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worship, (2Chron. 15. 16; 30. 14; 2Kings 23. 4;) and Saul was designated by the sacred lot, and David was over which Our Lord passed to enter the Garden of elected by the magistrates for the express reason that Gethsemane, the night before his sufferings and death. God had promised him the throne. Saul was not esta

Mr. Robinson, when at Jerusalem, remarks, “Going blished in his kingdom till after he had delivered the out of the eastern gate, which is that of St. Stephen's, inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead from the Ammonites; and anciently called the Gate of Flocks,' we descended by | the rulers tendered the sceptre to David, because a rapid and rugged path to the brook Kedron. At this | he, in the time of Saul, had defeated the enemies of moment (August 22) it is waterless; but in winter, after Israel. snows and heavy rains, it would appear from its wide “(2.) Moses had likewise ordained that the king stony bed to be a mischievous torrent. It is crossed by should be a native Israelite; thus foreigners were exa bridge of one arch, leading to the Garden of Gethsecluded from the throne, even though they should be promane, an appellation still given to a small plantation of posed by false prophets; for, being heathens, they might olive-trees, occupying the flat space which intervenes transgress the fundamental law of the state by the introbetween the brook and the Mount of Olives, and hedged | duction of idolatry. This regulation had reference round with a dry stone fence.” See JERUSALEM. merely to free elections, and was by no means to be

understood as it was explained by Judas Galileus (Acts KINE. See CATTLE.

5. 37) and the Zealots, during the last war with the Romans, that the Hebrews were not to submit to those

foreign powers under whoše dominion they were brought KING, 750 melech. Though Samuel "peaceably by an all-directing Providence. On the contrary, Moses and religiously judged Israel,” it appears that in his old himself had predicted such events, and Jeremiah and age the tribes in Southern Palestine and beyond the Ezekiel earnestly exhorted their countrymen to surJordan, were particularly earnest for a change in the render themselves quietly to the Chaldæans.” constitution of the land, because they feared that, after With regard to the external qualifications which the the death of Samuel, there would be no supreme magi Jews appear to have required of their kings, comeliness strate, and thus the nation being again disunited they of person and tallness of stature seem to have been the would be left to their fate. The degeneracy of the sons principal requisites. Thus, although Saul was constiof Samuel who had been appointed subordinate judges tuted king of Israel by the special appointment of God, or deputies, increased their apprehensions. They yet it appears to have been no inconsiderable circumtherefore strenuously insisted in their demand: “Nay, stance in the eyes of the people, that he was a choice but we will have a king over us, that we also may be young man and goodly, and that there was not among like all the nations." (iSam. 8. 19.) They had reason the children of Israel a goodlier person than he: from theto hope that a king, who possessed supreme authority, shoulders and upwards he was higher than any of the would unite the powers of the whole nation, and protect people. (1 Sam. 9. 2.) And therefore Samuel said to each tribe with the collected strength of all; that under the people, when he presented Saul to them: See ye him the affairs of government would be more properly him whom the Lord hath chosen that there is none like administered, and necessary aid more readily afforded. him among all the people. (1 Sam. 10. 24.) Hence, They imagined they might be justified in this request, also, David is said to have been “ruddy withal, of a because Moses himself takes it for granted, that the beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to.” (1 Sam. nation would eventually have a king, and the same | 16. 12.) . thing had been promised to their great progenitor Abra- As cavalry could be of little use in the mountainous ham. (Gen. 17. 16; Deut. 28. 36.) Samuel laid their regions of Palestine, and as the king of the Hebrews prayer before the Lord, and then, in obedience to the was never to become a conqueror of foreign lands, or a Divine direction, anointed Saul, the son of Kish, as their universal monarch, he was forbidden to maintain large monarch. (1 Sam. 10. 1.)

bodies of cavalry, or to attempt the conquest of Egypt “By this alteration of the constitution," Professor in order to obtain horses. Jahn observes, “the theocracy was indeed thrown The king was likewise prohibited from multiplying somewhat into the shade, since it could be no longer so wives to himself, that his heart turn not away from the clearly manifest that God was the king of the Hebrews. law and worship of the God of Israel, by his being Still, however, as the principles of the theocracy were seduced into idolatry in consequence of foreign alliinterwoven with the fundamental and unchangeable law ances. How grossly this law was violated by Solomon of the state, their influence did not entirely cease, but and other monarchs, the history of the Jews and Israelites the elected king was to act as the viceroy and vassal of abundantly proves. Jehovah. On this account, Moses had already esta-! In order that he might not be ignorant of true reliblished the following regulations. (Deut. 17. 14-20.) gion, and of the laws of the Israelites, the king was

