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The rendering of our version appears the most correct, says, 'Ah! my friend, you no longer lift up your counbut whichever reading we adopt, it is necessary to con-tenance upon me.” clude (which the text expressly states) that the creatures To lift up one's hands, eyes, soul, or heart, unto the were brought in swarms, most extraordinary even for Lord, are expressions which very frequently occur in the Egypt, and thus a miraculous interposition was made | Scriptures, as descriptive of the sentiments and emotions manifest.
of one who prays earnestly, or desires a thing with ardour.
LID, 757 dalelh. This term is, in 2Kings 12. 9,
LIGHT, 7ix or, ows, is used in a physical applied to the lid of the chest, or as the Hebrew
sense, (Matt. 17, 2; Acts 9. 3; 12. 7; 2Cor. 4. 6;) by expresses it, “ the door of the chest," through which metonymy, for a fire giving light. (Mark 14. 54; Luke Jehoiada the priest bored a hole, and set it beside the 22. 56;) for a torch, candle, or lamp, (Acts 16. 29;) for altar, on the right, for the purpose of receiving offerings
the material light of heaven, as the sun, moon, or stars. of money for the repair of the Temple.
(Psalm 136. 7; James ). 17.) In figurative language LIEUTENANTS. The word O'B77WnX achash
it signifies a manifest or open state of things, (Matt. darpinim, (Ezra 8. 36; Esther 3. 12; 8. 9; 9. 3,) is
10. 27; Luke 12. 3,) and in a higher sense the eternal rendered in our version “lieutenants.” Gesenius says it
source of truth, purity, and joy. (1John 1. 5.) God is may be properly rendered grand satrap, chief-governor,
said to dwell in light inaccessible, (1Tim. 6. 16,) which a Persian title, somewhat corresponding with that of
seems to contain a reference to the glory and splendour pasha among the Turks. The satrap or grand satrap
which shone in the holy of holies, where Jehovah had the civil and military power over several little pro
appeared in the luminous cloud above the mercy seat, vinces, in each of which presided a sub-governor, UND
and which none but the high-priest, and he only once a pacha. The word is of Persian origin, and the first
year, was permitted to approach, (Levit. 16.2; Ezek. 1. half of the compound is the Persian WnX achash, sig
22,26,28;) this light was typical of the glory of the nifying excellence, greatness. According to the letters,
celestial world. 1977 darban answered to “door-keeper," that is, cour
Light itself is employed to signify the edicts, laws, rules, tier in general, but the acceptation of 1977w shadrapin,
or directions that proceed from ruling powers for the as equivalent to 9770 shadraph, Persian satrap, is
good of their subjects. Thus of the great King of all the more suitable with the affixed termination.
earth, the Psalmist says, “Thy word is a light unto my
path,” (Psalm 119. 105,) and “Thy judgments are as LIFE, is properly a state of active and happy
the light.” (Hosea 6. 5.) Agreeably to the notion of existence. (1.) Mortal life, since the fall, is the con- / lights being the symbols of good government, light also tinuance or duration of our present state, which the signifies protection, deliverance, and joy. Scriptures represent as blended largely with death, and
Light also frequently signifies instruction both by consequently short and vain. (Gen. 3. 17; Job 14. 1,2;
doctrine and example, (Matt. 5. 16; John 5. 35,) or James 4. 14.) (2.) Spiritual life consists in our being
persons considered as giving such light. (Matt. 5. 14; in the favour of God, and living in dependence on Him
Rom. 2. 19.) It is applied in the highest sense to to his glory. It is considered as of Divine origin, (Col.
Christ, the true light, the Sun of Righteousness, who is 3. 4,) bidden, (Col. 3. 3,) peaceful, (Rom. 8. 6,) secure.
that in the spiritual, which the material light is in the (John 10. 28.) (3.) Eternal life is the consummation natural world, the great Author, not only of illumination of spiritual life, (Rom. 6. 22,) that never-ending state
and knowledge, but of spiritual life, health, and joy, to of existence which the saints shall enjoy in heaven. It
the souls of men. is glorious, (Col. 3. 4,) holy, (Rev. 21. 27,) and blissful.
