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LEVIATHAN

LEVIRATE.

761

(Job 41. 10;) or if any one, disregarding the dictates of when, receiving several blows on the head with long prudence, or eager to display his intrepidity, ventures, in poles and hatchets, it is easily killed. It is now seldom such circumstances, to attack him, it is at the imminent eaten, the flesh being bad; but its hide is used, espehazard of his life. Diodorus Siculus assigns this as the cially by the Ethiopians, for shields and other purposes: reason why the crocodile was worshipped by the Egyp- the glands are taken from beneath the arm or fore leg, tians, that their enemies, for fear of him, durst not cross for the musk they contain; and some parts are occasionthe river Nile to attack them. The flesh of the crocodile ally dried and used as philters. In former times it was, in some places, as at Apollinopolis, made an article of seems rather to have been eaten as a mark of hatred to food, and though the creature was venerated in some the Evil Being, of whom it was the emblem, than as an nomes, it was in others detested as the emblem of article of food.” Typhon, the deity of evil; and its destruction was Mummies of crocodiles are found at Thebes, Maabdeh, regarded as a religious duty. In the Egyptian mytho- and other places, many of which are of full size and perlogy it was peculiarly sacred to the god Savak. It fectly preserved. In the Egyptian room of the British appears from Ælian that in places where crocodiles were Museum, may be seen mummies of crocodiles enveloped worshipped, their numbers increased to such an extent | in bandages; one in a fine state has been unrolled; it “ that it was not safe for any one to wash his feet or was brought from Thebes. draw water at the river; and no one could walk near the edge of the stream, either in the vicinity of Ombos, Coptos, or Arsinoë, without extreme caution."

LEVIRATE, the name given to a Hebrew law, in Strabo speaks of the respect shown to the crocodile in obedience to which, when a man died without issue, it the nome of Arsinoë, or, as it was formerly called, Croco- became the duty of his brother to marry his widow, with dilopolis. He states that one was sacred there, and kept the view of raising up a first-born son to succeed to the apart in a particular lake, which was so tame that it inheritance. Michaëlis says, “This has been denoallowed itself to be touched by the priests. They called minated Levirate marriage, from the word levir, which, it souchos, or suchus. It was fed with bread, meat, and though it appears not in the ancient classic authors, but wine, which were brought by those strangers who went only in the Vulgate and the Pandects, is nevertheles3 to see it. The host of Strabo, a man of consideration, really an old Latin word, and is explained by Festus to when showing the geographer and his party the sacred signify a husband's brother. The Hebrews had, in like curiosities of the place, conducted them to the brink of manner, an ancient law term which we do not meet with the lake, having taken with him from table a cake, some elsewhere, O2' jabam, of the very same import whence roast meat, and a cup of wine. The animal was lying | came no jebamet, a brother's wife, and Da' jebem, on the bank; and while some of the priests opened its to marry such a person. The Chaldee, Syriac, and mouth, one put in the cake, and then the meat, after Samaritan versions of the Bible do indeed retain the which the wine was poured into it. The crocodile upon word, but it is not otherwise at all current in these lanthis, taking to the water, passed over to the other side; guages, nor can we find in them the least trace of an and another stranger having come for the same purpose etymology for it, and in the Arabic tongue it is altomade similar offerings to it as it lay there.