“(1.) That the Hebrews, whenever they adopted the enjoined to write out, for his own use, a correct copy of monarchical form of government, should raise those only the Divine Law; which injunction was intended to rivet to the throne who were designated by Jehovah himself. | this law more firmly in his memory, and to keep him The will of Jehovah was to be made known by a pro in constant subjection to its authority. For the same phet, or by means of the sacred lot, Urim and Thum-purpose, he was required to read in this copy “ all the mim; and the viceroy-elect was to prove himself an | days of his life, that he may learn to fear the Lord his instrument of God by protecting the commonwealth God, to keep all the words of this law, and these staagainst its foes. The succession of the royal house tutes to do them." depended on the appointment of God, and was indi | Thus the power of the Israelitish kings was circumcated by prophets. Saul, David, and Jeroboam, received scribed by a code of fundamental and equal laws, prothe promise of the throne from prophets, and by them vided by infinite wisdom and rectitude. It appears that was announced the succession of the family of David, the Israelitish kings were by no means possessed of and of the different families in the kingdom of Israel. unlimited power, but were restricted by a solemn stipuThese Divine interpositions were well calculated to lation; although they on some occasions evinced a remind the kings of Him on whom they were dependant, disposition towards despotism (1Sam. 11. 5-7; 22. and to whose choice they were indebted for the throne. 17,18.) They had, however, the right of making war

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and peace, as well as the power of life and death; and gurated, manifestly acknowledged Him to be the Mescould on particular occasions put criminals to death siah whom they expected. After entering the city, the without the formalities of justice, (2Sam. 1. 5-15; 4. kings seated themselves upon the throne, and received 9-12;) but in general they administered justice; some the congratulations of their subjects. (1Kings I. times in a summary way by themselves, where the case | 35,47,48; 2Kings 11. 19,20.) appeared clear, as David did occasionally, (2Sam. 12. The robe which was worn by kings as suited to their 1-5; 14. 4-11; 1 Kings 2. 5-9,) or by judges duly con elevated rank, was costly and gorgeous; and the retinue stituted to hear and determine causes in the king's which attended them was both large in point of numname. (1Chron. 23. 4; 26. 29-32.)

bers and splendid in appearance. (1 Kings 4. 1-24.) Although the kings enjoyed the privilege of granting The materials of which the robe was made was fine pardons to offenders at their pleasure, without consulting white linen or cotton, and that the apparel of the Jewish any person; and in ecclesiastical affairs exercised great monarchs was different from that of all other persons, is power, sometimes deposing or condemning to death even evident from Ahab's changing his apparel before he the high-priest himself, (1Sam. 22. 17,18; Kings 2. engaged in battle, and from Jehoshaphat's retaining his. 26,27,) and at other times, reforming gross abuses in 1 (1 Kings 22. 30.) Among the appropriate ornaments of religion, of which we have examples in the zealous con- the king's person, there was none so rich and valuable duct of Hezekiah and Josiah; yet this power was en- anciently, and there is none so costly and splendid at joyed by them not as absolute sovereigns in their own the present day in Asia, as the royal diadem; which is right; they were merely the viceroys of Jehovah, who irradiated with pearls and gems. They had also a was the sole legislator of Israel; and, therefore, as the chain for the neck and bracelets for the arms. In kings could, on no occasion, either enact a new law, or Persia, a diadem was worn not only by the king himself, alter or repeal an old one, the government continued to but, with a little variation in its shape, by his relations be a theocracy, as well under their permanent admini- and others to whom special favours had been conceded. stration as under the occasional administration of the (Esth. 8. 15.) See Crown. Judges. The only difference that can be discovered! The throne, XD2 kesi, was a seat with a back and between the two species of government, is, that the con- arms, and of a height to render a footstool necessary. duct of the judges was generally directed by Urim, and | (Gen. 41. 40.) On the monuments of Egypt, this form that of the kings, either by the inspiration of God of throne is frequently represented accompanied by the vouchsafed to themselves, or by prophets raised up from footstool. The throne of Solomon is particularly detime to time to reclaim them when deviating from their scribed in 1Kings 10. 18-20. This throne was placed duty, as laid down in the law. The monarch was also on a flooring, elevated six steps, on each of which steps, charged, that his heart be not lifted up above his and on either side, was the figure of a lion, making brethren; in other words, to govern his subjects with twelve of them in the whole. Similar to this was the mildness and beneficence, not as slaves, but as brothers. throne on which the sovereign of Persia was seated to So David styled his subjects his brethren.' (1Chron. receive Sir Gore Ouseley, the English ambassador. It 28. 2.)