“The images of light and darkness," says Bishop (2Cor. 4. 17; 1 Peter 1. 4.)
Lowth, “ are commonly made use of in all languages to imply or denote prosperity and adversity, agreeably to
the common sense and perception which all men have LIFTING UP. To lift up the hands is among of the objects themselves. But the Hebrews, upon a Orientals a common part of the ceremony of taking an subject more sublime indeed, in itself, and illustrating oath. “I have lift up mine hand unto the Lord,” says it by an idea which was more habitual to them, more Abraham, (Gen. 14. 22,) and Jehovah himself says to daringly exalt their strains, and give a loose rein to the the Hebrews, “I will bring you into the land concern spirit of poetry. They display, for instance, not the ing which I lift up mine hand,” (Exod. 6. 8, margin,) image of the spring, of Aurora, or of the dreary night; that is, which I promised with an oath.
but the sun and stars as rising with increased splendour We read in Genesis 29. 1, “ Then Jacob went on his in a new creation, or again involved in chaos and prijourney, and came into the land of the people of the meval darkness. (Isai. 30. 26; 60. 19,20.)" East.” The margin has “ lifted up his feet,” which in In prophetic language, lights or luminaries signify Eastern language signifies to walk quickly, to reach out, ruling powers, because they show the way, and conseto be in good earnest, not to hesitatc. Thus Jacob quently direct and govern men in their conduct. By journeyed to the East, he lifted up his feet, and stretched reason of luminaries governing the day and night, all forth in good earnest, having been greatly encouraged luminaries in symbolical language signify ruling powers. by the vision of the ladder, and the promise, “ Thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth.”
In the form of blessing the people, which by Divine LIGITNING, Pn) barak. The Psalmist says, command Aaron was to observe, as mentioned in Num | “He causeth the vapour to ascend from the ends of the bers 6. 24-27, it is said, “The Lord lift up his counte- earth; he maketh lightnings for the rain; lie bringeth nance upon thee and give thee peace.” Roberts says, the wind out of his treasures.” (Psalm 135. 7.) Travelthis form of expression is still used in the East: "As I lers state that in Syria lightnings are frequent in the came along the road, I met Raman, and he lifted up autumnal months. Seldom a night passes without a his face upon me; but I knew not the end; which great deal of lightning, which is sometimes accompanied means, he looked pleasantly. Does a man complain of by thunder and sometimes not. A squall of wind and another who has ceased to look kindly upon him, he clouds of dust are the usual forerunners of the first rains.
autumnall of lightning: vesi not. A squall the first rains.
To these natural phenomena, the sacred writers frequently | species of amaryllis, which allude. The clouds are replenished by exhalations from bore from ten to twelve every quarter, and when they are ready to open and spikes of bloom on each pour out their refreshing showers on the parched ground, stem, as large as those of the glad tidings are announced by the rapid lightning,
inced by the rapid lightning, the belladonna, springing and the precious treasure is scattered over the fields by from one common recepthe attendant winds.
tacle. The general colour With respect to the weather at Aleppo, in September, of the corolla was white, Dr. Russell reports, that “ during the first fortnight it is and every petal was marked much the same as in the latter part of August, but with a single streak of rather more sultry. When no rain falls, the whole bright purple down the month continues clear and sultry; but commonly between middle. The flower was the 15th and 25th heavy and black clouds arise, and sweet scented, and its smell, hard squalls, blowing like whirlwinds from the west, fill | though much more powerthe air with dust. This phenomenon forebodes rain; ful, resembled that of the for within a day or two some heavy showers fall, called lily of the valley. This the first rains, by which although not considerable in superb plant excited the quantity, the air being much refreshed, the remainder of | admiration of the whole the month is rendered very pleasant. Lightning, with party; and it brought im
Amaryllis lutea. out thunder, is seen almost every night, flashing from mediately to my recollecthe edge of heavy clouds, in the north-west quarter; but tion the beautiful comparison used on a particular occawhen it appears in the west or south-west, it is a sure sion by Our Saviour: 'I say unto you, that Solomon sign of approaching rains, which are often accompanied | in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these."" with loud thunder.”
