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from heaven; the stars in their courses fought against other has touched it; then the inferior puts his own Sisera. The river of Kishon swept them away.” (Judges fingers to his lips, and afterwards to his forehead. It 5. 19-21.)

seems, according to Pitts, to be a common practice among Mr. Robinson observes, “Towards the south-east the Mohammedans, that when they cannot kiss the hand corner of the bay is a considerable stream called Makat- of a superior, they kiss their own, and put it to their tam, the ancient Kishon. It takes its source in the hills forehead; thus, also, they venerate an unseen being, of the plain of Esdraëlon. Approaching the sea, it whom they cannot touch. But the custom existed long divides itself into several branches, its waters serving before the age of Mohammed; for in the same way the to irrigate the gardens through which it passes. In the | ancient idolaters worshipped their distant or unseen winter months, when swollen by heavy rains, it is quite deities. “If,” said Job, “I beheld the sun when it impassable, and many accidents have occurred to travel shined, or the moon walking in brightness, and my heart lers imprudently attempting to ford at such periods. bath been secretly enticed, and my mouth hath kissed Another stream from the same source flows eastward my hand, this also were an iniquity to be punished by into the sea of Galilee. “The source of the river has by the judge; for I should have denied the God that is several travellers been traced to Mount Tabor; but Dr. above.” (Job 31. 26.) Shaw affirms that, in travelling on the south-eastern The rescripts of authority were anciently kissed when brow of Mount Carmel, he had an opportunity of seeing received, whether they were believed to be just or not;. the sources of the river Kishon, three or four of which the letters of persons of rank were treated in the same lie within less than a furlong of each other, and are manner: and the public documents of Oriental sovecalled Ras-el-Kishon, or the head of the Kishon. Not- reigns are still most reverently regarded. withstanding Shaw's assertion, the statement that the Our Saviour says, “ Thou gavest me no kiss; but this Kishon rises in Mount Tabor has been repeated by later woman since the time I came in hath not ceased to kiss writers with much confidence. Buckingham says, in my feet.” (Luke 7. 45.) In illustration of this passage, reference to Mount Tabor, that near the foot of the Roberts remarks, “ See that poor woman, whose husband mountain, on the south-west, are “the springs of Ain- has committed some crime for which he is to be taken to el-Sherrar,” which send a perceptible stream through the the magistrate; she rushes to the injured individual, she centre of the plain of Esdraëlon, and form the brook casts herself down and begins to kiss his feet; she Kishon of antiquity. It seems probable that these touches them with her nose, her eyes, and ears, and statements may be reconciled by supposing that the forehead, her long hair is dishevelled, and she beseeches remoter sources of the river are really in Mount Tabor; the feet of the offended man to forgive her husband. but that the supplies derived from this source dry up in 'Ah! my lord, the gods will then forgive you.' 'My summer, when not augmented by rains or torrents; husband will in future be your slave, my children will whereas the copious supply from the nearer springs at love you, the people will praise you; forgive, forgive, Ras-el-Kishon, with other springs lower down, keep it my lord."" up from that point as a perennial stream even during | St. Paul frequently speaks of the kiss of peace which the drought of summer. Thus, during one part of the was in use among believers, and was given by them to year, the source of the full river will appear to be in one another as a token of charity and union. (Rom. 16. Mount Tabor, while, during another part, the Ras-el- | 16; 1Cor. 16. 20; 2Cor. 13. 12.) The kiss of peace Kishon will be the source of the diminished stream. forms part of one of the rites of the Romish church.