was ascended by steps, on which were painted dragons, The inauguration of the Jewish kings was performed | (that of Solomon was decorated with carved lions,) and with great pomp and with various ceremonies. The was overlaid with fine gold. principal of these was anointing with holy oil, (Psalm The royal sceptre appears to have varied at different 89. 20,) which was sometimes privately performed by a times. That of Saul was a javelin or spear, (1Sam. 18. prophet, (1 Sam. 10. 1; 16. 1-13,) and was a symbolical 10; 22. 6,) but generally the sceptre, Waw shebet, was a prediction that the person so anointed would ascend the wooden rod or staff, not much shorter in point of length throne; but after the monarchy was established, this | than the ordinary height of the human form, and was unction was performed by a priest, (1 Kings 1. 39;) at surmounted with an ornamental ball on the upper extrefirst in some public place, (1 Kings 1. 32-34,) and after- mity, as may still be seen in the sculptures of Persepolis. wards in the Temple, the monarch elect being sur This sceptre was either overlaid with gold, or, according rounded by his guards. (2Kings ll. 11,12; 2Chron. to ancient authorities, was ornamented with golden 23.) It is probable, also, that he was at the same time studs and rings. To such sceptres, the prophet Ezekiel girded with a sword. (Psalm 45. 3.) After the king seems to allude. (19. 11.) The sceptre in the hands was anointed he was proclaimed by the sound of a of the kings and gods of Egypt, is generally surmounted trumpet. In this manner was Solomon proclaimed. by the head of the hoopoe, and in some cases the lotus (1 Kings 1. 34,39.) From this ceremony of anointing, flower. If we endeavour to seek for the origin of kings are, in the Scriptures, frequently termed the this ensign of royal authority, we shall find the first anointed of the Lord, and of the God of Jacob. (1 Sam. suggestion of it, either in the pastoral staff that was 24. 6,10; 26. 9,11,16,23; 2Sam. 23. 1.) A diadem borne by shepherds, or in those staves which at the or crown was also placed upon the sovereign's head, and earliest period were carried by persons of high rank, a sceptre put into his hand, (2Kings 11. 12; Psalm merely for show and ornament. (Gen. 38. 18; Numb. 45. 6; Ezek. 21. 26;) after which he entered into a 17. 7; Psalm 23. 4.) solemn covenant with his subjects that he would govern The table of the Hebrew kings and everything conaccording to its conditions and to the law of Moses. nected with it exhibited the same luxurious profusion (2Sam. 5. 3; 1Chron. 11. 3.) The nobles in their turn as characterizes modern Oriental sovereigns, and numbers promised obedience, and appear to have confirmed this were fed from the royal kitchen. This fact may serve to pledge with a kiss, either of the knees or feet. (Psalm account for the apparently immense quantity of pro2. 12.) Loud acclamations accompanied with music visions, stated in 1 Kings 4. 22,23,28, to have been conthen followed, after which the king entered the city. | sumed by the household of Solomon, whose vessels were (1 Kings 1. 39,40; 2Kings 11. 12,19.) To this practice for the most part of massive gold. (1Kings 10. 21.) there are numerous allusions both in the Old Testament, The provisions were supplied throughout the year from (Psalm 47. 1-9; 97. 1,) as well as in the New, (Matt. the twelve provinces into which he divided his domi21. 9,10; Mark ll. 9,10; Luke 19. 35-38;) in which nions, as is the custom, according to Mr. Morier, in last cited passage, the Jews, by welcoming. Our Saviour | Persia to this day. in the same manner as their kings were formerly inau- | A numerous household is to the present day an indis