Sir James Edward Smith observes, “ It is natural to Lightnings, in figurative language, are the symbols of presume the Divine teacher, according to his usual cusedicts enforced with destruction to those who oppose tom, called the attention of his hearers to some object at them, or hinder others from giving obedience to them. hand; and as the fields of the Levant are overrun with (Psalm 144. 6; Zech. 9. 14; Rev. 4. 5; 16. 18.) Thun- | the Amaryllis lutea, whose golden liliaceous flowers in ders and lightnings when they proceed from the throne | autumn afford one of the most brilliant and gorgeous of God, as in Revelation 4. 5, are fit representations of objects in nature, the expression of Solomon in all his God's glorious and awful majesty; but when fire comes glory not being arrayed like one of these,' is peculiarly down from heaven upon the earth, it expresses some appropriate. I consider the feeling with which this was judgment of God on the world, as in Revelation 20. 9. expressed, as the highest honour ever done to the study The voices, thunders, lightnings, and great hail, in Reve of plants; and if my botanical conjecture be right, we prolation 16. 18-21, are interpreted more particularly of bably learn a chronological fact respecting the season of an exceeding great plague, so that men blasphemed on the year when the sermon on the Mount was delivered.” account of it.
This species of lily is in full flower in September and
species of the blue lily, the same, he says, as the Lilium LIGN-ALOE. See Aloe.
Persicum florens of Morison; Skinner saw lilies in the LIGURE, OUS leshem; Sept. Neyuplov; Vulg. plain of Sharon in March; and about the middle of ligarins, is the name of a precious stone, which is men- April, Mr. Wilde in the plain of Sharon saw numerous tioned only in Exodus 28. 19; 39. 12. Castellus and lilies with thousands of other gay flowers. others take it for the hyacinth, the Lapis Lyncurius of | The work in the form of a lily, juri Jivyo maasi the ancients, as being of a red colour, and in beingshushan, spoken of in 1 Kings 7. 19, as an ornament on electric, a property ascribed to the Lapis Lyncurius, or the pillars of the Temple, was probably work in the Συλυγκυριον of Theophrastus.
form of the lotus, for the lotus resembles the lily, and · The hyacinth is a sub-species of pyramidal zircon, was very frequently used in Egypt as a decoration for found in the beds of rivers in the East, and sometimes the capitals of pillars. in Italy and Greece. Besides zircon it contains silica | Mr. Bardwell, the architect, in his work, entitled and iron, is of a reddish colour, and occurs crystallized Temples Ancient and Modern, (1837,) says, “The two in four sided prisms; it is now little esteemed as a gem. great columns of the pronoas in Solomon's temple were
of the usual proportions of Egyptian columns, being
five and a half diameters high, and as these gave the LILY, JUWV shushan, kpivov. Lilies are natives great characteristic feature to the building, Solomon sent of the East, and found plentifully growing in the fields. an embassy to fetch the architect from Tyre to super(Cantic. 2. 1,2; Hosea 14. 5; Matt. 6. 28.) There are intend the moulding and casting of these columns, many varieties, but it is generally supposed that the which were intended to be of brass; and observe how Amaryllis lutca, or yellow amaryllis, is the flower conspicuous is the idea of the vase (the "bowl of our intended in Canticles 2. 1,2, which bears some resem translation) rising from a cylinder ornamented with lotus blance to our yellow crocus, but with a larger flower and flowers; the bottom of the vase was partly hidden by broader leaves. The blossom emerges from an undi the flowers, the belly of it was overlaid with net-work, vided spathe or sheath, and is of a bell-shaped form, ornamented by seven wreaths, the Hebrew number of with six divisions and six stamens which are alternately happiness, and beneath the lip of the vase were two shorter. The flower seldom rises more than three or rows of pomegranates, one hundred in each row; these four inches above the soil, accompanied by a tuft of superb pillars were eight feet diameter, and forty-four green leaves, that continue their freshness throughout feet hight, supporting a noble entablature fourteen feet the winter. It was introduced into the English gardens high." by Gerard, in 1596.