It is given immediately before the communion; the KISS, a mode of salutation and token of respect, clergyman who celebrates mass kissing the altar, and which has been practised in most nations, and likewise embracing the deacon, saying, “Pax tibi, frater, et amongst the Jews. At the inauguration of their kings ecclesiæ sanctæ Dei;” the deacon does the same to the there was the kiss of homage, which was given by the sub-deacon, saying, “Pax tecum;" the latter then principal men of the kingdom as a pledge and proof of salutes the others. their determination to do what they had promised; they Kissing the foot or toe has been required by the popes kissed either the feet or knees of the person inaugurated as a sign of respect from the secular power since the Psalm 2. 12 seems to be an allusion to this.

eighth century. The first who received this honour was It was customary, in ancient times, to kiss the beard, Pope Constantine I. It was paid him by the emperor (2Sam. 2. 19,) which is now practised by the Arabs. Justinian II., on his entry into Constantinople, in 710. D'Arvieux, describing the assembling together of several Valentine I., about 827, required every one to kiss his of the Arab princes at an entertainment, says, “ All the foot; and from that time, that mark of reverence appears emirs came together a little time after, accompanied by to have been expected by all popes. When the ceretheir friends and attendants, and after the usual civili- mony takes place, the pope wears a slipper with a cross, ties, kissings of the beard, and of the hand, which every which is kissed. In more recent times, Protestants have one gave and received according to his dignity, they sat not been required to kiss the pope's foot, but merely to down upon mats."

bend the knee slightly. It is extremely probable that Judas betrayed Our Lord in the same way, by kissing his beard. The Evangelists, Matthew and Mark, say, that he came directly to KITE, 7X ayyah, (Levit. 11. 14; Job 28.7;) Jesus, and said, Hail, Master, and kissed him; but Luke Sept. LKTIV; Vulg. vultur. In the first of these passages seems to hint that Judas saluted him with more respect. some species of hawk is no doubt intended. The kite Jesus, according to St. Matthew, had time to say, before is common in Palestine, and there are seven species or he received the kiss from Judas, “Friend, wherefore art varieties of hawk, of which we know only the specific thou come?" And while Judas was kissing his beard, distinctions of two, the noble falcon (Falco gentilis), Jesus might with great propriety express himself as St. and the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). In size the kite is Luke relates, “Judas, betrayest thou the son of man larger than the common buzzard. The head and back with a kiss?" An Oriental pays his respects to a person are of a pale ash colour, which is varied across the shafts of superior station by kissing his hand and putting it to of the feathers by longitudinal lines. The neck is his forehead; but if the superior be of a condescending reddish; the feathers covering the inside of the wings temper, he will snatch away his hand as soon as the are red, with black spots in the centre; and the lesser

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on putrid length, it is about three eli he or nine. The store. This little buildin

of a pure ir nos- food ever ben..

rows of the wing feathers are party-coloured, black, red, “Blessed shall be thy basket and thy store." The Heand white.

brew reads, "dough or kneading-trough." Roberts states The word ayyah is rendered “vulture," in Job 28.7, and that “Eastern farmers have large baskets made of palit is supposed that the Pultur fulvus, or griffin vulture, mirah leaves, or other materials, for the purpose of keepis here intended. This is a noble bird, diffused over the ing their grain: they will contain from one hundred to south of Europe, Turkey, Persia, and Africa. It feeds one hundred and fifty parahs. These baskets then on putrid flesh, and makes its nest in the clefts of the were to be blessed; they were not to be injured by anirock. In length, it is about three feet six inches, with mals, nor robbed by man. But corn is also kept in a an expanse of wings reaching to eight or nine. The store which is made of sticks and clay, in a circular colour of the full-grown bird is a deep rufous grey, form. This little building is always elevated, to keep becoming black on the quill feathers and tail. The the grain from the damp, and is situated near to the head and neck are not entirely bare, but are covered with house. When beggars have been relieved, they often a short close down; the fine ruff is of a pure white. say, “Ah! may the place where you make ready your The family of vultures have naked heads, but their nos- | food ever be blessed: May the rice-pot ever prosper.' trils are perpendicular. "The family of griffins have Thus that which corresponds with the kneading trough' rather small heads and long bills, surrounded at the base of the Hebrews, has also its benediction." by tufts of bristles. Though unknown in England, the vulture is common in many parts of Europe; and in KNEE, yha berech. (Psalm 109. 24.) The Egypt and Arabia it is found in great abundance. In