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on in it; ses, cooks, tobassemblage, so

pensable piece of regal state in the East. Thus, not arable lands, vineyards, olive and sycamore grounds, less than two thousand persons are said by Mr. Jowett which had originally been uninclosed and uncultivated, to be employed about the palace of the emir of the or were the property of state criminals: these demesnes Druses. “We saw many professions and trades going were cultivated by bondsmen, and, perhaps, also by the on in it; soldiers, horse-breakers, carpenters, black- people of conquered countries; and it appears from smiths, scribes, cooks, tobacconists, &c. There was in iSamuel 8. 14; 22. 7, and Ezekiel 46. 17, that the the air of this mingled assemblage, something which kings assigned part of their domains to their servants in forcibly brought to my recollection the description of an lieu of salary. Eastern royal household, as given by Samuel. (1 Sam. 8. (4.) The tenth part of all the produce of the fields and 11-17.)"

vineyards, the collection and management of which There are frequent allusions in the Sacred Writings to seem to have been confided to the officers mentioned in the courts of princes, and to the regal state which they I Kings 4. 7, and 1 Chronicles 27. 25. It is probable, anciently enjoyed. See Courts.

from 1Kings 10. 14, that the Israelites likewise paid a The mode of doing reverence to the sovereign among tax in money. These imposts Solomon appears to have the ancient Persians, was little short of absolute idol- increased; and Rehoboam's refusal to lessen them is atry; and similar prostrations are made by their de- stated by the sacred historian as the cause of the rebelscendants in the present day. On these occasions, it lion of the ten tribes against him. (1 Kings 12. 14,18.) was usual to address them with some compliment, or (5.) Another source of revenue was the spoils of conwith wishes for their long life, and such was the case quered nations, the most valuable portion of which among the Jews. Thus the widow of Tekoah, after became the king's. It was in this way, that David colprostating herself before David addressed him with, lected the most of his treasures. The nations that were “My lord is wise according to the wisdom of an angel subdued in war likewise paid tribute, which was given of God," (2Sam. 14. 20;) and the Chaldæan magi ac- partly in money, and partly in agricultural produce. eosted Nebuchadnezzar with, “O king, live for ever.” (1 Kings 4. 21; Psalm 72. 10.) (Dan. 2. 4.) A similar salutation, according to Roberts, (6.) The tribute imposed upon merchants who passed is given at this day in India. When a poor man goes through the Hebrew territories, and who in the time of into the presence of a king to solicit a favour, he says, Solomon carried on a very extensive and lucrative trade, “O father, thou art the support of the destitute. (1 Kings 10. 22,) particularly in Egyptian horses, and Mayest thou live to old age !"

the fine linen of Egypt. The homage rendered to these monarchs was equally Those who sustained the station of servants and offiesacted by their chief courtiers and favourites of all who cers to the king, were entirely dependent on his will, approached them; thus Mordecai's refusal to prostrate and, on the other hand, for example, as governors of himself before Haman, (Esth. 3. 2.) would have proved provinces, they exercised a similar arbitrary power over fatal not only to bimself but also to the Jewish nation, those who were immediately subject to themselves. had not the malignant design of this wicked man been | Hence it is, that the prophets frequently complain of providentially frustrated. (Esth. 3. 3-6; 5. 13.) their oppressions and violence.

When Oriental monarchs perform long journeys, they The royal officers of every grade were denominatud are surrounded with a great and splendid retinue, and the servants of the king, and, like the Orientals of the formerly sent harbingers before them to prepare all present day, they took a pride in being thus denothings for their passage, and pioneers to open the passes, minated. level the ways, and remove all impediments. The “Those who had the management of the collection of ancient sovereigns of Hindostan used to send persons to the revenues,” says Professor Jahn, “or were entrusted precede them on their journeys, and command the inha- indeed in any way, were not customarily called to an bitants to clear the roads: a very necessary step in a account. In case they were called upon to render an country where there are scarcely any public roads; and | account of their proceedings, they showed themselves when a modern Hindoo of rank has to pass through a prompt at the arts of deception; but the consequence of town or village, a messenger is despatched to tell the an attempt at misrepresenting, or defrauding, was almost people to prepare the way, and to await his orders. To certain ruin. (Lake 16. 2.)” this practice the prophet Isaiah manifestly alludes. King, in symbolical language, signifies the possessor (ch. 40. 3, compared with Malachi 3. l; Matt. 3. 3, and of supreme power, whether lodged in one or more perMark 1. 3.)

sons. (Prov. 8. 15,16.) The term is applied especially The Hebrew kings when they travelled either rode to God, as sovereign over all. (Psalm 10. 16; 29. 10.) on asses and mules, (2Sam. 13. 29; 17. 23,) or rode in It is also applied to the Messiah, (Psalm 2. 6;) and in chariots, being preceded by soldiers, who formed their Job 18. 14 it is applied to Death, who is there called the body guard. (1 Kings 1. 5.) See GUARD.