gether unknown. This is often the case with respect to Sir John Gardner Wilkinson states that, among the the Hebrew law terms. The Hebrew language alone Egyptians, “ The crocodile was supposed by some to be has them, while in the kindred languages they are not an emblem of the sun; and Clemens tells us the sun to be found at all, or in quite a different sense. How was sometimes placed in a boat, at others on a crocodile. that happens I am ignorant; with this exception, that I On the subject of the crocodile M. Pauw makes a very frequently remark, in like manner, among ourselves, judicious remark, 'that on his examining the topo- ancient law terms whose etymology is obscure, because graphy of Egypt, he observed Coptos, Arsinoë, and Cro-old words have been retained in law, while the language codilopolis (Athribis), the towns most remarkable for has in other respects undergone alteration. the adoration of crocodiles, to be all situated on canals “The law which obliged a man to marry the widow at some distance from the Nile. Thus by the least of his childless brother was much more ancient than the negligence in allowing the ditches to be filled up, those time of Moses; having been in use in Palestine among animals, from being incapable of going far on dry land, the Canaanites, and the ancestors of the Israelites, at could never have arrived at the very places where they least, more than 250 years previous to the date of his were considered as the symbols of pure water. For, as law, and indeed with such rigour, as left a person no we learn from Ælian, and more particularly from a pas- possible means of evading it, however irksome and sage in Eusebius, the crocodile signified water fit for odious compliance with it might appear to him. The drinking and irrigating the lands. As long as their law, however, was unquestionably attended with great worship was in vogue, the government felt assured that inconveniences; for a man cannot but think it the most the superstitious would not neglect to repair the canals | unpleasant of all necessities if he must marry a woman with the greatest exactness. Thus was their object whom he bas not chosen himself. Must, in matters of gained by this religious artifice. Herodotus speaks love and marriage, is a fearful word, and almost quite of a method of catching the crocodile with a hook enough to put love to flight, even where beauty excites to which a piece of pork was attached as a bait; but it. We see, likewise, that the brother in some instances I ought not to omit another mode practised at the had no inclination for any such marriage, (Gen. ch. 38; present day. They fasten a dog upon a log of wood, Ruth ch. 4,) and stumbled at this, that the first son proto the middle of which is tied a rope of sufficient length, duced from it could not belong to him. Whether a protected by iron wire, or other substanco, to prevent second son might follow and continue in life was very its being bitten through; and having put this into the uncertain; and among a people who so highly prized stream, or on a sand-bank at the edge of the water, they genealogical immortality of name, it was a great hardship lie concealed near the spot, and await the arrival of the for a man to be obliged to procure it for a person already crocodile. As soon as it has swallowed the dog, they dead, and to run the risk meanwhile of losing it himself. pull the rope, which brings the stick across the animals Nor was this law very much in favour of the morals of the throat. It endeavours to plunge into deep water, but is other sex; for, not to speak of Tamar, who, in reference soon fatigued by its exertions, and is drawn ashore; to it, conceived herself justified in having recourse to

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most improper conduct, I will only here observe that hardly have had it in view, to insist very particularly on what Ruth did (3. 6-9) in order to obtain, for a hus- the observance of a statute, that but ratified an old band, the person whom she accounted as the nearest custom by way of a compliment. If it had been a point kinsman of her deceased husband, is, to say the least, by in which he was interested, he would have ordained a no means conformable to that modesty and delicacy very different punishment. The Hebrew expression in which we look for in the other sex. A wise and good Deuteronomy 25. 9, has been by some so understood, as legislator could scarcely have been inclined to patronize if the widow had a right to spit in his face. And no any such law; but then it is not advisable directly to attack doubt it may signify as much; but then that act in a an inveterate point of honour, because, in such a case, public court is so indecent that if any other interprefor the most part nothing is gained; and in the present tation is admissible, this one ought not to be adopted. instance, as the point of honour placed immortality of Now there are two others: (1.) 'She shall spit before name entirely in a man's leaving descendants behind his face. The Arabs at this day, when they wish to him, it was so favourable to the increase of population, affront any one, spit, and cry Fi; even people of rank do that it merited some degree of forbearance and tender- so, just as the common people do with us. (2.) P7 ness. Moses, therefore, left the Israelites still in pos yarak, may also mean to revile properly, Bilem evomere, session of their established right, but at the same time which signification is familiar in Arabia, only that, he studied as much as possible to guard against its according to the usual rule, the Hebrew yod must be rigour and evil effects, by limiting and moderating its changed into var, and the word written varak. operation in various respects. In the first place, he “The person whose duty it was to marry a childless expressly prohibited the marriage of a brother's widow, widow, was the brother of her deceased husband in the if there were children of his own alive. Before this strict sense of the word, as the story in Genesis ch. 38 time, brothers were probably in the practice of consi- clearly shows. I would not have thought it necessary dering a brother's widow as part of the inheritance, and to make this remark, had not the contrary opinion been of appropriating her to themselves, if unable to buy a maintained by some who assert that the word “brother,' wife, as the Mongols do; so that this was a very neces- | in Deuteronomy 25. 5-10, is to be taken in a general sary prohibition. For a successor præsumptivus in sense, and means a relation, excluding the real brother, thoro, whom a wife can regard as her future husband, is | The law, however, only extended to a brother living in rather a dangerous neighbour for her present one's the same city or country, not to one residing at a greater honour; and if she happen to conceive any predilection distance. Nor did it affect a brother having already a for the younger brother, her husband, particularly in a wife of his own. At least, if it had its origin in this, southern climate, will hardly be secure from the risk of that by reason of the price required for a wife, often poison.

