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in the presence of the god of fire, that he may be the middle, is half-filled with water and has oil on the top, witness.”

about three fingers in depth. The wick is preserved The lamps of Gideon's soldiers, (Judges 7. 16,) and dry at the bottom of the glass, where they have conthose of the wise and foolish virgins, (Matt. 25. 1-10,) trived a place for it, and ascends through a pipe. These were most probably a kind of torch or flambeau, made lamps do not give much light, yet they are very comof iron or earthenware, wrapped about with old linen, modious, because they are transported easily from one and moistened from time to time with oil. Sir John place to another. With regard to the lanterns, they Chardin says that in many parts of the East, instead of have pretty nearly the figure of a cage, and are made of torches and flambeaus, they carry a pot of oil in one reeds. It is a collection of five or six glasses, like to hand, and a lamp full of oily rags in the other ; and that of the lamp which has just been described. They Roberts observes, “ When the bridegroom goes forth to suspend them by cords in the middle of the streets; the house of the bride, or when he returns to his own when there is any great festival at Cairo, they then put habitation or to that of his father, he is always accom- painted paper in the place of reeds. panied by numerous friends and dependants, who carry Pococke, speaking of the travelling of the people of lamps and torches. When he approaches either house Egypt, says, “By night they rarely make use of tents, the inmates rush out to meet him, and greet him with but lie in the open air, having large lanterns, made like their best wishes and congratulations. The path is a pocket paper lantern, the bottom and top being of covered with garments,' and lamps like fire-flies copper tinned over, and instead of paper they are sparkle in every direction. The whole house is illumi- made with linen, which is extended by hoops of wire, so nated with small lamps; those used out of doors are that when it is put together it serves as a candlestick, composed of many pieces of old linen, and squeezed and they have a contrivance to hang it up abroad by hard one against another in a round figure, and thrust means of three staves." down into a mould of copper. The persons that hold The Jews were accustomed to light lamps at their them in one hand, have in the other a bottle of the festivals, and particularly at that instituted by Judas same metal with the copper mould, which is full of oil, Maccabæus, which is called the Feast of Lamps. (See which they take care to pour out from time to time DEDICATION, FEAST OF.) Herodotus informs us there upon the linen, which otherwise gives no light." See was an annual sacrifice at Saïs, known by the name of MARRIAGE.

the feast of lamps. The Chinese have a similar festival In Job 5. 15, we read “He that is ready to slip with at the present day. his feet is as a lamp despised in the thought of him that A lamp in figurative language is the symbol of is at ease." Roberts remarks, “That of a man in India government or a governor. Thus concerning the law of who is much despised, or who is very contemptible, it is God, the Psalmist says, “Thy word is a lamp unto my said, "That fellow is like the half-consumed firebrand of feet, and a light unto my path,” (Psalm 119. 105,) the funeral pile.' Job by his enemies was counted as a the law being that whereby the king was to be guided, despised lamp. When a person is sick unto death, it is and in 1 Kings 11. 36, a lamp signifies the seat or persaid, 'His lamp is going out. After death, ‘His lamp petual succession of a kingdom. When lamp is used to has gone out. When a person is indisposed, should a signify successor, as in the passage, “ I have ordained a lamp give a dim light, the people of the house will lamp for mine anointed,” (Psalm 132. 17,) the metaphor become much alarmed, as they think it a bad sign. A is taken from the light being continually kept in by lamp, therefore, which burns dimly (as did that of Job) fresh supplies. will be lightly esteemed. In ch. 29. 2,3, Job says, 'Oh that I were as in months past, as in the days when God preserved me, when his candle shined upon my

LAND, Y7X erets. This word in the Old Teshead, and by his light I walked through darkness. tament often denotes emphatically the country of the The Hindoos are accustomed to say, 'Alas! alas! his Israelites; at other times some particular country or secret is no longer with me; his lamp no longer shines district; as the land of Canaan, the land of Egypt, the in my heart."

land of Ashur, the land of Moab. In several places of Norden describes a lamp commonly used at Cairo our authorized version, the phrase "all the earth" is as being made of the palm-tree wood, of the height used, when the more restricted phrase "the land” or of twenty-three inches. The glass, that hangs in the “all the land" would be more proper.