“king of terrors." In Job 41. 34, leviathan, or the croThe sources of revenue to the Hebrew kings were, no codile, is thus designated: “he is a king over all the childoubt, nearly the same with those in other Oriental dren of pride." In Revelations 15. 3, God is called the countries; from what can be gathered from the Sacred “ king of saints;" and, (ch. 1. 6,) “king” is applied to Writings, it appears that they were derived from the all true Christians who are consecrated to God as kings following sources:

| and priests. (1.) Presents which were given voluntarily. (1 Sam. Roberts observes, in illustration of the passage in the 10. 27; 16. 20.) Michaëlis, however, is of opinion that prophet Isaiah, “Kings shall be thy nursing fathers, they were confined to Saul only, as no trace of them is and their queens thy nursing mothers; they shall bow to be found after his time.

down to thee with their face towards the earth, and lick (2.) The produce of the royal flocks, (1 Sam. 21. 7; up the dust of thy feet," (ch. 49. 23,) “ Thus were 2Sam. 13. 23; 2Chron. 32. 28,29;) and as both king those who had been enemies to Jehovah to bow down and subjects had a common right of pasture in the Ara- and acknowledge his majesty. They were to 'lick up bian deserts, Michaëlis is of opinion that David kept the dust,' which is a figurative expression to denote subnumerous herds there, (1 Chron. 27. 29-31,) which were mission and adoration. “Boasting vain fellow! the king partly under the care of Arabian herdsmen.

your friend! he your companion. You will not have (3.) The produce of the royal demesnes, consisting of even the dust of his feet given you for food.' "The

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minister give you that office! he will not give you the | is used to signify the reign of Jesus Christ on earth and dust of his feet.' 'Alas! alas! for me; I expected his in heaven. (Matt. 4. 17; 5. 3; 7. 21.) See preceding favour; I depended on his word; but I have not gained | Article. the dust of his feet. 'I will not remain longer in this country; I will leave you, and go to reside with the KINGS, BOOKS OF. The Jews entitle these king. With the king! Why, the dust of his feet will books from the initial words, 717792171 Vihammelech not be given you for a reward.' 'Could I but see that David; and in the early editions of the Hebrew Bible, holy man! I would eat the dust of his feet.' So great, the two books constitute but one, with sometimes a short then, is to be the humility and veneration of kings and space or break between them. The more modern copies queens, in reference to the Most High, that they will of the Hebrew Bible have the same division with our bow down before Him, and lick up the dust of his feet.” authorized version; though in the time of the Masorites

they certainly formed only one book, as both (like the

Books of Samuel) are included under one enumeration KINGDOM OF GOD. This is a term of frequent

of sections, versions, &c., in the Masora. They have occurrence in Scripture, and variously applied to the

evidently been divided, at some period now unknown, providential, moral, and evangelical government of

into two parts, for the convenience of reading. The First Jehovah. Thus we read of the kingdom of God, (Psalm

Book of Kings commences with an account of the death 103. 19; Dan. 4. 3,) in reference to his universal empire

of David, and contains a period of a hundred and twentyand dominion over all creatures. We frequently read, in

six years, to the death of Jehoshaphat; and the Second the Evangelists, of the kingdom of heaven; “A phrase,” |

Book of Kings continues the history of the kings of Israel says Dr. Campbell, “ in which there is a manifest allu

and Judah through a period of three hundred years, to sion to the predictions relating to the dispensation of the

the destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem by Messiah, as revealed by the prophets in the Old Testa

Nebuchadnezzar. They were most probably compiled ment, particularly by Daniel, who mentions it as a |

by Ezra from the records which were regularly kept, kingdom which the God of heaven would set up, and

both in Jerusalem and Samaria, of all public transactions. which should never be destroyed. (Dan. 2. 14.) The