only one brother could marry, and the others also wished “In the second place, he allowed, and indeed enjoined to do the same, it could only affect such as were unmarthe brother to marry the widow of his childless brother; ried; and in the two instances that occur in Genesis but if he was not disposed to do so, he did not absolutely ch. 38, and Ruth ch. 4, we find the brother-in-law, compel him, but left him an easy means of riddance; for whose duty it was to marry, apprehensive of its proving he had only to declare in court, that he had no inclination hurtful to himself and his inheritance, which could to marry her, and then he was at liberty. This, it is true, | hardly have been the case, if he had previously had anosubjected him to a punishment, which at first appears ther wife, or (but that was at least expensive,) could sufficiently severe; the slighted widow had a right to have taken one of his own choice. When there was no revile him in court as much as she pleased; and from brother alive, or when he declined the duty, the Levihis pulling off his shoe and delivering it to the widow, | rate law, as we see from the Book of Ruth, extended to he received the appellation of Baresole, which anybody the next nearest relation of the deceased husband, as, might apply to him without being liable to a prose for instance, to his paternal uncle or nephew; so that at cution. A little consideration, however, will show that last, even pretty remote kinsmen, in default of nearer this punishment was not so severe in reality as in ones, might be obliged to undertake it. Boaz does not appearance. For if Baresole is once understood, accord | appear to have been very nearly related to Ruth, as he ing to the usage of the language, to mean nothing more did not so much as know who she was, when he fell in than a man who has given a woman the refusal, it is no love with her, while she gleaned in the fields. Nor did longer felt as a term of great reproach, and any one will she know that he was any relation to her, until apprised rather endure it, than have his own refusal talked of. of it by her mother-in-law. Among the Jews of the To be once in his lifetime solemnly abused in a public present day, Levirate marriages have entirely ceased; so court by a woman, is at any rate much casier to be much so, that in the marriage contracts of the very borne than the same treatment from a man, or extra- poorest people among them, it is generally stipulated judicially; and if, besides, the cause is known, and that that the bridegroom's brother shall abandon all those the court allows her this liberty, in order to give free rights to the bride to which he could lay claim by Deutevent to her passion, because the man will not marry her ronomy ch. 25.” according to her wish, the more violent the emotions of A modern Jewish writer thus explains the custom in her rage are, the more flattering to him must they the present day:-“When a man dies childless his prove; and he will go out of court with more pride than widow is not to marry a stranger, but is left to the broif she had excused him from marrying her, with much ther of the deceased, who either marries or gives her coolness or without any emotion at all. I have often leave to marry another man. This is grounded on the heard vain fops mention in company, how many women following passage:—'If brethren dwell together, and in other places would gladly have married them, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead were greatly enraged that they would not take them. shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband's On persons of this description, such a judicial punish- brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, ment would indeed have been very justly bestowed. and perform the duty of an husband's brother unto her. But it is at worst more flattering than even the politest | And it shall be, that the first-born which she beareth language with which a lady begs leave to decline an shall succeed in the name of his brother which is dead, offer of marriage, or but distantly yields to it. A legis- | that his name be not put out of Israel.' Now this is to lator, in ordaining a punishment of this nature, could be understood thus; that both the brothers, that is, the