Hebrew word, as a verb, signifies to bend the knee, Egypt, particularly in Grand Cairo, there are large (2Chron. 6, 13,) also to bless, to pronounce or give a flocks of them, which render an important service to the

| blessing, because the person blessed kneels. In this inhabitants by devouring all the filth and carrion, which

sense it refers to the benediction of dying parents, (Gen. might otherwise render the air pestilential. The vulture

27. 4,7,10,19;) of the priest to the people, (Levit. 9. was a bird held sacred by the Egyptians. See VULTURE.

22,23;) of a prophet. (Numb. 24. 1; Deut. 33. 1.) It

also signifies to salute, which is connected with blessing. KITRON, a city in the tribe of Zebulun, which

(2Kings 4. 29.) In relation to God, to praise, to thank that tribe could not take from the Canaanites. (Judges

Him. (Deut. 8. 10; Psalm 16. 7.) 1. 30.) The place is noted in the Talmud for being the

The expression is also in another form used in referseat of a university in which Rabbi Judah the Holy

ence to camels, as to make them bend the knee in order

to take rest: “ And he made his camels to kneel down taught, and who died there.

without the city." (Gen. 24. 11.)

To bow the knee is to perform an act of worship, KNEADING TROUGH, noxud mishareth. (1 Kings 19. 18,) and in this sense it is used in the (Exod. 12. 34.) Gesenius says, “probably a wooden Hebrew in Isaiah 66. 3: “He that worships idols," is, bowl which contains the dough, such as is still in use literally, “He that bows the knee" to them. among the Arabs.” See Dough.

That kneeling was the posture of prayer we learn On the monuments of Egypt we find the various pro- from 2Chronicles 6. 13; Daniel 6. 10; Luke 22. 4); cesses of making bread represented with great minute- | Acts 7. 60; Ephesians 3. 14. ness. Men were chiefly occupied in it as with us at the Knees are sometimes put symbolically for persons, as present day. Their grain was ground in hand-mills, or in Job 4. 4; Hebrews 12. 12. pounded in mortars, and then kneaded into dough, which was sometimes done by the hand, in a large cir

I KNIFE, Saxo maacheleth. (Gen. 22. 6; Judges cular bowl, or in a trough with the feet. See BREAD;

19. 29; Prov. 30. 14.) This word is generally underCAKE; OVEN.

stood of the knife used in eating, but the Jews doubtThe process of making bread in Egypt is now generally performed in villages by women, among whom

less had knives of various forms for different purposes,

and probably they were such as we see represented on proficiency in that art is looked upon as a sort of accom

the monuments of Egypt. The knife used by the fisherplishment. Except in large towns, each family bakes its own bread, which is usually made into small cakes

man for splitting his fish was of a circular form with a

handle, as likewise that used by the currier for cutting and eaten new; the climate not admitting of its being kept long without turning sour. When the dough is

leather, only larger and heavier. Flint knives were sufficiently kneaded, it is made up into a round flat

used by the Egyptians.

In the Egyptian room of the British Museum, various cake, generally about a span in width, and a finger's breadth in thickness. A fire of straw and dung is then

specimens of knives may be seen. There are some kindled on the floor or hearth, which, when sufficiently

small knives, the blades of bronze, the handles composed

of agate or of hematite. There is likewise a species of heated, is removed, and the dough being placed on it,

bronze knife with lunated blade, the other end termiand covered with hot embers, is thus soon baked. Sometimes a circle of small stones is placed upon the

nating in the fore part of an ibex, wearing an ôskh

inlaid with gold; also, the blade of a knife, composed of hearth after it has been heated, into which some paste is

steatite, inscribed on one side with hieroglyphics, poured, and covered with hot embers: this produces a kind of biscuit.

