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LANTERN. The word lautras is rendered sians, (4. 16,) mention is made of an epistle to the Laodi“ lantern,” in our version. (John 18. 3.) It is a term ceans; and though some critics have maintained that it for lights in general, and here probably denotes some is identical with that to the Ephesians, the more prokind of military lamp with which the soldiers were fur-bable conjecture is, that it has not come down to us. nished when they came to take Our Saviour, lest he The persecution which raged in Asia Minor during the might escape through the darkness of the night. See latter part of the first century, tended somewhat to abate LAMP.
the zeal of the Laodicean Christians, and hence the rebuke in the Revelations.
“Laodicea," observes Dr. Chandler, “was often damaged by earthquakes, and restored by its own opulence, or by the munificence of the Roman emperors. These resources failed, and the city, it is probable, became early a scene of ruins. About the year 1097, it was possessed by the Turks, and submitted to Ducas, general of the Emperor Alexis. In 1120, the Turks sacked some of the cities of Phrygia, but were defeated by the Emperor John Comnenus, who took Laodicea, and built anew or repaired the walls. About 1161, it was again unfortified. Many of the inhabitants were then killed, with their bishop, or carried with their cattle into captivity by the Turks. In 1190 the German
emperor, Frederic Barbarossa, going by Laodicea with Egyptian Guard with Military Lantern. From the Mosuments,
his army towards Syria, on a crusade, was received so kindly, that he prayed on his knees for the prosperity of
the people. About 1196 this region, with Caria, was LAODICEA. There were five cities of this name, dreadfully ravaged by the Turks. The sultan, on the two in Asia Minor, two in Syria, and another in Media; invasion of the Tartars in 1255, gave Laodicea to the but the Scriptures speak only of that in Phrygia, near Romans; but they were unable to defend it, and it soon Colosse, one of the seven primitive Christian churches. returned to the Turks. We saw no traces of houses, Its earliest name was Diospolis; it was afterwards called churches, or mosques. All was silence and solitude. Rhoas; but Antiochus II., king of Syria, having rebuilt Several strings of camels passed eastward over the hills; or enlarged and beautified it, called it Laodicea, after his but a fox, which we first discovered by his ears peeping wife Laodice. Strabo mentions it as being a great and over a brow, was the only inbabitant of Laodicea.” important city in his time and in the age preceding. The city finally came into the hands of the Turks in
Laodicea was situated on the Lycus, a tributary of the the beginning of the fourteenth century, since which it Meander, one hundred and twenty miles E.S.E. of has been a mere ruin, “wretched and miserable, and Smyrna. It was an inconsiderable place under the poor and naked.” (Rev. 3. 14-22.) Its ruins now only Syrian kings, but when it came into the possession of the remain, which bear among the Turks of the neighbouring Romans, they strengthened and enlarged it, so that at towns the name of Eski-hissar, or the Old Castle. length, about the Christian ara, it became, next to Apa- There is, in fact, not one of the seven churches, the over. mea Cibotos, the largest city of Phrygia. There can be throw of which has been so severe, and the desolation little doubt that it was visited by St. Paul in the course of which is so entire, as that of Laodicea. It is indeed of his apostolic tour through Asia Minor, and probably the little else than a heap of ruins; from which, however, Christian converts of Laodicea, as well as those of Colosse ample evidence may be collected of the magnificence for and Hierapolis, both neighbouring towns, were the fruits which it was anciently celebrated. These ruins cover of the Apostle's preaching. In the Epistle to the Colos- | three or four small hills, and are of very great extent.
Its three theatres, and the immense circus, which was and after having placed them first over one of their capable of containing upwards of thirty thousand spec- shoulders, they then fold the rest of it about their tators, the spacious remains of which are yet to be seen, bodies. The outer fold serves them frequently instead give proof of the greatness of its ancient wealth and of an apron, in which they carry herbs, loaves, corn, and population; and indicate too strongly, that in that city other articles, and may illustrate several allusions made where Christians were rebuked, without exception, for to it in Scripture: thus, one of the sons of the prophets their lukewarmness, there were multitudes who were went out into the field to gather herbs, and found a wild lovers of pleasure more than lovers of God. There are vine, and gathered thereof wild gourds his lap full. no sights of grandeur, nor scenes of temptation, around (2Kings 4. 39.) And the Psalmist offers up his prayer it now. Its tragedy may be briefly told. It was luke- | that Jehovah would “render unto his neighbours sevenwarm, and neither hot nor cold; and therefore it was fold into their bosom their reproach.” (Psalm 19. 12.) loathsome in the sight of God.
