born. 597 Camarina in Sicily built by the Syracusans.

Astyages, called in Scripture, Ahasuerus, ascends the throne of Media.

Apries, called in Scripture, Pharaoh Hophra, succeeds his father Psammis in Egypt.

Solon chosen archon of Athens. 5921 Anacharsis murdered for introducing new deities

åmong the Scythians. 590 The kingdom of Cyrene flourishes under Arcesilaus.

594

598

Nebuchadnezzar sends an army, consisting of Chaldæans, Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites, against Jehoiakim; these waste the whole country of Judea, and carry away from thence 3023 captives; Jehoiakim also is taken prisoner and put to death.

Jehoiachin (called also Conias and Jeconias) at eighteen years of age succeeds his father Jehoiakim, and reigns three months in Jerusalem.

Nebuchadnezzar besieges Jerusalem: Jehoiachin with all his kindred and courtiers come out to meet him. Nebuchadnezzar makes them all prisoners, enters Jerusalem, and carries away captive to Babylon the king, his mother, wives, courtiers, magistrates, and 10,000 able men out of Jerusalem, leaving none behind him but the poorer sort of people.

Nebuchadnezzar before his departure from Jerusalem makes Mattaniah, Jehoiachin's father's brother, king, changing his name into Zedekiah.

Zedekiah, beginning his reign at twenty-one years of age, reigns eleven years. In the latter end of the eleventh year of Zedekiah, Jerusalem, after a long siege, is taken by Nebuchadnezzar, and his Chaldæans enter it, Zedekiah flees away by night, but being pursued, is taken, and brought prisoner to Riblah, Nebuchadnezzar's head-quarters; there having first seen his children slaughtered before his eyes, he has afterwards those eyes put out, and, being loaded with chains, is carried away captive to Babylon.

Thus was Judah carried out of her own land 468 years after David began to reign over it, 388 years after the falling off of the ten tribes, and 134 years after the destruction of the kingdom of Israel.

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THE SIXTH AGE OF THE WORLD.

The BABYLONIAN EMPIRE.

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NEBUCHADNEZZAR, proud of his victories over Egypt, and his conquest of Judea and other countries, and boasting the magnificence of his buildings, falls distracted, and is driven from the society of men,

After seven years spent among the beasts of the field, his understanding returning to him, he humbly acknowledgeth the power of God, and his goodness toward him: and is restored to his kingdom. A few days after he dies, having reigned about twenty months together with his father, and forty-three years by himself.

New Tyre governed by judges called Suffetes. Croesus becomes king of Lydia.

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Evil-merodach his son succeeds him in the 37th year of the captivity of Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, who presently gives order for the enlargement of Jehoiachin.

Belshazzar having removed some persons who had murdered his father Evil-merodach, and usurped his throne, succeeds in the kingdom of Babylon.

This year Belshazzar makes a great feast for all his nobles, brings forth all the vessels of the house of the Lord, to the glory of his idols. In the midst of all this jollity a hand appears writing on the wall of the room. Daniel is sent for, who reads the writing, and gives the king the interpretation of it: whereupon Daniel is publicly proclaimed the third man in the kingdom. The same night Belshazzar is slain, Babylon taken by Cyrus, and the empire translated to the Medes and Persians.

Cyrus having given the kingdom of Babylon to Darius the Mede, reserving some palaces in the city for himself, returns through Media into Persia.

THE PERSIAN EMPIRE.

536

535

Cyrus, his father Cambyses, and his father-in-law Cyaxares, both dying, Persia falls to him by inheritance, and Media by contract of marriage. In the first year of his reign he issues an edict permitting the Jews to return home and rebuild their city and temple.

In the second year after their return from Babylon, in the second month, they appoint Levites to oversee the work of the house of God, and lay the foundation of the Temple; the old men lamenting, who fifty-three years before had seen the old Temple standing, and the younger sort rejoicing to see the new one going up.

The Samaritans, by the means of certain courtiers about Cyrus, whom they had bribed for that purpose, disturb the Jews in their work of the Temple.

A grievous plague at Carthage; the children of the citizens sacrificed to appease the gods.

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A great part of Sicily subdued by Machærus, the Carthaginian general. · Polycrates becomes tyrant of Samos.

The Carthaginian senators murdered by an insurgent soldiery.

Death of Cyrus the Great; Cambyses, king of Persia. Servius Tullius murdered by his son Tarquin the Proud, who becomes seventh and last king of Rome.

Death of Peisistratus, tyrant of Athens.
Egypt conquered by the Persians.

Cambyses dying suddenly, the empire of Persia is usurped by the impostor Smerdis, but the deception being discovered by the Persian nobles, Smerdis is slain, and Darius, the son of Hystaspes, elected to the Persian throne.

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I ! Babylon revolts from the Persians, but is retaken by

the stratagem of Zopyrus.

In the beginning of the reign of Artaxerxes (called in profane story Cambyses) the Samaritans, who, whilst Cyrus lived, had secretly undermined the Jews, now openly frame a direct accusation in writing against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem, and present it to the king, who presently forbids the Jews to proceed in the building.

In the second year of King Darius Hystaspes (the same with Ahasuerus) Zerubbabel and Jeshua, incited by the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, set forward the building of the Temple.

About this time Zechariah the prophet exhorteth the Jews to repentance.

Ahasuerus puts away Queen Vashti his wife, and not long after espouses Esther, the niece of Mordecai the Jew.

In the sixth year of Darius, or Ahasuerus, the Temple is finished ; the dedication whereof is celebrated with great joy and abundance of sacrifices, the priests and Levites, every one in his place, attending on the ministry of the Temple. The passover also is celebrated.

Haman, an Agagite, of the race of the Amalekites, a great favourite of King Ahasuerus, offended at Mordecai, resolves to be revenged of the whole nation of the Jews. He obtains an edict from the king, that all Jews, without respect to sex or age, upon the thirteenth day of the month Adar, be put to death in all the provinces of the king's dominions.

Ahasuerus hearing it read in the chronicles, that a conspiracy had been discovered to him by Mordecai, commanded that he be publicly honoured, and that by Haman himself, his deadly enemy

Esther, entertaining the king and Haman at a banquet, makes suit for her own life, and her people's, and accuses Haman. The king, understanding that Haman had provided a gallows for Mordecai, causes him to be hanged thereon. In memory of this great deliverance the two days of Purim are made festival,

514
510

609

505

504 502

500

Darius invades Scythia, but is forced to retreat.

The Peisistratidæ expelled from Athens, and the democracy restored.

The Persians invade India, and reduce a considerable portion of the empire to a province,

The Tarquins are expelled from Rome, and royalty for ever abolished.

Valerius Publicola consul at Rome.

Commencement of the Ionian revolt against the Persians.

Sardis taken and burned by the Athenians and Ionians.

Great victory of the Romans over the Sabines.

The Ionian colonies and Greek islands subdued by the Persians.

Darius sends Mardonius with an immense army to invade Greece.

The first dictatorship at Rome.

Total defeat of the Persian army on the plains of Marathon.

Xerxes I. ascends the throne of Persia.

Coriolanus, banished from Rome, leads a Volscian army against the city, but being induced to grant peace, is murdered by the Volscians.

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