Among the ancient Egyptians the lotus was intro| Mr. Salt, in his Voyage to Abyssinia, says, "At a few duced into all subjects as an ornament, and as the miles from Adowa, we discovered a new and beautiful | favourite flower of the country; but not with the holy
character, says Sir John Gardner Wilkinson, usually | stone, on which, however, the whole idea turns. I attributed to it, though adopted as an emblem of the rather suppose, therefore, that Moses acted in this matter god Nofre-Atmoo. SEE Lotus.
with the same view to future ages, as is related of Sos
tratus, the architect of the Pharos, who, while he cut the LIME, 7 sed. This word first occurs in Deu name of the then king of Egypt in the outer coat of lime, teronomy 27. 2,4, where it is rendered in our version took care to engrave his own name secretly in the stone 66 plaister,” but in Isaiah 32. 12; Amos 2. 1, it is trans- below, in order that it might come to light in after lated “lime."
times, when the plaister with the king's name should Lime is a very prevalent ingredient in rocks, and, have fallen off. In like manner Moses, in my opinion, combined with carbonic acid, forms marble, chalk, and commanded that his laws should be cut in the stones limestone, of various degrees of hardness and every themselves, and these coated with a thick crust of lime, variety of colour. The purest carbonate of lime is that the engraving might continue for many ages secure found in calcareous spar, whose crystals assume a variety from all the injuries of the weather and atmosphere, and of forms, all, however, resulting from a primary rhom- then, when by the decay of its covering it should, after boid. When subjected to heat, carbonate of lime loses hundreds or. thousands of years, first come to light, serve its carbonic acid, and becomes caustic lime, which has a to show to the latest posterity whether they had suffered hot pungent taste. In this state it can be sparingly dis- any change. And was not the idea of thus preserving solved in water. If lime be subjected to an intense | an inscription, not merely for hundreds but for thouheat, it fuses into a transparent glass. When heated sands of years, a conception exceedingly sublime? It is under great pressure, it melts, but retains its carbonic by no means impossible that these stones, if again disacid.
covered, might be found still to contain the whole Lime was obtained in ancient times by calcining or engraving perfectly legible. Let us only figure to ourburning stones, shells, and other substances. From selves what must have happened to them amid the sucIsaiah 33. 12, it appears that it was made in a kiln cessive devastations of the country in which they were lighted with thorn bushes; and from Amos 2. 1, that erected. The lime would gradually become irregularly bones were sometimes calcined for lime.
covered with moss and earth; and now, perhaps, the In reference to the passage in Deuteronomy 27. 2, stones, by the soil increasing around and over them, may “ Set thee up great stones, and plaister them with plais- resemble a little mount; and were they accidentally ter,” Michaëlis remarks, “ The book of the law, in order disclosed to our view, and the lime cleared away, all to render it the more sacred, was deposited beside the ark that was inscribed on them 3500 years ago would at of the covenant, (Deut. 31. 26,) and we find the same | once become visible. Probably, however, this discovery, procedure likewise observed afterwards with regard to highly desirable though it would be, both to literature other laws, such as that which was made on the first and religion, is reserved for some future age of the world. establishment of regal authority, or, in other words, the What Moses commanded, merely out of legislative prucompact between the king and the estates, (1Sam. dence and for the sake of his laws, as laws, God, who 10.25;) but I cannot precisely determine whether that sent him, may have destined to answer likewise another was kept in the holy of holies beside the ark, or only purpose; and may choose to bring these stones to light in the holy place. The guardians of the law, to whom at a time when the laws of Moses are no longer of any was entrusted the duty of making faithful transcripts of | authority in any community whatever. Thus much is it, were the priests, (Deut. 27. 9;) but Moses did not certain, that nowhere in the Bible is any mention made account even this precaution sufficient for the due pre of the discovery of these stones, nor indeed any further servation of his law in its original purity; for he com notice taken of them, than in Joshua 8. 