The same allusion occurs in Our Lord's direction, “Give, .“ Laodicea,” says Dr. Smith, “is utterly desolated and and it shall be given unto you, good measure, pressed without any inhabitant except wolves, and jackals, and down and shaken together, and running over, shall men foxes. It can boast of no human inhabitants, except give into your bosom.” (Luke 6. 38.) See Bosom; occasionally when wandering Turcomans pitch their tents CLOTHING; Dness. in its spacious amphitheatre."
Colonel Leake observes, “ There are few ancient cities LAPIDES JUDAICI. In the chalky beds which more likely than Laodicea to preserve many curious surround in some parts the summit of Mount Carmel, remains of antiquity beneath the surface of the soil. Its are found numerous hollow stones lined in the inside opulence, and the earthquakes to which it was subject, with a variety of sparry matter, which, from some disrender it probable that valuable works of art were often tant resemblance, are supposed by the natives to be there buried beneath the ruins of the public and private petrified olives, melons, peaches, and other fruit. These edifices."
are considered not only as curiosities, but as antidotes “Not a single Christian,” says another writer, “is against several diseases. Those which bear some resemsaid to reside at Laodicea, which is even more solitary blance to the olive have been designated Lapides Judaici, than Ephesus. The latter city has a prospect of a rolling and are superstitiously regarded as an infallible remedy sea or a whitening sail to enliven its decay; the former for stone and gravel, when dissolved in the juice of sits in widowed loneliness. Its temples are desolate, and lemons. Those supposed petrified fruits are, however, the stately edifices of ancient Laodicea are now peopled as Dr. Shaw states, only so many different sized flint by wolves and jackals. The prayers of the Mohamme- stones, beautified within by sparry and stalagmitical dan mosque are the only prayers heard near the yet knobs, which are fancifully taken for seeds and kernels. splendid ruins of the city, on which the prophetic denunciation seems to have been fully executed in its utter
LAPIDOTH, ning the husband of Deborah rejection as a church.”
the prophetess, is mentioned in Judges 4. 4. The con
jecture that the word refers rather to her birth-place LAP, 1377. hhotsen, (Nehem. 5. 13,) a sort of pouch
than to the name of a man, has no support from the Heformed by the clothes when something is carried in them.
brew, where it distinctly mentions Deborah as his wife, The passage in Nehemiah, wherein the word hhotsen
though nothing more is known of him. The word signioccurs, is rendered in our version, “ Also I shook my
fies in the Hebrew, “lamps or torches." See DEBORAH. lap and said, So God shake out every man from his house, and from his labour, that performeth not this pro LAPPING. Lapping, by “putting their hand to mise, [to make restitution of their usurious gains,] and their mouth," spoken of as a test in reference to Gideon's thus be he shaken out and emptied." Gesenius has it, men, (Judges 7. 5,6,) is still in the East supposed to “I also shook the bosom of my garment."
distinguish those who evince an alacrity and readiness Roberts observes that, in India, “when men or which fits them in a peculiar manner for any active women curse each other, they shake the lap, that is, their service in which they are to be engaged. . cloth, or robe, and say, “It shall be so with thee.' Does Among the Arabs, lapping with their hands is a coma man begin to shake his sali, or waistcloth, in the pre- mon and very expeditious way of taking in liquids. sence of another, the other will say, "Why do you shake “ When they take water with the palms of their hands," your cloth here? Go to some other place.' "What, can says Dr. Russell, “they naturally place themselves on you shake your lap here? Do it not, do it not.' 'Yes, their hams, to be nearer the water; but when they drink yes, it is all true enough; this misery has come upon me from a pitcher or gourd fresh filled, they do not sit down through that wretched man shaking his cloth in my pre-on purpose to drink, but drink standing, and very often sence.' The natives always carry a pouch made of the put the sleeve of their shirt over the mouth of the vessel, leaf of the cocoa, or other trees, in their lap; in one part | by way of strainer, lest small leeches might have been of which they keep their money, and in another their taken up by the water." areca nut, betel leaf, and tobacco. It is amusing to see! It is for the same reason they often prefer taking how careful they are never to have that pouch empty; water with the palm of the hand, to lapping it from for they have an idea, that so long as a single coin shall the surface. A modern traveller states that “a dog be found in it, (or any of the articles alluded to,) the laps by means of forming his tongue into the shape attraction will be so great that the contents of the pouch of a shallow spoon. The Hottentots have a curious will not be long without companions. See the English- custom resembling the dog, and the three hundred chosen man who wants anything out of the pouch or bag; if he men of Gideon's army. On a journey, on immedicannot soon find the article he requires, he shakes out ately coming to water, they stoop, but no further than the whole. “Do that! why, who knows how long the what is sufficient to allow their right hand to reach pouch will remain empty? It is therefore evident, that the water, by which they throw it up so dexterously, to shake the lap conveyed with it the idea of a curse." that their hand seldom approaches nearer to their mouth
Instead of the fibula that was used by the Romans, than a foot, yet I never observed any of the water to the Arabs join together with thread, or with a wooden fall down upon their breasts. They perform it almost bodkin, the two top corners of their upper garment; | as quickly as the dog, and satisfy their thirst in half the LAPPING--LATIN VERSIONS.