These records appear to have been made by the contemsame prophet speaks of it as a kingdom to be given with

porary prophets, and frequently derived their names from glory and dominion over all people, nations, and lan

the kings whose history they contained. They are menguages, to one like unto the Son of Man. (Dan. 7. 13,14;

tioned in many parts of Scripture; thus in Kings 11. Micah 4. 6,7.) The Jews, accustomed to this way of

41, we read of the Book of the Acts of Solomon, which is speaking, expected the kingdom of the Messiah to

supposed to have been written by Nathan, Ahijah, and resemble that of a temporal king, exercising power over

Iddo. (2Chron. 9. 29.) We elsewhere read that Shehis enemies, restoring the Hebrew monarchy, and the

maiah the prophet, and Iddo the seer, wrote the acts of throne of David, to all its splendour; subduing the

Rehoboam, (2Chron. 12. 15;) that Jehu wrote the acts nations, and rewarding his friends and faithful servants

of Jehoshaphat, (2Chron. 20. 34;) and Isaiah those of in proportion to their fidelity and services. Hence the

Uzziah and Hezekiah. (2Chron. 26. 22; 32. 32.) We early contests among the Apostles about precedency in

may therefore conclude, that from these public records, his kingdom; and hence the sons of Zebedee desired the

and other authentic documents, were composed the two two chief places in it.

Books of Kings; and the uniformity of their style favour “ According to the prophecy of Daniel, this kingdom

the opinion of their being put into their present shape was to take place during the existence of the Roman

by the same person. . . empire, the last of the four great monarchies that had

There is every reason to believe that the writer was a succeeded each other, (Dan. 2. 44;) and in the New

priest or a prophet. He studies less to describe acts of Testament it is termed the kingdom of Godor the

heroism, successful battles, conquests, &c., than what kingdom of heaven.' It was typified by the Jewish

| regards the Temple, religious ceremonies, festivals, the theocracy, and declared to be at hand by John the

worship of God, the piety of princes, the fidelity of the Baptist, and by Christ and his Apostles also in the days

prophets, the punishment of crimes, the manifestation of of his flesh; but it did not come with power till Jesus

God's anger against the wicked, and his regard for the rose from the dead and sat down on the right hand of the

righteous. He everywhere appears greatly attached to Majesty on high. (Acts 2. 32-37.) Then was He most

the house of David, and mentions the kings of Israel solemnly inaugurated and proclaimed King of the Uni.

only incidentally; his principal object being the kingdom verse, and especially of the New Testament church,

of Judah and its particular affairs. .. amidst myriads of attendant angels, and the spirits of

The Divine authority of these books is attested by the just men made perfect.' Then were fulfilled the words

predictions they contain; they are cited as authentic and of Jehovah by David, 'I have set my king upon my

canonical by Our Lord, (Luke 4. 25-27,) and by his holy hill of Zion. (Psalm 2. 6.)" "

Apostles, (Acts 7. 47; Rom. 11. 2-4; James 5. 17,18;) This is that spiritual and eternal empire to which Our

and they have held a place in the sacred canon both of Lord himself referred when interrogated by Pontius

the Jewish and Christian churches in every age. Their Pilate, and in reference to which He said, “My kingdom

truth and authenticity also derive additional confirmation is not of this world.” (John 18. 36,37.) His empire,

from the corresponding testimonies of ancient profane indeed, extends to every creature ; for “all authority is

writers. committed into his hands, both in heaven and on earth,” and He is head over all things to the Church; but his

I I. KIR, gxia 7p “Kir of Moab,” (Isaiah 15. kingdom primarily imports the Gospel church, which

1,) afterwards called Karach, Xapakuwßa, a principal is the subject of his laws, the seat of his government,

city of the Moabites, was ravaged by the IIebrews under and the object of his care; and being surrounded with

Jehoram. (2Kings 3. 25.) As synonymous with it is powerful opposers, He is represented as ruling in the midst of his enemies.