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deceased, and likewise the surviving brother, must have temple or sanctuary. (Numb. 3. 9; 8. 17,19.) Their their being upon earth at one and at the same time; but employment, however it may have been esteemed oriif the brother should happen to be born after the decease ginally, was eventually considered so respectable, that of the other, it is not then to be observed, because it we find them, after the Captivity, mentioned immediately cannot be said, to dwell together,' for evidently their after the Levites, and, as it would seem, placed in a meadwelling, that is, their being, was not together. The sure above the other Israelites. (Ezra 2. 58; 8. 20.) marrying such a widow is called zibum, which word | It appears that the Levites were in the first instance signifies to marry a sister-in-law. But if the brother solemnly separated from the rest of the Israelites, and does not choose to marry her, she must not marry ano- qualified for their official duties by a peculiar rite. iher man without his first setting her at liberty. This (Numb. 8. 5-22.) Having washed and shaved the ceremony of giving a brother's wife leave to marry again whole body, they brought a bullock with a meal offering is called chalilsa, the loosing of the shoe according to the and oil to the altar for a burnt-offering, and aņother passage in Deuteronomy 25. 9. This ceremony is per bullock for a sin-offering. They were then sprinkled formed in the following manner:-A suitable place with water by Moses. The leading men of the Israelites having been fixed upon the evening before, by three laid their hands upon tliem, and by this ceremony sub Rabbis, they with the witnesses are attended next day, stituted them in their own place or in that of their firstafter morning prayers, by the congregation; for if the born. The Levites, in the presence of the priests, proceremony is performed by night, it is not valid. The strated themselves before God, in signification that they Rabbis, being seated, order the widow and brother-in-offered themselves to his service. Finally, they placed law before them, who declare that they are come to their hands upon the bullocks and then slew them. be set at liberty; the one from espousing, the other With these ceremonies, the Levites and their posterity from being espoused; when the Rabbi, after a long were set apart to the service of God, of the priests, and examination, finds the man determined not to marry the of the tabernacle, but whether any consecration of each widow, he asks him no more questions. The man then individual in after times took place does not appear, puts on a shoe, by order of the Rabbi; this shoe is made though most probably it was so. (1 Chron. 15. 12; 29.5; from black-cloth list, knitted in a peculiar manner; he 38. 6.) They were not enjoined to wear any particular then takes it off again to unravel, which is a very trou- sort of dress; but we learn that those who removed blesome job. For he must unravel it by making use of the ark in the time of David, as well as those who were his two thumbs and two little fingers only, which is not singers and musicians in Solomon's temple, were arrayed a very easy task. This ends the ceremony, and the in white robes. Their duties consisted in rendering widow is then at liberty to marry again.”

such assistance to the priests as was required, and in keeping guard round the tabernacle, and subsequently

round the temple. In the journey through the wilderLEVITES, 975 Beni Levi; Sept. Leuitat. ness, it was their duty to transport the different parts of The Levites were a class of persons substituted in the the tabernacle, and the various sacred utensils that perplace of the first-born of the Hebrews, who were origi- tained to it; to see that both the tabernacle and the nally priests by birth; but in the age of Moses yielded temple were kept clean, and to prepare supplies for the their right in this respect, and were ever after to be sanctuary, such as wine, oil, incense, &c. They had the. redeemed, by a pecuniary payment, from serving at the care of the sacred revenues, and subsequently, to the altar. (Numb. 3. 5-13,40-51.) From the tribe of Levi, time of David, were required to sing in the temple and Aaron and his posterity were consecrated to the priest- to play upon instruments. In the more recent periods hood, to whom a nearer access was given to the throne of of the Jewish state, they slew the victims for the altar; God in the Holy of Holies, which, in truth, is intimated for the people, having for a time discontinued it, had in the usual name for priests, 107) Cohen, a word then become unskilful in the performance of this service. applied to men who have access to the king, as the sons | The Levites, in consequence of their descent from the of David, (2Sam. 8. 18; 1Chron. 18. 17,) rendered in three sons of Levi, Kohath, Gershon, and Merari, were our version, “chief rulers,” and “chiefs.” (See PRIEST divided into three families. These families bore sepaHOOD.) The high-priest sustained the highest office in rate and distinct parts of the tabernacle, and of the furthe tribe, and ranked as the head both of priests and niture which belonged to it, during the march in the Levites. The other Levites performed those religious desert. This laborious service was exacted from them duties which were of an inferior kind; but for the more from the thirtieth to the fiftieth year of their age; but menial employments, such as bringing water and split-| from twenty-five to thirty, and subsequently to the ting wood, they were allowed servants, who were assigned | fiftieth year, the employments, which they were expected to them for the labours of the sanctuary. These had to attend to, were of a less arduous nature. (Numb. 3. their origin as a separate class in the community from a 1-36; 4. 1,30-35,42,46-49.) It appears that in later religious practice among the Hebrews of devoting by a times they commenced the performance of the less diffivow themselves, a son, or a servant, to services of such a cult duties at a still earlier period, that is, at twenty kind. It was in reference to this practice that the law | years of age. (1Chron. 23. 24,27.) was enacted, which is recorded in Leviticus 27. 1-8, and When the Israelites were settled in Palestine, and which fixed the price at which a person who had thus the tabernacle was no longer carried about from place devoted himself might be redeemed. In the time of to place, as it had been, the service of the Levites Joshua, the number of persons thus employed in the underwent much change, and became considerably capacity of servants in performing the religious cere | lighter than previously to that time. On the completion monies, was increased by the accession of the Gibeonites, of the Temple, the priests and Levites were immediately "as hewers of wood and drawers of water,” (Josh. subjected to the regulations of David, which ever after 9.23-27;) their number was likewise much increased in continued in force. He divided the thirty-eight thouthe times of David and Solomon. After the captivity sand of them into four classes, as follows: twenty-four they constituted a very considerable class of the people, thousand were assigned as assistants to the priests, four and were called by an honorary name that was anciently thousand were employed as porters, four thousand were applied to the Levites, Omni Nethinim, a word which musicians, and six thousand judges and genealogists. signifies given or devoted, that is, to the service of the (1 Chron. 23. 3-5,24-32; 24. 20-31.) The musicians,