732

LAND-LANGUAGE. For some account of the cultivation and tenure of position; such as, that words derived from, or identical land in Palestine, see AGRICULTURE; Farm; GRAIN; with Hebrew words, run through the greater number of HUSBANDRY; PALESTINE.

known languages; that all Oriental proper names of rivers, mountains, cities, persons, &c., are deducible

from the Hebrew; that when Abraham “the Hebrew" LAND-MARK, 22 giboul. (Deut. 19. 14; 27. | travelled in Palestine and Egypt, he was everywhere 17.) In the above passages a strict command is given understood. to the Israelites not to remove a neighbour's land-mark, Dr. Adam Clarke remarks, that “ As the people had “ which they of old time have set in thine inheritance, the same language, so they had a unity of design and which thou shalt inherit in the land that the Lord thy | sentiment. It is very likely that the original language God giveth thee to possess it.” When the Israelites had was composed of monosyllables, that each had a distinct conquered the Land of Promise, it was by the Divine ideal meaning, and only one meaning; as different acceptcommand surveyed and divided by lot, first among the ations of the same word would undoubtedly arise, either twelve tribes; then the portion of each tribe was laid from compounding terms, or when there were but few out in separate inheritances, according to the number of words in a language, using them by a different mode of the families composing the tribe; and thus every man pronunciation to express a variety of things. Where in the nation had his field, which he was directed to this simple monosyllabic language prevailed, and it must cultivate for the support of himself and his family. To have prevailed in the first ages of the world, men prevent mistake and litigation, these fields were marked would necessarily have simple ideas, and a corresponding off by stones set up on the limits, which could not be simplicity of manners. The Chinese is exactly such as removed without incurring the wrath of heaven. In this; and the Hebrew, if stripped of its vowel points, Persia, land-marks are still used; in the journey from and its prefixes, suffixes, and postfixes, separated from Arzroum to Amasia, Mr. Morier found the boundaries their combinations, so that they might stand by themof each man's possession here and there marked by large selves, would nearly answer to this character even in its stones. Land-marks were used in Greece, at least present state. I shall not examine how the different before the age of Homer; for in describing the combat languages of the earth were formed. It certainly was of Minerva and Mars, the poet states that “ the goddess not a work of the moment; different climates must have seized, with her powerful hand, a piece of rock, lying in a considerable share in the formation of tongues, by the plain, black, rugged, and large, which ancient men their influence on the organs of speech. The invention had placed to mark the boundary of the field.”

of new arts and trades, must give birth to a variety Roberts says, “Fields in the East have not fences or of terms and expressions. Merchandize, commerce, and hedges as in England, but a ridge, a stone, or a post; the cultivation of the sciences, would produce their and, consequently, it is not very difficult to encroach on share; and different forms of government, modes of life, the property of another. Should a man not be very care and means of instruction, also contribute their quota. ful, his neighbour will take away a little every year, and The Arabic, Chaldee, Syriac, and Ethiopic, still bear the keep pushing his ridge into the other's ground. Disputes most striking resemblance to their parent, the Hebrew. of the most serious nature often occur on this account, Many others might be reduced to a common source; yet, and call for the greatest diligence and activity in the everywhere there is sufficient evidence of the confusion authorities. An injured man repeats to his aggressor of tongues. The anomalies even in the most regular the proverb, 'The serpent shall bite him who steps over languages sufficiently prove this.” the ridge;' that is, he who goes beyond the land-mark.” We have no means of positive knowledge as to what LAND OF CANAAN. See PALESTINE.

relation existing tongues may bear to the primitive lan

guage of the earth, and in the absence of such evidence, LANE, puun. This word, in the New Testament, we can only arrive at probable conjectures on the sub(Luke 14. 21,) signifies a lane or alley of a city, in dis

ject. In the first place, we must consider that in antetinction from η πλατεια, a street.