30-35, where manded that it should besides be engraven on stones, their erection is described; so that we may hope they and those stones kept on a mountain near Sichem, in will yet one day be discovered. The whole procedure order that a genuine exemplar of it might be trans of Moses in this matter, is precisely in the style of mitted even to the latest generations. In his ordinance ancient nations, who generally took the precaution, now for this purpose there are one or two particulars that rendered unnecessary by the invention of printing, to require illustration. He commanded that the stones engrave their laws on stones; only that he studied, by a should be coated with lime; but this command would new contrivance, to give to his stony archives a higher have been quite absurd had his meaning only been, that degree of durability than was ever thought of by any the laws should be cut through the coating; for after other legislator. What was to be inscribed on the this unnecessary trouble, they could by no means have stones, whether the whole Pentateuch, or only the Book been thus perpetuated with such certainty, nor have nearly of Deuteronomy, or but the blessings and curses proso long resisted the effects of wind and weather, as if at nounced in Deuteronomy ch. 27, or merely the ten once engraven in the stones themselves. Kennicott, in commandments alone, has been the subject of a controhis Second Dissertation on the Hebrew Text, supposes versy, for particulars concerning which, I again refer that they might have been cut out in black marble, with the reader to Kennicott's Second Dissertation. In my the letters raised, and the hollow intervals between the judgment, the expression, “all the words of this law, black letters filled up with a body of white lime to implies, at least, that all the statutory part of the Mosaic render them more distinct and conspicuous. But even books was to be engraved on the stones, which is far this would not have been a good plan for eternizing them: from being impossible, if we make but a distinction because lime cannot long withstand the weather, and | between the stones and the altar, which must no doubt whenever it began to fall off in any particular place, the have been too small for that purpose. It is well known raised characters would, by a variety of accidents, to that in very ancient times, nations were wont to engrave which writing deeply engraved is not liable, soon be their laws in stones; and the Egyptians had recourse to injured and become illegible. No one that wishes to stone pillars for perpetuating their discoveries in science, write anything in stone, that shall descend to the most and the history of their country. All these circumremote periods of time, will ever think of giving a pre stances considered, with this, above all others, that the ference to characters thus in relief. And besides, Moses, Israelites had just come out of Egypt, where writing in if this was his meaning, has expressed himself very stone was employed for so many purposes, (although, indistinctly; for he says not a word of the colour of the indeed, hieroglyphic characters were used, which Moses
prohibited, because, when not understood, they might covered an area of ten thousand cubits, and, like our give a handle to idolatry.) I do not see why the acre, was solely employed for measuring land. The phrase, "all the words of this law, should not be left in other measures of Egypt were the schæne, equivalent to its full force, nor what should oblige us to limit it, with sixty stades in length, which served, like the Greek Dr. Kennicott, merely to the decalogue.”
stade, the Persian parasang, and the more modern mile, The notion the Jews themselves entertain is, that the for measuring distance, or the extent of a country; and stones were to be covered with plaster, and the law the cubit, which Herodotus considers equal to that of written or inscribed thereon. Some think that the Samos; for though the stade is often used by Greek stones were not to have their surfaces covered with the writers in giving the measurements of monuments in plaster; but that it was used as a cement for the sides of Egypt, it was not really an Egyptian measure, as Herothe stones, joining them firmly together. Another con dotus plainly shows by ascribing its use to the Greeks, jecture is the one that Dr. Kennicott has adopted; and a and the schænus to the Egyptians. It is highly prothird is, that the same mode may have been followed as bable that the aroura, or square land-measure, was we know was customary in Egypt. In that country we divided into poles, answering to the kassobeh (reed), now find paintings and hieroglyphic writing upon plaster, used in Egypt, by which the feddan is measured; and in which plaster is frequently laid upon the natural rock, the absence of any explanation of the ancient landand after the lapse of perhaps more than three thousand measure, it may not be irrelevant to notice the mode of years, we find the plaster still firm, and the colours of dividing the modern feddan. Till lately it was a square the figures painted on it still remarkably fresh. The of twenty keerat (carrots), or four hundred kassobeh process of covering the rock with plaster is thus de (reeds) or rods; and each kassobeh was divided into scribed : “ The ground was covered with a thick layer of twenty-four kharoobeh or kubdeh; but various alterafine plaster, consisting of lime and gypsum, which was tions have taken place in the modern land-measure of carefully smoothed and polished. Upon this a thin coat Egypt; and even supposing the ancient aroura to have of lime white-wash was laid, and on it the colours were been divided in a similar manner, nothing can be painted, which were bound fast either with animal glue, obtained respecting the real contents of it beyond what or occasionally with wax.” If it be insisted that the we learn from Herodotus, of its being a square of one words of the law were actually cut in the rock, it would hundred cubits.” seem best to understand that the word does not here In Joshua 18. 