time taken by another man. I frequently attempted to 1 LATCHET. John the Baptist, speaking of the imitate this practice, but never succeeded, always spilling coming of Our Lord, describes Him as one, “the latchet the water on my clothes, or throwing it against some of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and other part of the face."
unloose." (Mark 1. 7.) The word rendered “latchet” is Another authority states, “On coming to water, a útoonua, which signifies properly “what is bound under” person who wishes to drink cannot stop the whole party the foot, that is, a sandal, a sole of wood or hide, bound to wait for him, when travelling in caravans; and there on with thongs. The expression appears to have been a fore, if on foot, any delay would oblige him to unusual customary one, implying inferiority, since unloosing the exertion in order to overtake his party. He therefore sandal was usually done only by menial servants, or -drinks in the manner described, and has satisfied his slaves, for their masters. See SHOE. thirst in much less time than one who, having more lei sure, or being disposed to more deliberate enjoyment, looks out for a place where he may kneel or lie down to
I LATIN VERSIONS. From the testimony of bring his mouth in contact with the water, and imbibe St. Augustine, it appears that the Latin church poslong and slow draughts of it.”
sessed a very great number of versions of the Scriptures, made at the first introduction of Christianity, and whose
authors were unknown; and that in the primitive times, LAPWING. The word DD'ST dukiphath, ren
as soon as any one found a Greek copy, who thought dered in our version “ lapwing,” according to the Sep himself sufficiently versed in both languages, he attuagint, the Vulgate, and also the Arabic, signifies the tempted a translation of it. In the course of time this hoopoe, (Upupa epops,) which is, no doubt, the bird | diversity of translation produ
diversity of translation produced much confusion, parts intended. It is frequently mentioned in the ancient writ
of separate versions being put together to form an entire ings, and the head of this bird is often represented as the
composition, and marginal notes being inserted into the ornament on the top of the rod or sceptre in the hand of
text; but one of these Latin translations appears to have some of the Egyptian deities. It is about twelve inches
acquired a more extensive circulation than the others, and for several ages was used in preference to the others, under the name of the Itala or old Italic, on account of its clearness and fidelity.
This version, which in the time of Jerome was received as canonical, is by him termed sometimes the Vulgate, and sometimes the Old, in opposition to the new translation undertaken by him. He mentions no other version. The old Italic was translated from the Greek in the Old Testament as well as in the New, there being comparatively few members of the Western church who were skilled in Hebrew. From the testimony of St. Augustine, it has been inferred that the old Italic version was made in the first century of the Christian æra; but the New Testament could not have been translated into Latin before the canon had been formed, which was certainly not made in the first century;
there is, however, every reason to believe it was exeThe Hoopoe.
cuted in the early part of the second century, and that long, with a fawn-coloured plumage, barred with black it is quoted by Tertullian before the close of that cenand white on the wings and lower parts of the back, the tury. The great number of Hebraisms and Syriasms eyes are hazel, and the head is ornamented with a crest, observable in it, particularly in the Gospels of Matthew consisting of a double row of feathers, of a pale orange and Mark, have induced some eminent critics to concolour, tipped with black, the highest about two inches jecture that the authors of this translation were Jews in length. The tail is black, with a broad bar of white converted to Christianity. Before the end of the fourth near the base. The female is said to have two or three century, the alterations, either designed or accidental, broods in the year; she makes no nest, but lays her eggs which were made by transcribers, of the Latin Bible, in the hollow of a tree, and sometimes in a hole in a had become as numerous as the alterations in the Greek wall, or even on the ground. The hoopoes are migra Bible, before it was corrected by Origen. To remedy tory birds; in Egypt, where they are very common, they this growing evil, Jerome, at the request and under the are seen only in small flocks; they are also met with in patronage of Pope Damasus, towards the close of the all the warmer regions of the old continent, and occa fourth century, undertook to revise this translation and sionally visit England.