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who were subjected to a minor division into twenty-four | Libations among the Hebrews were poured upon the classes, performed the services which were allotted to victim after it was killed, and the several pieces of it them alternately. One class was employed a week, and were laid on the altar ready to be consumed by the then its place was occupied by another. The stations flames. (Levit. 6. 20; 8. 25,26; 9. 4.) See MIXCHA. that were guarded by those whose business it was to St. Paul describes himself as it were a victim about to watch the Temple, were not all occupied by the same be sacrificed, and that the accustomed libations were in number, some being guarded by six, some by four, and a manner poured upon him: “For I am ready to be others by two persons only. They were relieved every offered, [otevdouat, poured forth,] and the time of Sabbath-day by others. (IChron. 26. 17-19; 2Chron. my departure is at hand.” (2Tim. 4. 6.) The same 23. 4.) They had likewise their appropriate heads or expressive sacrificial term occurs in Philippians 2. 17, overseers.

where the Apostle represents the faith of the PhiThe descendants of Levi had forty-eight cities assigned | lippians as a sacrifice, and his own blood as a libation to them for their residence, on the division of the land poured forth to hallow and consecrate it: “ Yea, and if of Canaan; thirteen of these were appropriated to the I be offered upon the sacrifice and service of your faith, priests, to which were added the tithes of corn, fruit, and I joy, and rejoice with you all.” cattle. The Levites, however, paid to the priests a tenth Sir John Gardner Wilkinson observes, “The most part of all their tithes; and as they were possessed of no usual offerings mentioned in the sculptures of ancient landed property, the tithes which the priests received Egypt, besides the sacrifices of animals and birds, are from them were considered as the first fruits which they wine, oil, beer, milk, cakes, grain, ointment, flowers, were to offer to God. (Numb. 18. 21-24.)

fruit, vegetables, and various productions of the soil, which answered, in some degree, to the Mincha of the

Jews. A libation of wine was frequently offered, togeLEVITICUS. This, the third book of the Penta

ther with incense; flowers were often presented with teuch, termed by the Jews 872 Va-yikra, “And he

them; and many sacrifices consisted of oxen or other called," from the initial word; it is styled in the Septua

animals, birds, cakes, fruit, vegetables, ointments, and gint LEVITIKOV, and in our version Leviticus, or the

other things, with incense and libation. Wine was freLevitical Book, because it contains principally the laws

quently presented in two cups. It was not then a libaand regulations concerning the Levites, priests, and

tion, but merely an offering of wine; and since the sacrifices. In the Babylonish Talmud it is called the

pouring out of wine upon the altar was a preliminary Law, of the Priests, which appellation is retained in the

ceremony, as Herodotus observes, common to all their Arabic and Syriac versions. It is generally admitted

sacrifices, we find that the king is often represented that the author of this book was Moses; and it is cited

making a libation upon an altar covered with offerings as his production in several books of Scripture. By

of cakes, flowers, and the joints of a victim killed for comparing Exodus 40. 17 with Numbers 1. 1, we learn

the occasion. The Egyptian artists did not bind themthat this book contains the history of one month, that

selves to one instant of time in their representations of is, from the erection of the tabernacle to the numbering

these subjects. The libation, therefore, appears to be of the people who were fit for war, which took place in

poured over the mass of offerings collected upon the the second month of the year of the world 2514, and

altar; but the knowledge of their mode of drawing, and 1490 B.C.