9, we read, “ And the men went and mean a plaster, but indicates that the stones, after they passed through the land, and described it by cities into had been engraved, were covered with a coat of tena- | seven parts in a book, and came again to Joshua to the cious lime whitewash, employed for similar purposes by host at Shiloh.” These circumstances clearly indicate the Egyptians, who, when the face of a rock had been that a survey of the whole country was made, and the sculptured in relievo, covered the whole with a coat of results entered carefully in a book. This appears to be this wash, and then painted their sculptured figures. the earliest example of a topographical survey on
We read in Amos 2. 1, “He [the king of Moab] record, and it proves there must have been some knowburned the bones of the king of Edom into lime.” The ledge of geometry among the Hebrews; and this had interpretation of the Targum and some of the Rabbins no doubt been acquired in Egypt. is, that the burnt bones were made into lime and used by the conqueror for plastering his palace; if this ex
LINEAGE, Tarpia, paternal descent; a family, planation be the correct one, it would seem to suggest
or race. (Luke 2. 4.) See GENEALOGIES. one of the uses to which bones were in those times employed. See BONES.
LINEN, 73 bad. (Exod. 28. 42.) All the priestly LINE, han hhebel, signifies a rope, or cord, in garments among the Hebrews were to be composed of Joshua 2. 15; in other places, a line to measure with white fine linen, the product of a well-known plant, (2Sam. 8. 2; Amos 7. 17; Psalm 78. 55; Zech. 2. 1.) flax. No wool was to form or enter into the texture of
There can be little doubt that the Hebrews acquired the garments in which they ministered, and the reason the art of measuring land from the ancient Egyptians. | assigned for this was, that it conduced to preserve cleanSir John Gardner Wilkinson observes, “ To the effects liness, which was also the Egyptian practice, for the of the inundation of the Nile has been reasonably attri- | priests of that country were of all people the most buted the early advancement of the Egyptians in geo- studious of personal cleanliness. They wore linen metry and mensuration. Herodotus, Plato, Diodorus, robes; and although their outer garment, when dressed Strabo, Clemens of Alexandria, Jamblichus, and others, in their ordinary attire, was, as among the other people, ascribe the origin of geometry to changes which actually a sort of woollen mantle, they were compelled to throw took place from the inundation, and to the consequent it off before they entered a temple. No person was necessity of adjusting the claims of each person re- allowed to be buried in woollen, and all the bandages of specting the limits of the lands; and though Herodotus mummies that have been examined are found to consist may be wrong in limiting the commencement of those of linen. See CLOTHES; Flax. observations to the reign of Sesostris, his remark tends 1 There is another sort of linen mentioned in the Scrip. to the same point, and confirms the general opinion that tures, called Wui shish, (Gen. 41. 42.) which is generally this science had its origin in Egypt. But it is difficult supposed to be the byssus, or fine white Egyptian cotton, to fix the period when the science of mensuration com- | and the cloth manufactured from it. (Exod. 26. 1.) menced; if we have ample proofs of its being known The later name is rud buts. (Proy, 31. 24.) Under in the time of Joseph, this does not carry us far back both words have also been understood fine linen garinto the ancient history of Egypt; and there is evidence ments; as the words for flax and cotton, in the Oriental of geometry and mathematics having already made the languages, are indifferently used; thus the same clothes same progress at the earliest period of which any which in Ezekiel 44. 17 are called Onwa ng2 bigdiy monuments remain, as in the later æra of the patriarch, pishtim, linen or flaxen garments, are in Leviticus 16.4 or of the Great Rameses. The Egyptian land-measure expressed by T'70 bigdiy bad; and in Exodus was the aroura, which, according to Herodotus and 39. 28, 7) D a michnisiy bad, the “linen breeches," Horapollo, being a square of one hundred cubits, l are made of Uw shish. The Chaldee has likewise often
translated 72 bad, the Hebrew word for "flax," by Yua A.D. 58, and to have suffered martyrdom under Nero, byssus, as in Ezekiel 44. 18. The word shish appears about ten years afterwards; other writers, however, to be of Hebrew, or at least of Semitic origin, from the believe that Linus lived till nearly the conclusion of the root WoW shush, to be white.