“ Phtahmôs, great sotem, and atlophoros;" there is

besides an iron knife of a late period and peculiar conMr. Lane says, “Bread is called by the Arab Egyp

struction; it consists of a broad cutting blade, moving tians by a name which also signifies 'life,' and the respect they pay to it is excessive, on no account suffer

on a pivot at the end, and working in a groove by means

of a handle. ing the smallest portion of it to be wasted if they can help it. I have often observed an Egyptian take up a I KNOP, mind caphlor. (Exod. 25. 31,33,34.) small piece of bread, which had by accident fallen into Sept. opaipwrnpns; Vulg. sphærulæ. This was an the street or road, and, after putting it before his lips ornament of the golden candlestick, probably of a gloand forehead three times, place it on one side, in order bular form resembling fruit. Kimchi and Sadias render that a dog might eat it, rather than let it remain to be the word “apples;" and Josephus polo kot, "pometrodden under foot.” In Deuteronomy 28. 5, it is said, granates."

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KNOW. To know, is used in a variety of senses | fulness, power, and mercy. Of the Son; as it relates to in the Scriptures. It signifies particularly to under the dignity of his nature, (1John 5. 20,) the suitableness stand, (Ruth 3. 11,) to approve of and delight in, of his offices, (Heb, ch. 9,) the perfection of his work, (Psalm 1. 6; Rom. 8. 29,) to cherish. (John 10. 27.) (Psalm 68. 18,) the brightness of his example, (Acts

In Job 7. 10 we read, “He shall return no more to 10. 38,) and the prevalency of his intercession. (Heb. his house, neither shall his place know him any more." 7. 25.) Of the Holy Ghost as equal with the Father Upon this Roberts observes, “ Inanimate objects are and the Son; of his agency as an enlightener and comoften spoken of as if they know their owners. A man forter; as also in his work of witnessing, sanctifying, who has sold his field, says, “That will not know me and directing his people. (John ch. 16; Rom. 8. 16; any more. Does a field not produce good crops, it is 2Cor. 3. 17,18.) said, “That field doth not know its owner.' Has a man been long absent from his home, he asks when entering

KOHATH, the son of Levi, was the head of the the door, 'Ah! do you know me? Does he after this

Kohathites, (Gen. 46. 11,) who were appointed to carry walk through his garden and grounds, the servants say,

the ark and sacred vessels of the tabernacle, during the “Ah, how pleased these are to see you! Has a person marches of the Israelites. (Numb. 4. 1-15.) been unfortunate at sea, it is said, “The sea does not

KORAH, the son of Izhar, and grandson of Levi, know him."

(Exod. 6. 21,) conspired with Dathan and Abiram In Psalm 138. 6, “ Though the Lord be high, yet

against Moses, being dissatisfied with the rank he held hath he respect unto the lowly; but the proud he

among the sons of Levi, and envying the authority of knoweth afar off.” Roberts says, “This is truly Ori

Moses and Aaron. (Numb. 16. 1-3.) When Korah for ental, 'I know him afar off. Let him be at a great dis

his rebellion was swallowed up, his sons were preserved. tance; allow him to conduct his plans with the greatest |

From him were descended the sons of Korah, a Levisecrecy; yet I compass his path, I am close to him.

tical family of singers, whom David appointed to guard You pretend to describe the fellow to me; I know him

the doors of the Temple. (1Chron. 9. 19.) Ten Psalms well; there is no need to go near to him, for I can

(42—47. 84. 85. 87. 88) are inscribed “for the sons of recognise him at the greatest distance. See how he

Korah;" but who these persons were is not altogether carries his head; look at his gait; who can mistake his

certain. Professor Stuart thinks it probable that they proud bearing?' 'How does your brother conduct him

were the descendants of Korah, who perished in the self? “I cannot tell, for he knows me afar off.""