make it more conformable to the original Greek. But before Jerome had finished his revisal, he had com
menced a translation of the Old Testament from the LASEA, a maritime city of Crete, near which the
Hebrew into Latin, in order that the Western Christians, Apostle Paul sailed on his voyage to Rome. (Acts
who used this language only, might know the real mean27. 8.) It is not mentioned by any of the ancient
ing of the Hebrew text, and thus be the better qualified geographers, and its exact site cannot now be ascer
to engage in controversial discussion with the Jews. tained.
This version, which surpasses every former one, was LAST DAY. This expression in John 7. 37, executed at different times, Jerome having translated refers to the eighth and great day of the Feast of Taber particular books in the order requested by his friends. nacles. (See TABERNACLES, FEAST OF.) In other places We learn from St. Augustine that it was introduced into (as John 11. 24; 12. 48,) it refers to the day of judg- the churches by degrees, for fear of offending weak perment. (See JUDGMENT, DAY OF.) “The last days” are sons. At length it acquired so great an authority, from those from the time of Christ's first coming to his second. the approbation it received from Pope Gregory I., that (Acts 2. 17; Heb. 1. 2.)
ever since the seventh century, it has been exclusively
adopted by the Roman Catholic Church, under the name ' LATTICE. The word av sibachah, rendered of the Vulgate Version; and a decree of the Council of “lattice” in our version, in 2Kings 1. 2, does not refer Trent, in the sixteenth century, pronounced it to be to a window as we generally suppose, but to a sort of authentic, and commanded that the Vulgate alone latticed or net-work fence composed of wood; nor should be used whenever the Bible is publicly read, as must it be confounded with ypyia maakah, the battlealso in all sermons, expositions, and disputations. The ment to the flat roofs of Oriental houses. It appears universal adoption of Jerome's new version throughout that in some cases the roof was secured with the sibathe Western church rendered a multiplication of copies chah, or latticed or net-work balustrade only, and thus necessary; and with them new errors were introduced, “Ahaziah fell down through a lattice in his upper in the course of time, by the intermixture of the two chamber;" by which we are to understand that he fell versions (the old Italic and Jerome's, or the Vulgate) with from the roof of the house, and not through a window, each other. Of this confusion Cassiodorus was the prin into the interior court or garden. He was perhaps cipal cause, who, as minister of the Gothic rulers of Italy, leaning against this slight fence, when it gave way under then the most powerful sovereigns of the Western church, him. that the old version might be corrected by the Vulgate, In Judges 5. 28, the word JWX eshnab, rendered in ordered them to be written in parallel columns; and our version “lattice,” refers to a window which was though Alcuin, in the eighth century, by the command latticed in order to admit the cool air. In Canticles of Charlemagne, provided more accurate copies, the text 2. 9, the word 'n hharakim, occurs, which signifies again fell into such confusion, and was so disfigured by | the same thing, the lattice or trellis of a window. See innumerable mistakes of copyists, that the manuscripts House. of the Middle Ages materially differ from the first
LAUGH, LAUGHTER, POTS tsihhok. Laughter printed editions. Robert Stephens was the first who
is an indication either of delight or of mirth and mockattempted to remedy this confusion, by publishing cri
ery. Sarah, upon the birth of her son, said, “God tical editions of the Vulgate in 1528, 1532, 1534, 1540,
hath made me to laugh.” (Gen. 21. 6.) Roberts tells and particularly in 1545 and 1546. These, especially the
us, that “In India a woman, under the same circumlast, having incurred the censures of the doctors of the
stances, would make a similar observation: 'I am made Sorbonne, John Hentenius, a divine of Louvaine, was
to laugh. But this figure of speech is also used on any employed to prepare a new edition of the Vulgate: this
wonderful occasion. Has a man gained anything he did he accomplished in 1547, in folio, having availed him
not expect, he will ask, “What is this? I am made to self of Stephens's previous labours with great advantage.