Hareseth. It was reduced to ruins by the Assyrians and

Chaldæans. (Isai. 16. 7,11; Jerem. 48. 31.) See RabKINGDOM OF IIEAVEN. This is an expres- | Batu MOAB. sion which frequently occurs in the New Testament, and II. Kir is the name of a people and region under

קיר חרשׂ considered

Kir קיר חרשת Kir Hares


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ed captive, had emigrated. he tribes of Bend of

the dominion of the Assyrians, (Isai. 22. 6,) where the (4.) Kirjath-Jearim, or the city of forests, called also conquered Syrians were carried captive, (2Kings 16. 9; Baalah, (Josh. 15. 9,) likewise Kirjath-Baal, (15. 60,) Amos 1. 5,) and whence the Aramæans had emigrated. was a town situated on the confines of the allotments to (Amos 9. 7.) Part of the inhabitants of Kir served in the tribes of Benjamin and Judah. Hence it is reckoned the army of Sennacherib. It is thought to be a country among the cities of both tribes, (Josh. 15. 60; 18. 28;) through which flows the river Kur as it is called by the but in Judges 18. 12 it is called Kirjath-Jearim in Russians, or Kier as it is termed by the Persians; the Judah. Here the ark of the covenant remained twenty Kuros (Cyrus) of the Greeks. This river unites its years after its removal from Beth-Shemesh, until David, waters to the Aras, or Araxes, and empties itself into having obtained possession of Jerusalem, fixed the sancthe Caspian Sea under the 39th degree of north latitude. tuary in that city. (1Sam. 6. 21; 1Chron. 13. 6.) Professor Jahn thinks that the Usbecks, who dwell here to (5.) Kirjath-Sannah, or the city of the Law, was a this time, may be the descendants of the Syrian captives. city in the tribe of Judah. (Josh. 15. 49.)

(6.) Kirjath-Sepher, or the city of writing, otherwise KIRJATH, n'y from 72 kireyah, which de- called Debir, a city in the tribe of Judah, which was notes a city. There was a place of this name in the captured from the Canaanites by Othniel. (Josh. 15. territory of the tribe of Benjamin, (Josh. 18. 28;) and 15,16; Judges 1. 11.) Concerning the import of its the following proper names of cities are compounded name, there is a difference of opinion; some consider it with this word:

to have been a seat of learning, while others, from Debir, (1.) Kirjathaim, or the double city. (Numb. 32. 37; signifying an oracle, imagine that it was a seminary for Josh. 13. 19.)

the education of priests. In either view the circum(2.) Kirjath-Arba, (Gen. 23. 2,) an ancient name of stance is remarkable, because it occurs as early as the Hebron. The antiquity of this city is emphatically days of Joshua, and it was evidently an establishment asserted in Numbers 13. 22, where it is said, “Hebron by the Canaanites previous to the Hebrew invasion. was built seven years before Zoan, in Egypt.” It was celebrated not only as the place of the sojourning of KISH, the son of Abdiel, also called Ner, was the Abraham, and as containing in its vicinity the family father of Saul, of a humble family in the tribe of Bencemetery of the patriarchs, but also for its being the jamin. He was both a shepherd and a warrior, conresidence of the court of David until he obtained the formably to the custom of the times, and his valour is entire dominion over Israel. See HEBRON.

| eulogized in the Scriptures. (1Sam. 14. 51; 1Chron. (3.) Kirjath-Huzoth, or the city of streets, a royal | 8. 30; 9. 39.) city of Balak, king of Moab. (Numb. 22. 39.)

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KISHON. “That ancient river, the river Kishon," swollen in the rainy season. It was probably at this (Judges 5. 21,) now called the Makattam, falls into the season when, replenished by its numerous tributary bay of Acre, and has its source in the hills to the east of streams, the Kishon becomes a deep and impetuous the plain of Esdraëlon, which it intersects. At the foot torrent, that the bands of Sisera perished in its waters. of Mount Carmel it forms two streams, one of which Like several other streams in Palestine, the Kishon does flows eastward into the sea of Galilee, and the other not run with a full current into the sea, except in the taking a westerly direction, through the plain of Esdraë- time of the rains, but percolates through the sands lon, empties itself into the Mediterranean. Except when which interpose between it and the sea. swollen by the rain or melting snows, it is but a small This river is celebrated for the slaughter on its banks stream. When Maundrell crossed it, in his way to of the prophets of Baal, by the prophet Elijah, (1 Kings Jerusalem, its waters were low and inconsiderable; but 18. 4;) but it is immortalized by the song of Deborah in passing along the side of the plain, he observed the and Barak: “ The kings came and fought, then fought tracts of many tributary rivulets flowing down into it the kings of Canaan in Taanach, by the waters of from the mountains, by which it must be greatly | Megiddo; they took no gain of money. They fought

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