the authority of Herodotus, explain that the libation The Book of Leviticus is divided by the Jews into

was poured out before the offerings were placed upon nine paraschioth, which in our Bibles form twenty-seven

it; and instances are even found in the sculptures of this chapters; it consists of four leading points:-(1.) The

preparatory ceremony. Two kinds of vases were prinlaws concerning sacrifices, in which the different kinds

cipally used for libation, and the various kinds of wine of sacrifices are enumerated, together with their con

were indicated by the names afflixed to them." See comitant rites. (2.) The institution of the priesthood,

SACRIFICE. in which the consecration of Aaron and his sons to the sacred office is related; together with, (3.) The laws

LIBERTINES. In Acts 6.9, the sacred historian, concerning purifications, both of the people and the

mne | Bishop Marsh observes, “ speaks of a synagogue at Jerupriests. (4.) The laws concerning the sacred festivals,

salem belonging to a class of persons whom he calls vows, things devoted, and tithes.

Außeptivot, [in our version rendered “Libertines,"] a The general design of the book is, to make known to

term which is evidently the same with the Latin libertini. the Israelites the Levitical laws, sacrifices, and ordinances,

Now, whatever meaning we affix to this word, for it is and by those “ shadows of good things to come,” to lead

variously explained-whether we understand emancipated the Israelites to the Messiah; (Heb. 10. 1, comp, with

slaves, or the sons of emancipated slaves—they must have Gal. 3. 4;) and it appears from the argument of St. Paul,

been the slaves or the sons of slaves to Roman masters; that they had some idea of the spiritual meaning of these otherwise the Latin word libertini would not apply to various institutions. (1Cor. 10. 1-4.) Numerous pas- |

| them. That among persons of this description there sages of the New Testament, especially the Epistle to the Hebrews, are explained by reference to this book;

were many at Rome who professed the Jewish religion,

whether slaves of Jewish origin, or proselytes, after in fact, they would be scarcely intelligible without it.

manumission, is nothing very extraordinary. But that

they should have been so numerous at Jerusalem as to LEVY. See Arms, ARMOUR, Arvy.

have a synagogue in that city, built for their particular use, appears at least to be more than might be expected.

Some commentators, therefore, have supposed that the LIBATION. This word does not occur in our term in question, instead of denoting emancipated Roman authorized version, but the effusion of liquors poured slaves, or the sons of such persons, was an adjective upon victims sacrificed, which it signifies, was practised belonging to the name of some city or district; while by the Hebrews as well as by the heathen nations, and others, on mere conjecture, have proposed to alter the it serves to explain more than one passage in St. Paul's term itself. But the whole difficulty is removed by a Epistles. The quantity of wine for a libation was the passage in the second book of the Annals of Tacitus, fourth part of a hin, or rather more than two pints. from which it appears that the persons whom that bisa

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torian describes as being liberlini generis, and infected, Gesenius, Boothroyd, and others, concur in it; but the as he calls it, with foreign, that is, with Jewish, supersti- Jewish interpreters and Josephus explain it by “lice,” tion, were so numerous in the time of the Emperor Tibe which has been adopted by our translators, and which rius, that four thousand of them, who were of age to | Bochart likewise follows, with most of the modern comcarry arms, were sent to the island of Sardinia; and that mentators. Bochart argues that gnats could not be all the rest of them were ordered either to renounce their intended: (1.) Because the creatures here mentioned religion or to depart from Italy before a day appointed. sprang from the dust of the earth, and not from the *This statement of Tacitus is confirmed by Suetonius, waters. (2.) Because they were both on men and cattle, who relates that Tiberius disposed of the young men which cannot be spoken of gnats. (3.) Because their among the Jews, then at Rome, (under pretence of their name comes from a root which signifies to make firm, serving in the wars,) in provinces of an unhealthy cli- fix, establish, which could not apply to gnats, flies, &c., mate; and that he banished from the city all the rest of as they are almost constantly on the wing. (4.) Because that nation, or proselytes to that religion, under penalty 7 kinah, is the term given by the Talmudists for of being condemned to slavery for life if they did not louse. To which, it may be added, that if they were comply with his commands. We can now, therefore, winged and stinging insects, as Jerome, Origen, and account for the number of libertini in Judæa, at the others have supposed, the plague of flies is unduly antiperiod of which Luke was speaking, which was about cipated; and the next miracle will be only a repetition fifteen years after their banishment from Italy."

of the former.