diluvian times the numbers of the human race, and their consequent divisions into nations, could not have been

nearly so great as in the present day, from the compaLANGUAGE. We read in Genesis 11. 1, “And ratively short period that had elapsed since the creation, the whole earth was of one language, [1750 saphah,] | and from the comparatively unrefined condition natural and of one speech;" v. 6,7, “And the Lord said, to a primitive race of beings, on whom the gift of reason Behold, the people is one, and they have all one lan-was obviously bestowed by the Creator for the purposes guage; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will of exertion and of gradual cultivation and improvement. be restrained from them, which they have imagined to We must not here suppose, however, with too many do. Go to, let us go down, and there confound their advocates of an erring philosophy, that man was at first language, that they may not understand one another's | naturally savage, or in the state in which we now find the speech.”

wild and uncultivated natives of savage countries; or What was the first language taught men is a point that religion and knowledge were, in the first days, in which has excited much discussion. The Hebrew, the debased condition we now too often find them in Syriac, Arabic, Chaldee, Phænician, Egyptian, Ethiopic, | the remote corners of the earth. The savage state is Greek, Sanscrit, and Chinese, have each had their prior not natural to man, but, on the contrary, is the result of claims ably stated. The weight of evidence, however, wandering from the true path of knowledge, in which is in favour of the Hebrew and the Syriac, which were | both Adam and Noah must have brought up their first originally one and the same: (1.) Because the names of descendants; and which, in both instances, was commuthe letters and the numeral values assigned to them in nicated in a direct manner from that source of every Hebrew and Syriac, have been generally adopted by the good which mankind now enjoys. It is highly prorest, notwithstanding the dissimilarity of the letters. bable that, as we hear of no diversity of language on the (2.) The superior antiquity of the Hebrew and Syriac earth until after the Deluge, the whole primitive race letters, (which had originally but one form,) is demon- | was, like the immediate descendants of the survivors of strated by the greater simplicity of their shape. (3.) | the Deluge, “ of one language, and of one speech." There is strong internal evidence in favour of the sup- The statements of Scripture relative to the social