rebellion. The title was probably affixed by some editor

of a later age, who knew only the general report that KNOWLEDGE OF GOD, is a term often taken

the Psalms in question belonged to the sons of Korah, for the fear of God and the whole of religion. This

and could obtain nothing certain as to the individuals knowledge is accompanied with veneration for the

who were their respective authors. Such is the uncerDivine Being, (Psalm 89. 7,) love to Him as an object tainty of

tainty of the prepositional prefix, that many eminent of beauty and goodness, (Zech. 9. 17,) humble confi- |

critics have doubted whether these Psalms were written dence in his mercy and promises, (Psalm 9.10,) and sin

by them, or were composed for them, and to be percere, uniform, and persevering obedience to his word.

o formed by them with music in the Temple. (1John 2. 3. It may further be considered as includding a knowledge of God the Father; of his love, faith-| KORBAN. See CORBAN.

BAN.

LABAN, 105 the son of Bethuel, and grandson of with much truth,) that could Alexander revisit India, he Nahor, was brother to Rebekah, and father of Rachel would find the same customs and manners that prevailed and Leah. The incidents of his life are related in the in his day. From age to age the fashions and usages Book of Genesis, and some of them may be here briefly are carefully and reverently adhered to. When the noticed, as they both afford and receive illustration from eldest daughter is deformed, or blind, or deaf, or dumb, the present usages of the East.

then the younger may be given first; but under other In Genesis 29. 18,19 we read that Jacob said to circumstances, it would be disgraceful in the extreme. Laban, “I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy Should any one wish to alter the order of things, the younger daughter. And Laban said, It is better that I answer of Laban is given. Should a father, however, give her to thee, than that I should give her to another have a very advantageous offer for a younger daughter, man; abide with me.” Roberts informs us, “So say he will exert all his powers to get off the elder; but fathers in the East under similar circumstances. The until this can be accomplished, the younger will not be whole affair is managed without anything like a consul- married. Younger brothers are sometimes married first; tation with the maiden. Her likes and dislikes are out but even this takes place but very seldom." Roberts. of the question. The father understands the matter “And Jacob beheld the countenance of Laban, and perfectly, and the mother is very knowing. This system, behold it was not towards him as before.” (Gen. 31. 2.) however, is the fruitful source of that general absence of The Hebrew reads, “as yesterday and the day before.” domestic happiness which prevails there. She has So also in Isaiah 30. 33, the words translated, “of old," perhaps never seen the man with whom she is to spend are in the Hebrew, as given in the margin, “from yesher days. He may be young; he may be aged; he may terday.” “ The latter form of speech,” Roberts says, “is be repulsive or attractive. The whole is a lottery to truly Oriental, and means time gone by. Has a person her. Have the servants or others whispered to her lost the friendship of another, he will say to him, “Thy something about the match? She will make her inqui- face is not to me as yesterday and the day before.' Is a ries; but the result will never alter the arrangements; man reduced in his circumstances, he says, “The face of for though her soul abhor the thought of meeting him, God is not upon me as yesterday and the day before! yet it must be done.”

The future is spoken of as to-day and to-morrow: ‘His In verse 26 of the same chapter it is said by Laban, face will be upon me to-day and to-morrow;' which “It must not be so done in our country to give the means always. I will love thee to-day and to-morrow.' younger before the first born.” “It has been said, (and 'Do you think of me?' 'Yes, to-day and to-morrow.'

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Modeliar, have you heard that Tamban is trying to ! In Ecclesiastes 6. 7, it is said, “ All the labour of man injure you? 'Yes; and go and tell him that neither is for his mouth, and yet the appetite is not filled.” to-day nor to-morrow will he succeed.' In Eastern lan 66. My friend,' says the sage to the diligent and successguage, “yesterday and the day before, signify time past; ful merchant, 'why are you so anxious to have riches? but “to-day and to-morrow,' time to come.”