laugh. Has a person lost anything which the moment A third corrected edition was published by Lucas Bru
before he had in his hand, he says, 'I am made to laugh.' gensis, with the assistance of several other divines of
Has he obtained health, or honour, or wealth, or a wife, Louvaine, in 1573, in three volumes octavo, which was
or a child, it is said, 'He is made to laugh. “Ah! his reprinted in 1586, in quarto and octavo, with the critical
mouth is now full of laughter; his mouth cannot contain notes of Lucas Brugensis. In the mean time, Pope
all that laughter.'” Pius IV. commanded some divines of the Romish
Laughter in general implies rejoicing: “There is church to collect and collate the most ancient manu
a time to weep and a time to laugh.” (Eccl. 3. 4.) scripts which they could procure. This collation was
“Blessed are ye that weep now; for ye shall laugh.” continued during the pontificate of Pius V., who further
(Luke 6. 21,25.) It is also used for excessive and irrecaused the original text to be consulted. Under Gre
ligious mirth: “I said of laughter, it is mad.” (Eccl. gory XIII. the work ceased, but it was resumed and
2. 2.) “Let your laughter be turned to mourning," completed under the auspices of Sixtus V., who person
(James 4. 9;) your worldly joy shall terminate in sorrow ally devoted much time and attention to it, correcting
and remorse. It also denotes conscious security, as the proof sheets himself of the edition published at
“At destruction and famine thou shalt laugh,” (Job Rome, 1590. This was pronounced to be the authentic
| 5. 22,) that is, thou shalt not fear it, thou shalt be Vulgate; but notwithstanding all this care, the edition
| perfectly secure against those evils. was discovered to be so exceedingly incorrect, that his successor, Clement VIII., caused it to be suppressed, and published another authentic Vulgate in 1592. LAVER, his keyor, (Exod. 30. 18,28; 31. 9; This, however, differs more than any other edition from I Kings 7. 38,) signifies a laver, or basin, especially for that of Sixtus V., and mostly resembles that of Louvaine. | washing. These fatal variances between editions, all alike promul. The brazen laver, which stood between the altar and gated by pontiffs claiming infallibility, have not passed the Tabernacle, was of a circular form, and was made of unnoticed by Protestant divines, who have taken ad- the brazen ornaments which the women had presented vantage of them in a manner that sensibly affects the for the use of the Tabernacle. The size of this laver is Church of Rome.
not stated, but was probably considerable. It is supThe Vulgate version is regarded by Papists and Pro- posed that the laver stood upon another basin, more wide testants in very different points of view: by the former and shallow, as a cup on a saucer; and that the latter it has been extolled beyond measure; while by most of received from cocks or spouts, in the upper basin, the the latter it has been depreciated as much below its water which was allowed to escape when the priests intrinsic merit. Although the Latin Vulgate is neither washed themselves with the water which fell from the inspired nor infallible, yet it is allowed to be in general upper basin. The Rabbins say the laver had several a faithful translation, and sometimes exhibits the sense cocks, or “nipples," as they call them, from which the of Scripture with greater accuracy than the more modern water was let out as wanted; but the number is differversions; and, notwithstanding the variations between ently stated. In what manner the priests washed their the Sixtine and Clementine editions, and that several hands and feet at the laver seems uncertain. That they passages are mistranslated in order to support the pecu- did not wash in either the laver or its base appears liar dogmas of the Church of Rome, it preserves many evident, because the water in which they washed would true readings where the modern Hebrew copies are then have been considered impure by those who washed corrupted.
before or with them. The Orientals, in their washings, make use of a vessel with a long spout, and wash at the
anded that the ta was probable. Thenien had por
stream which issues from thence, the waste water being | or other ancient nations, must never have compared received in a basin which is placed underneath. This them together, otherwise they could not but have permay probably illustrate the idea of the layer with its ceived many circumstances in which they differed most base, as well as the ablutions of the priests. The laver essentially from them all. That a correspondence subhad thus its upper basin from which the stream fell, sisted between some of the Mosaic ordinances and the and the under basin for receiving the waste water. customs of other people, is granted; but that they were The Jewish commentators state that any kind of water derived from the practices of idolatrous nations appears might be used for the laver, but that the water must be | inconsistent and absurd. The true source of the simichanged every day. They also mention that ablution larity is to be traced to those primitive revelations and before entering the tabernacle was in no case dispensed patriarchal examples retained by both the Israelites and with. A man might be perfectly clean, might be quite the Gentiles, but corrupted by the latter; whilst the free from any ceremonial impurity, and might even have striking and radical opposition discoverable between the washed his hands and feet before he left home, but still most important parts of their respective systems of worhe could by no means enter the tabernacle without pre ship and religious service, mark with indubitable evivious ablution at the laver.