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state of the Antediluvian world, (see ANTEDILUVIANS,) | races, which he calls the Arabic, the Sanscrit, and the though brief, are directly opposed to the theory of some Sclavonic. infidel philosophers, of Egypt or Ethiopia being covered! (1.) From the Arabic or Chaldee spring the dialects some myriads of years ago with a horde of speechless used by the Assyrians, Arabs, and Jews. savages, gradually improving themselves through the (2.) From the Sanscrit, which is radically different lapse of many centuries, until they had attained a pitch from the Arabic, spring the Greek, Latin, and Celtic of civilization and refinement which enabled them to dialects, though blended with another idiom, the Persian, meet together and agree upon the sublime harmony of the Armenian, and the old Egyptian or Ethiopic. . sounds and pictures, which constitutes the language of (3.) From the Sclavonic or Tartarian, which is again ancient Egypt. In spite of the constant repetition of radically different both from the Arabic and Sanscrit, such wild fancies, we know that all analogy as well as spring, (so far as the above eminent authority could Scripture is against them. The savage never improves venture to pronounce upon so difficult a point,) the until he comes in contact with the civilized man. Left various dialects of Northern Asia and North-Eastern to himself, his race is steadily sinking to deeper degra- | Europe. dration and final extinction. The traditions of all A complete system of the origin and progress of lansavages are on this point in accordance with the Bible. guage would be a history of the progress of the human They all tell of past days of greatness and prosperity, I intellect. We are unable always to ascertain, as Dugald evidently meaning civilization. The savage state then, / Stewart observes, “How men have actually conducted is not one of nature, but of degradation; and it is in themselves on particular occasions; and we are then led modern rather than in ancient times, that this deplor to inquire in what manner they are likely to have proable consequence of the sin that is in man is to be ceeded, from the principles of their nature, and the cirlooked for. The whole history of man since the creation cumstances of their external situation. In such inquihas likewise taught us that, ignorant of the art of writ- ries the detached facts which the remains of antiquity ing, he would soon become a savage; for we are not or the narrations of travellers afford us, or the external aware that a race of beings entitled to be called civil. appearances of languages at present, serve as land-marks ized ever existed who were destitute of it; and this for our speculations. The steps in the formation of consideration certainly renders it probable that in this language cannot probably be determined with certainty; art also man, in his primitive state, was taught of God. yet if we can show the known principles of human With respect to the confusion of tongues at Babel, we nature, how the various parts may naturally have arisen, have no distinct information as to the extent to which the mind is not only to a certain degree satisfied, but a this remarkable event operated on the languages of men; check is given to that indolent philosophy which refers and accordingly, this subject has occasioned much dis- to a miracle whatever appearances, either in the natural cussion. It is certainly not necessary to suppose that or moral world, it is unable to explain.” It is not the confusion of languages was then so great as at pre- necessary to suppose, says Kett, “ that the Creator sent. Some, who consider that the present diversity of inspired the first parents of mankind with any parlanguages is not greater than would naturally arise in ticular original or primitive language; but that he the lapse of ages, and in changes of climate and country made them fully sensible of the power with which they by migrations, think the confusion operated very slightly were endued of forming articulate sounds, gave them an at first, consisting merely in the introduction of various impulse to exert it, and left the arbitrary imposition of inflections and some new words, which sufficed to make words to their own choice.” the people misunderstand one another. This is the Mr. Roberts, in his Oriental Illustrations, informs us opinion of those who think that all existing lan- | that the Hindoos believe there were originally eighteen guages are derived from one parent stock. But others, languages, the names of which they have preserved. who believe that the existing diversity is too great to | They have no tradition of a confusion of tongues. allow the doctrine of their being all derived from one The Armenians allege, that as the ark rested in their common stock, think new languages were formed at the country, Noah and his children must have remained Confusion, to each of which it is possible to trace the there a considerable time before the lower and marshy various derivative languages which have been formed country of Chaldæa could be fit to receive them; and it from it in the lapse of time by removals, intermixtures, is therefore reasonable to suppose they left their lanand refinements. It is allowed, however, that the for- guage there. A native advocate for this opinion thus mation of two new languages, or strongly marked dia states his case:lects, for two of the families of Noah, while the other “Was the confusion of tongues which took place at retained the primitive tongue unaltered, would be suffi- Babel confined to those who were engaged in that great cient to account for all the existing differences. The work of impiety and rebellion in the plains of Shinar; or language of the whole country, Mr. Bryant thinks, was was the punishment inflicted on the innocent as well as confounded by causing a labial failure, so that the on the guilty, so as to affect Noah and those of his people could not articulate. It was not an aberration in descendants who remained with the venerable patriarch words or language, but a failure and incapacity in labial | in Armenia? For if it be acknowledged that the lanutterance; for God said, “Go to, let us go down and guage of Noah remained unchanged, I hope to be able confound their lip, (175W saphah,] that they may not to prove satisfactorily that that language was the understand one another's speech.” By this their speech | Armenian. was confounded, but not altered; for, as soon as they “The principal argument in favour of the Hebrew separated, they recovered the true tenor of pronuncia- being the original language is drawn from the circumtion; and the language of the earth continued for some stance that most of the proper names of the antediluvian ages nearly the same. What these original tongues or patriarchs retain in the Hebrew the signification imputed dialects were is another point, which has excited much to them in the Books of Moses. Now, as Moses was debate. Sir William Jones being a high authority in writing by the Divine inspiration, in Hebrew, for the this matter we may give his opinion, as collected by Hebrews, we may reasonably suppose that in rendering Dr. Hales, from different volumes of the Asiatic Re a word which was meant to be significant, although a searches. He discovers traces of three primeval lan- proper name, he would give it in the language which guages corresponding to the three grand aboriginal was likely to be understood by the people for whom he