Mr. Bryant, who agrees with our translators, in illus. I. LIBNAH, 722) Sept. Deßva, doßva. This

trating the aptness of this miracle, has the following

remarks:-“The Egyptians affected great external purity, was a Levitical city in the tribe of Judah, situated about

and were very nice both in their persons and clothing; twelve miles south-west of Jerusalem. It revolted from

bathing and making ablutions continually. Uncommon Jehoram, on account of his murders and idolatry;

care was taken not to harbour any vermin. They were (2Kings 8. 22; 2Chron. 21. 10;) and afterwards, in the

particularly solicitous on this head, thinking it would be time of Hezekiah, sustained a siege from Sennacherib, king of Assyria. (Isai. 37. 8.) It existed as a town or

a great profanation of the temple which they entered, if

any animalculæ of this sort were concealed in their garvillage in the days of Eusebius and Jerome, under the

ments. The priests, says Herodotus, are shaved, both name of Labina, or Lobna, but no remains of it are now

as to their heads and bodies, every third day, to prevent to be seen. II. Libnah is the name of one of the encampments

any louse or other detestable creature being found upon

them when they are performing their services to the of the Israelites in the wilderness. (Numb. 33. 20.) Nothing is known as to its situation, though Calmet

gods. The judgment therefore inflicted by the hands of endeavours to identify it with the Libnah of Judah.

Moses, was consequently not only most noisome to the

people in general, but it was no small odium to the most LIBYA, Aißun. This name in its largest sense was

sacred order in Egypt, that they were overrun with these used by the Greeks to denote the whole of Africa; but

filthy and detestable vermin.” Libya Proper, or the Libya of the New Testament, was

Those who take the view of the Septuagint version, a large country lying along the Mediterranean, to the represent the activity of gnats in Egypt, their small size, west of Egypt. By the Romans it was divided into Libya Interior and Exterior; but the Libya mentioned by St. Luke, (Acts 2. 10,) is that which is called by Ptolemy, Libya Cyrenaica; and by Pliny, Pentapolitana Regio, from its five chief cities, Berenice, Arsinoë, Ptolemais, Apollonia, and Cyrene. It is celebrated in the Old Testament for its chariots and horses used in war. (2Chron. 16. 8.) Libya is supposed to have been first peopled by, and to have derived its name from, the Lehabim, or Lubim. These, its earlier inhabitants, appear, in the times of the Old Testament, to have consisted of wandering tribes, who were sometimes in alliance with Egypt, and at others with the Ethiopians of Arabia; as they are said to have assisted both Shishak and Zerah in their expeditions into Judæa. (2Chron. ch. 12,14,16.) They were sufficiently powerful to maintain a war for a time with the Carthaginians; by whom they were

Egyptian Gnat, magnified. in the end entirely overcome. Since that period, Libya, in common with the rest of the East, has successively

their insatiable thirst for blood, and the power of their passed into the hands of the Greeks, Romans, Saracens,

sting as such as to render existence almost a calamity and Turks. The city Cyrene was the capital of this

during the seasons in which they most abound. The country, in which and other parts dwelt many Jews, who

painful sensation which their sting produces, and the

intolerable and protracted itching which ensues, with the came up to Jerusalem at the feast of Pentecost, together with those dispersed among other nations, and are called

combined torture resulting from the infliction of fresh

stings while the former are still smarting, is scarcely less by St. Luke, dwellers in the parts of Libya about Cyrene. (Acts 2. 10.) See CYRENE.

distressing to the mind than to the body. To secure sleep at night, the inhabitants of the countries infested

by these insects are obliged to shelter themselves under LICE, D'ID kinnim; Sept. OkV! Des; Vulg. scini- mosquito nets or curtains; and it deserves to be menphes, a species of little gnats that sting painfully in the tioned, that this precaution was used by the ancient marshy country of Egypt, (Culex reptans of Linnæus, or | Egyptians. The Egyptian gnat is rather small, ashCulex molestus of Forskal.) This is the rendering of the coloured, with white spots on the articulation of the Septuagint, which is supported by Origen and Jerome. legs.

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