Know you not that all this exertion is for the support “And early in the morning Laban rose up, and kissed of one single span of the belly ? Tamby, you and his sons and his daughters, and blessed them; and Laban your people work very hard; why do you do so?' The departed, and returned unto his place.” (Gen. 31. 55.) | man will look at you for a moment, and say, 'It is all Roberts here remarks, “Early rising is a universal for the belly.'” Roberts. custom in the East. Thus, in every season of the year, the people may be seen, at sunrise, strolling in all directions. At the time of the heavy dews, they bind a part

LABOURER. See HIRELING. of the robe round the head, which also falls on the LACE. The word song phathel, is by our translashoulders. When a journey has to be taken, were they tors in some places rendered “lace,” (Exod. 28. 28,37,) not to rise early, they would be unable to travel far in others 6 thread,” (Judges 16. 9,) or “line." It is also before the sun had gained its meridian height. They used in reference to the lace by which the seal among the therefore start a little before daylight, and rest under Orientals is suspended. (Gen. 38. 18,25.) They usually the shade during the heat of the day. Here also we wore the seal or signet round the neck, fastened to have another instance of the interesting custom of bless a string, hanging down before the breast, as is now cus-ing those who were about to be separated. A more tomary among the Persians. pleasing scene than that of a father blessing his sons

In Exodus 28. 28, in the directions for the apparel and daughters can scarcely be conceived. The fervour and ornaments of the high-priest, it is said, “They shall of the language, the expression of the countenance, and

bind the breast-plate by the rings thereof unto the rings the affection of their embraces, all excite our strongest of the ephod with a lace of blue.” Something similar sympathy. 'My child, may God keep thy hands and to this may be discovered in the costume of the Egyptian thy feet. May the beasts of the forest keep far from priests. In a tunic, if it was fringed, it was generally thee! May thy wife and thy children be preserved! |

blue, as also the selvage, which was a favourite colour • May riches and happiness ever be thy portion!”

for ornament in dress. LABAN occurs in Deuteronomy 1. 1, as the name

LACHISH, was a city of the tribe of Judah, was of a place beyond the Jordan, in the plains of Moab; it is

situated about twenty miles south-west of Jerusalem. otherwise unknown.

Its king was one of the assistants of Adonizedek, against

the Gibeonites, and whose kingdom Joshua destroyed. LABOUR. It was the Divine command given

(Josh. 10. 5,32; 12. ll; 15. 39.) It was fortified by on Mount Sinai, “Six days shalt thou labour, and do all

Rehoboam; and Amaziah fled to it when his servants thy work.” (Exod. 20. 9.) Michaëlis observes, “It was a part of the good treat

conspired against him. (2Chron. 11.9; 2Kings 14. 19.) ment due to domestic animals that they were to be

Lachish was besieged by Sennacherib, (2Kings 18. 14,).

and afterwards by Nebuchadnezzar; by the latter it is allowed to share the enjoyment of the Sabbatical rest. On the people's own account, this was no doubt neces

presumed to have been taken and demolished. (Jerem.

34. 7.) No remains of it are now known to exist. sary, because, in general, beasts can perform no work

In Micah 1. 13, Lachish is charged with having oriwithout man's assistance; but still Moses expressly

ginated idolatry among the Hebrews. “O thou inhadeclares that the commandment respecting the Sabbath

bitant of Lachish .... she is the beginning of the sin to had a direct reference to the rest and refreshment of

the daughter of Zion: for the transgressions of Israel beasts as well as of man. His words are, 'On the

were found in thee." seventh day thou shalt rest from thy labour; that thine ox and thine ass may also rest, and thy servant and LADDER, OSD sullam, (Gen. 28. 12,) a ladder stranger may be refreshed. (Exod. 23. 12; Deut. 5. 14.) or set of steps. The Hebrew word is derived from a In fact, some such alternation of labour and rest seems root, which signifies to raise up, to heighten. That this necessary to the preservation of beasts; for those that was a contrivance known from the earliest times, we perform the same kind of work day after day, without have abundant evidence on the monuments of Egypt, any interruption, soon become stupid and useless. At where attacks on fortified places are represented being least we see this the case with horses. A horse that has made by soldiers provided with scaling-ladders. See to travel three German miles every day will not hold out FORT. long; but with intervening days of rest, in the same