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was writing. Thus, when relating the history of Lamech in some of the languages of Europe which have been he wished to make known to the children of Israel that derived about the same period from a common origin. that patriarch gave to his son a name expressive of the | Moreover, if it is argued that the language of the Chalhopes he entertained at the time of his birth, when he dees remained unchanged, I would ask, who were the said, “This shall comfort us concerning our work, and people whose language was changed at the confusion of the toil of our hands,' (Gen. 5. 29,) he states that ‘he Babel? There is no reason for saying it was Noah, and called his name Noah,' a Hebrew word expressive of those who were with him in Armenia, because we are

rest or refreshment,' adapted to the comprehension of told that the miracle was performed at Babel, where the Hebrew nation. In like manner, other nations of “the Lord came down to see the city, and the tower antiquity, in the records which they have preserved of which the children of men builded. (Gen. 11. 5.) Nor the same personage, have called him, not by his Hebrew can we say it was the language of the Persians, or of the name, Noah, a word insignificant and unintelligible to Greeks, or of the Egyptians, because we have no grounds them, but by other names, as Saturnus, Xisuthrus, &c., for supposing that Greece, and Persia, and Egypt, were words which, in their own language, were expressive of then inhabited. The obvious answer is, that it was the the idea which they wished to express. Thus, in our people inhabiting the country in the vicinity of the place version of the Books of Moses, where it is rendered in where the power of God was made manifest, who, or the English, And he called the name of the well Ezek, | amongst whom, we have every reason to believe, were because they strove with him,' (Gen. 26. 20,) we read, those who were subsequently known as the Chaldees; 'He called the name of the well Zercooman;' not that from which it would follow that the present Chaldee, we mean that the well was actually named Zercooman, with its cognate dialects, the Arabic, Syriac, Phænician, but we use a word signifying deprivation,' to express &c., must be regarded as one of the great families of the idea which is represented in the Hebrew by the | languages, the origin of which was at the confusion of Hebrew word Ezek. In like manner Josephus, when Babel. he states that the Armenians call the place in which Noah “ There are some, indeed, who assert that the present descended from the ark by the name Apobaterion, does Chaldee is derived from the Hebrew; an opinion which not mean that the Armenians actually used a word is not only highly improbable, but which is opposed to derived from the Greek, but merely that amongst them the facts recorded in the Holy Scriptures. For it is the name of the place bears the same meaning as the related by Moses that 'the Lord had said unto Abraham, Greek word Apobaterion, which implies 'a going forth,' Get thee out of thy country and from thy kindred, and and is represented in the Armenian by the word Nakhi from thy father's house,' which we are distinctly told was jivan, the actual name of the place alluded to.

in the land of the Chaldees, from which it is clear that “There are some who contend that the language in | Abraham was a Chaldee; and while history shows us that which the Books of Moses were written was the lan the Chaldæans never migrated to any great distance from guage of Adam, because, say they, it is manifest that | Ur and Haran, where we first find them established, Moses wrote in the language of Abraham, from whom he and that they gradually rose to be a most powerful was descended; in like manner Abraham used the lan- | nation, we find that Abraham, with no other of his counguage of Terah, who used that of Shem, who used that trymen, save only those of his own household, departed of Noah, which was the language of Adam. This seems out of Haran,' as the Lord had commanded him; that to me to be nothing more than begging the question, he went down into the land of Canaan and into Egypt, and hardly deserves the name of an argument, as it and that he sojourned till his death in the land of the might be applied with equal reason in the case of any Canaanites; that his son Isaac also, and Jacob the son other of the languages of antiquity. There are, indeed, of Isaac, spent their lives in the same foreign land, some who contend that Eber, the ancestor of the where they dwelt two hundred and fifteen years. The Hebrews, did not assist at the building of Babel, and that sons of Jacob went down into Egypt, where they and consequently his language remained unchanged. But their descendants remained for a further period of two the Greek histories which have preserved the story, con- hundred and fifteen years, when they went forth under tradict it in other places, where they say, that it is | Moses to possess the land which had been promised by recorded that Eber was actually the architect who super the Lord to Abraham their forefather. It appears, then, intended the building of Babel, under Bale, or Nimrod, that for a space of four hundred and thirty years, the who exercised a paramount authority over all. In a language of the Israelites was confined to one family, Greek work called the Smaller Genesis, Syncellus tells us who were strangers and sojourners in a foreign land; that there was a tradition that an angel appeared to and as during this time they dwelt upon terms of the Moses, and told him that he had taught the Hebrew closest intercourse with the people amongst whom they tongue to Abraham the Chaldæan, and that the Hebrew dwelt, it is against all experience to suppose that they was, therefore, considered as original. But these accounts could possibly have preserved their language as pure as are evidently as fabulous as they are at variance with it was originally introduced by Abraham from Chaldæa. each other, and with the records of Scripture.