dence the design of the Deity to separate the one from In the Temple of Solomon there was a very large the other. It is only necessary to give to the following brazen laver called the molten sea; it was ten cubits in instances of the dissimilarity betwixt the laws and instidiameter, five deep, and thirty in circumference. It was tutions of Moses and those of other nations, the concapable of containing 3,000 baths, or 22,500 gallons sideration they merit, to be fully convinced that the English measure; but it was commonly supplied with only Mosaic ritual was vastly superior to every other, and 2,000 baths, or about 15,000 gallons. (2Chron. 4. 2-5; formed with too much contrariety to other systems ever
Kings 7. 26.) It was adorned on its upper edge with to have been borrowed from them. figures that resembled lilies in bloom, and was cast of (1.) No heathen ever conceived an idea of so great an fine brass, a hand's breadth thick, and mounted on object as that of the institutions of Moses, which appears twelve brazen oxen, three facing to the north, and three to have been nothing less than the instruction of all man-to the east, and the others in the opposite directions. kind in the great doctrine of the Unity and moral governIn addition to the brazen sea, there were ten smaller ment of God, as the creator of the world, and the common brazen lavers, which were also set off with various orna parent of all the human race, in opposition to the polytheism ments, five on the north, and five on the south side of and idolatry then prevailing, which, besides being grossly the court. They rested on bases and wheels of brass, absurd in its principles, and leading to endless supersti. were each four cubits in circumference, and each held tions, threatened the world with a deluge of vice and. 40 baths, or 315 gallons. The flesh of the victims that misery. For this purpose the Hebrew nation was placed were sacrificed was washed in these lavers. (1 Kings in the most conspicuous situation among all the great 7. 27-39; 2Chron. 4. 6.)
civilized nations of the earth, which were universally addicted to idolatry of the grossest kind, to divinations,
necromancy, and other superstitions of a similar nature, LAW, 7nin torah. This term, Law, beside other and practised as acts of religion; some of their rites meanings, is in the Scriptures pre-eminently applied to abominably licentious, and others most horribly cruel, the code contained in the Pentateuch, or the religious yet enjoined as the necessary means of recommending and civil regulations imposed, by Divine authority, upon the persons that performed them to the various objects the Hebrews by Moses. “The right consideration of of their worship. this Divine institution," says Dr. Graves, “ will surround As all mankind imagined that their outward prospeit with a glory of truth and holiness, not only worthy of rity depended upon the observance of their respective its claims, but which has continued to be the light of religions, that of the Hebrew nation was made to do so the world on theological and moral subjects, and often in the most conspicuous manner as a visible lesson to all on great political principles, to this day."
the world. They were to prosper beyond all other The Mosaic dispensation, in its general provisions, nations while they adhered to their religion, and to comprehended a complete form of government, both suffer in a manner equally exemplary and conspicuous civil and religious; and, in both these respects, it was in consequence of their departure from it. Of this all purely a theocracy. Its civil enactments were adapted mankind might easily judge. to peculiar cases and circumstances; but they enjoined | These great ideas occur in the sacred books of the the duties of social life in all its several relations. Its | Hebrews, and nowhere else. They are all distinctly religious enactments contained certain doctrines, pro advanced by Moses, and more fully unfolded in the mises, threatenings, and predictions, which were the writings of the later Prophets; but certainly nothing so authoritative rule of faith to the Jews; those enactments great and sublime could have been suggested to Moses also prescribed a great multitude of ceremonial and judi from anything that he saw in Egypt, or could have cial institutions, which, however indifferent in them heard of in other countries. selves, were obligatory on the Jews, by the commanding L (2.) In no system of religion, besides that of Moses, authority of God. The precise use of all these institu was purily of morals any part of it. All the heathen tions we cannot, at this distance of time, fully ascertain: religions were systems of mere ceremonies, and the sole but some of them were manifestly established in oppo business of the priests was to attend to those rites, which sition to the rites of the Egyptians and other neighbour were so far from being favourable to morals that they ing nations, and with a view to preserve the Jews from were ordinarily of the most impure and abominable the infection of their idolatries; others of these rites nature. were instituted as memorials of signal and extraordinary The contrary to this appears not only in the Ten acts of Divine Providence towards them, especially those | Commandments, but in all the writings of Moses. The by which their Law had been confirmed and established. purest morality, the most favourable to public and pri
It has been justly remarked, that they who supposed | vate happiness, was the principal and ultimate object of Moses himself to have been the author of the institu- | the whole system. Sacrifices and ceremonial observances tions, civil or religious, that bear his name, and that of every kind, are always represented as of no significain framing them he borrowed much from the Egyptians tion without morals. Such precepts as these, “ Be ye