LAISH. See Dan. time, he will be able to go over a much greater space without injury. He will, for example, in ten days, |

LAKES. Of the lakes mentioned in the Scriptravel thirty-five German miles, with three resting days, tures, three are more particularly noticed; that of Galilee, that is, at the rate of five miles each day of the other or Gennesareth, the Lake Merom, and the Lake of Sodom. seven. This fact is so well known, that in riding

They are sometimes termed seas, agreeably to the Hebrew schools, one or two days of rest, besides Sunday, are

phraseology, which gives the name of sea to any consiusually allowed to the horses, in order to preserve their derable body of water. See under DEAD SEA; GALILEE; spirit and activity; whereas the post-horses which are MEROM; Sodom. constantly at work soon become stiff and unserviceable. LAKUM, Dapk a city in the tribe of Naphtali. The case is probably the same with other beasts of burl (Josh. 19. 33.) den, although they do not require so many intervals of

LAMB. See SHEEP. rest as horses. And hence the good treatment of beasts enjoined in the Mosaic law, and the Sabbatical rest LAMB OF GOD, auvos Tou cov. (John 1. ordained for their refreshment, was highly expedient, 29,36.) These words appear to have been spoken even in an economical point of view, and wisely suited metaphorically by John the Baptist of Our Saviour, as to the circumstances of a people whose cattle formed a delivered over to death as a lamb to the sacrifice, to be principal part of their substance.”

offered for the sins of the world. Or he might allude to

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1,705a dser of Jabal, In verse the

DETTETULLE

the words of the prophet: “He is brought as a lamb to LAMP, 795 lappid. (Gen. 15. 17; Judges 7. the, slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is 16,20.) Lamps are frequently mentioned in Scripture, dumb, so he openeth not his mouth.” (Isai. 53. 7.) and the word is often used figuratively. Lamps were See MESSIAH.

used by the Egyptians in their religious rites *, and they LAMB, PASCHAL. See PASSOVER.

also placed burning lamps in the tombs with their dead.

They were likewise known to the Hebrews as early as LAMECH, 7o a descendant of Cain, was the

the time of Moses and the patriarch Job. In the Egypson of Methusael, and father of Jabal, Jubal, Tubal- l tian room of the British Museum, there are various Cain, and Naamah. (Gen. 4. 18-20.) In verse 19

forms of lamps, some of terra-cotta, others of bronze, it is said, “And Lamech took unto him two wives: the

which were employed for lighting the interior of apartname of the one was Adah, and the name of the other

ments. Some of those of terra-cotta have on the upper Zillah.” From this circumstance being particularly

part a toad in bas-relief; others have an eagle, the recorded, it is supposed that this is the first instance of

head of a boar, palm-leaves, and other ornaments. One polygamy, a practice which still prevails in the countries in bronze has the handle formed of the head of a dog where it originated.

issuing from a lotus calyx. LAMED, is the twelfth letter of the Hebrew There were doubtless various kinds of lamps. Some alphabet,, and as a numeral equivalent to 30. The were military lamps, intended for the exigencies of name 797 lamed, signifies probably the same as 7050 night, in the open air; others were intended for service malimad, a cudgel or goad, and has reference to its

in the interior of a dwelling, or to be carried about into figure. It is interchanged in Hebrew, and in the cog

all parts of it; and there were such as were employed nate dialects, as in Greek with the rest of the semi for religious purposes, those hung up in temples or vowels.

deposited in the sacred edifices. A lamp for domestic

use is usually called 72 nir, in the Hebrew, and is free LAMENTATIONS OF JEREMIAH. That the quently, though inaccurately, rendered “ candle” in our prophet Jeremiah was the author of the Elegies or

version. See CANDLE. This household lamp is, in Lamentations which bear his name, is evident not only