We see, moreover, that the language in which the Books “ It cannot be doubted that Abraham spoke the lan- of Moses were written, and which we must suppose to guage of the Chaldees. (Gen. 11. 28,31; Judith 5. 6; have been the language of the Israelites, though allied Acts 7. 4.) Now the Chaldees originally inhabited the to the Chaldæan, is nevertheless a separate and distinct country in the immediate vicinity of the land of Shinar, language. It has also been shown that there are no in which the confusion of tongues took place. Whence, grounds for supposing that the language of the Chaldees then, the argument that the language of the Chaldees remained unchanged at the confusion of Babel; so that on remained unchanged? But allowing that it did, we every side the opinion of those who assert the originality shall find ourselves far from the solution of the question; and superior antiquity of the Hebrew language, is not for the languages of the Phænicians, Syrians, Arabs, only in the highest degree improbable, but is obviously and others are, equally with the Hebrew, cognate opposed to any just conclusion to which fair reasoning, dialects of the Chaldæan, differing from each other not and the records of Scripture, are calculated to lead us; in essentials, but only in the degree which may now be and as the arguments of other nations of antiquity in perceived in the several dialects of the Armenians, as favour of the originality of their own languages are not spoken at Constantinople, at Julpha, and at Angulis, or supported on better grounds than those which have been

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adduced on the part of the Hebrew, I will proceed to which signifies 'first halting place,' while others say it show the arguments upon which it is contended that the should be called Nakhsivan, which means 'first departlanguage of Noah, and consequently of Adam, has been ing place,' which is evidently, as the traditions of the preserved unchanged amongst the people of Armenia. country set forth, the place from which the first colonies

“We are told in the Holy Scriptures that Noah, in the emigrated, and is the place which Josephus calls Aposix hundredth year of his age, entered into the ark, baterion, in which he tells us was the sepulchre of taking with him seven other persons, namely, Noyem Noah. zar his wife, (whose name has been preserved amongst “It is moreover stated in Armenian history, that on the records of the Armenians,) and his three sons, the death of Noah's wife, Noyemzar, (or Nemzar, as she Japheth, Shem, and Ham, with their wives; that the was called by some writers,) her sons buried her in a flood came down and continued till every living thing place which was consequently called Marant, which sigwas destroyed, save only those who were preserved in nifies in Armenian ‘Mother is there,' which name is still the ark; that the waters prevailed upon the earth for preserved in a town of Armenia. Now, as these places one hundred and fifty days, after which they gradually are all actually in existence, bearing, in the present lanabated, and the ark at length rested upon the mountains guage of Armenia, the singular meaning above assigned of Ararat. These mountains were certainly in Armenia. to them, they cannot but be regarded as strong proofs in In the Syriac and Latin translations of the Bible, the favour of the proposition that the language of Noah, and word 'Ararat' is rendered 'Armenia,' which is also consequently of Adam, has been preserved among the the case in the English version in 2Kings 19. 37, and mountains of Armenia. also in Isaiah 37. 38. Jeremiah also uses Ararat for “It should further be observed that there is nothing Armenia. (51. 27.) Josephus also calls Ararat a moun. whatever in sacred history to which this opinion can be tain of Armenia, and states that Berosus, the Chaldæan, said to be opposed. For even in the account of the called it Mount Cordus, in Armenia, by which name it confusion at Babel it is stated that the Lord did there is called in the Arabic and Chaldæan translations of the confound the language of all the earth. By there is Old Testament. Abydenus also, Nicholas of Damascus, meant the plains of Shinar, the land of Babel, not that and others, agree in placing Ararat in Armenia. The of Armenia. For otherwise the word there would have oldest, perhaps, of these early historians, is Maribas of been superfluous; and it cannot be said that a like Catene, mentioned by Moses Chorenensis, from whom reasoning will equally apply to other places as well as he writes that the mountain was at first named Masis, Armenia, and give grounds for asserting that the lanfrom Amasia, our ancestor, whose name is still preserved guages of the people of Persia and of Syria must also, in the town of Amasia, and that Ararat was the name of in like manner, be supposed to be original, because we the district around it, so called from Aræus, another of bave no grounds for assuming that those countries were our ancestors, and that it is also known by the name of then inhabited at all, whereas we know that Armenia Cordus, the general name of the great chain of moun- had been inhabited since the ark rested on the mountains to which it belonged. Josephus also mentions, tains of Ararat. It is nowhere recorded where Noah that in his time it was believed that the remnants of the died, but there is a tradition amongst the Armenians, ark were still in existence, which belief was strongly preserved in a work called Zoowetsa, or The Collection, entertained amongst the Armenians so late as the time of which states that he was buried with his wife at Marant, St. Jacob, patriarch of Nisibeen, in the year A.D. 340. to which Syncellus and Cedrenus both bear witness;