Greek, usually termed luxvos. (Matt. 5. 15.) from ancient tradition, but also from the argument and

The Hebrew word lappid, properly means a “flame of style of the book itself, which exactly correspond with

fire;” thus we read in Genesis 15. 17, of the ratification those of his prophecies. They were composed by him

of the covenant made with Abraham, “ And it came on the occasion of the destruction of Jerusalem by

to pass that, when the sun went down, and it was dark, Nebuchadnezzar. The first two chapters principally behold a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp that describe the calamities of the siege of Jerusalem; the passed between those pieces.” Roberts observes, “ It is third deplores the persecutions which Jeremiah himself an interesting fact that the burning lamp or fire is still had suffered; the fourth adverts to the ruin and deso

used in the East in confirmation of a covenant. Should lation of the city and temple, and the misfortune of a person in the evening make a solemn promise to perZedekiah; and the fifth is a sort of form of prayer for

form something for another, and should the latter doubt the Jews in their captivity. At the close, the prophet

his word, the former will say, pointing to the flame of speaks of the cruelty of the Edomites, who had insulted

the lamp, That is the witness. On occasions of greater Jerusalem in her misery, and threatens them with the

importance, when two or more join in a covenant, wrath of God.

should the fidelity of any be questioned, they will say, The Lamentations furnish a most interesting specimen

"We invoke the lamp of the Temple' (as a witness). of Hebrew poetry: they are evidently written in metre,

When an agreement of this kind has been broken, it and contain a number of plaintive effusions, composed

will be said, Who would have thought this? for the after the manner of funeral dirges. Bishop Lowth is of

lamp of the Temple was invoked. That fire was a opinion that they were originally written by the prophet, symbol of the Divine Presence, no one acquainted with as they arose in his mind, in a long course of separate the Scriptures can deny, and in the literature and cusstanzas, and that they were subsequently collected into toms of the East the same thing is still asserted. In the one poem. Each elegy consists of twenty-two periods,

ancient writings, when the marriages of the gods and according to the number of letters in the Hebrew | demigods are described, it is always said the ceremony alphabet; although it is in the first four chapters only was performed in the presence of the god of fire. He that the several periods begin (after the manner of an was the witness. But it is also a general practice at the acrostic) with the different letters following each other

celebration of respectable marriages at this day, to have in alphabetical order. By this contrivance, the metre is fire as a witness of the transaction. It is made of the more precisely marked and ascertained, particularly wood of the mango-tree, or the aal or arasa, or panne of in the third chapter, where each period contains three Palasu. The fire being kindled in the centre of the verses, all having the same initial letter. The two first room, the young couple sit on stools; but when the chapters, in like manner, consist of triplets, excepting

Brahmin begins to repeat the incantations, they arise, only the seventh period of the first, and the nineteenth

and the bridegroom puts the little finger of his left of the second, each of which has a supernumerary line.

hand round the little finger of the right hand of the The fourth chapter resembles the three former in metre,

bride, and they walk round the fire three times from but the periods are couplets though of a considerably

left to right. Fire is the witness of their covenant; shorter measure. The style of these Lamentations is

and if they break it fire will be their destruction.' lively, tender, pathetic, and affecting. It was the talent In the Scanda Purana, the father of the virgin who of this prophet to write with a greater variety of hap was to be married to the son of Rishi, said to him, pily chosen, beautiful, tender, and pathetic images, than ‘Call your son, that I may give him to my daughter some of the others; nor can we too much admire the * This has sometimes been disputed, but Herodotus expressly full and graceful flow of that pathetic eloquence, in mentions the use of lamps by the Egyptians :—“They also meet which the author pours forth the effusions of a patriot

at Sa'is to offer sacrifice during a certain night, when every one

lights in the open air a number of lamps around his house. heart, and piously weeps over the ruin of his beloved

The lamps consist of small cups filled with salt and oil, having country.

a wick floating in it which burns all night. This is called the Feast of the burning of Lamps."

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