“ These proofs, I trust, will satisfactorily prove, what and Josephus, when recording the death of Noah, states few, perhaps, will call in question, that the ark rested on that, after that event, there was an emigration from a mountain in Armenia; and as there is nothing in the Armenia, from which it would follow that Noah himself language of Scripture, nor any circumstances which died in Armenia. If it be allowed that the language of would render it probable that Noah would wander forth Noah was preserved in Armenia till the death of that in quest of a place wherein to settle, far from the scene patriarch, it cannot be said that it has been subsequently of his miraculous preservation, situate as it was in one changed, because the ancient kings of Armenia were of the finest countries in the world, we are warranted in descended in a direct line from Haie, who lived with assuming that the patriarch, and such of his descendants Noah in Armenia; and although our country has, in as remained with him, established themselves in Arme- later times, been overrun and occupied by foreign nia, speaking the language of the antediluvian world. powers, the language has not been materially affected, az Now we know, from several examples which abound may be seen by comparing it with the languages of those throughout the Old Testament, that it was customary in nations by whom it has been at different times overrun.” those times to fix the names of any new place by some Thus much for the opinion of a native Armenian ; the circumstance connected with its early history. Hence it argument is plausible and ingenious, but the question is may be inferred that if in the country in which, as has far too difficult to be decided on such premises. been shown, Noah and his family descended from the In the infancy of society, ideas were more copious ark, and fixed their residence, there are found any names than words. Hence until language enlarged itself, and significant of circumstances relating to the history of that in thus enlarging itself had acquired a greater degree of early period, the language in which such names are sig- | precision, men were obliged to employ the few words nificant, is the actual language which was then in use. which they possessed, not only in their natural and Now, according to the history of Moses of Chorene, the direct sense, but likewise in an artificial and tropical ark rested on Mount Masis in Armenia, at the foot of sense. This circumstance has ever caused the phrasewhich mountain we find to this day a town and district, ology of primitive nations to abound in metaphor and called Arnohwote; now this word, in Armenian, signifies allegory. We are apt to talk of the figurative language

Noah placed foot,' from Ar, 'placed,' Noh, ‘Noah,' and of the East, as if it were something peculiar to the wote, 'foot.' Again, in Genesis 9. 26, it is written, 'And Orientals, but such is very far from being the case. Noah began to be a husbandman, and planted a vine- A North American chieftain will harangue his tribe yard. Now adjoining to Arnohwote is a place called in phraseology which is quite as tropical as any that has Akhooree, which signifies, in Armenian, “He planted a been used in the East; nor does this, in either instance, vineyard,' from Akh, ‘he planted,' and oor, 'vines. In arise from any inherent or peculiar taste for poetry. the same vicinity is another place called Nakhijivan, Why is it that a Hebrew denominates a spark of fire

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