first century of the Christian æra. When the prophet Isaiah wishes to describe the misery which the folly of the Egyptian princes was likely to LION. There are several names given in Scripture bring on the labouring classes of their subjects, he men- to the lion, according to its different ages or character; tions the weavers as next in importance to the fisher- | as '78 ari, or i7'78 ariyeh, (Gen. 49. 9; Isai. 21. 8,) -men; “Moreover, they that work in fine flax, and they which is the general name, and occurs frequently for a that weave net works, shall be confounded.” (ch. 19. 9.) | full-grown and vigorous lion. 72 goor, a young lion, Instead of “networks,” the margin of our version has a whelp. (Gen. 49. 9; Ezek. 19. 3.) 793 kiphir, also a “ white works,” which is the correct translation. The young lion, but applied to one which has begun to seek linen and cotton were exported in the shape of yarn. prey, therefore different from 992 goor. W laish, a We are told that “Solomon had horses brought out of | fierce or enraged lion. (Prov. 30. 30; Isai. 30. 6.) Egypt, and linen yarn; the king's merchants received 16 shachal, supposed by Bochart to be the black lion the linen yarn at a price.” (1 Kings 10. 28.) That the of Syria. (Job. 4. 10; Psalm 9). 13.) You shachats, a linen of Egypt was highly valued in Palestine is evi- | powerful lion. (Job 28. 8.) 825 labe, a lion, perhaps dent, for it is said, “I have decked my bed with cover lioness, used poetically. (Gen. 49. 9; Numb. 24. 9.) ings of tapestry, with carved works, with fine linen of Bochart always considers is labe in Hebrew as femiEgypt.” (Prov. 7. 16.) The prophet Ezekiel also says, nine, (Job. 4. 11,) and the context of Ezekiel 19. 2 is in his enumeration of the articles of traffic in Tyre, in favour of his assertion that das labe signifies lioness. “Fine linen, with broidered work from Egypt, was that | Though the lion does not now exist in Palestine, there which thou spreadest forth to be thy sail.” (Ezek. is abundant evidence, both historical and critical, to 27. 7.)
prove that it was once found there. We may cite, in Sir John Gardner Wilkinson says, “Much flax was support of this, the adventures of Samson with a young cultivated in Egypt, and the various processes of water- | lion, on his way to Timnath, (Judges 14. 5,6;) and ing it, beating the stalks when gathered, making it into likewise David's slaughter of“ a lion and a bear.” (1 Sam. twine, and lastly into a piece of cloth, are represented | 17. 34-36.) The adoption of the lion as the symbol of in the paintings."
the tribe of Judah, (Gen. 49. 9,) and the allusion to its "The Egyptians, from a remote æra, were celebrated ferocity, (Isai. 11. 6,) its terrible roar, (Prov. 19. 12,) for their manufacture of linen and other cloths, and the | and its habit of sheltering among the brushwood which produce of their loom was exported to, and eagerly pur- lines the Jordan, and of ascending thence when the river chased by, foreign nations. The fine linen, and em- overflowed its banks, (Jerem. 1. 44,) clearly indicate broidered work, the yarn and woollen stuffs of the that the Hebrews possessed an intimate knowledge of upper and lower country, are frequently mentioned, and the animal. Palestine is not the only country in which were highly esteemed. Solomon purchased many of the lion has become extinct within the historic period; these commodities. The quantity of linen manufac- but confining ourselves to Scriptural localities, we know tured and used in Egypt was truly surprising, and inde- that in ancient times the lion inhabited the deserts of pendent of that made up into articles of dress, the great Egypt, and Athenæus mentions one killed by the Emabundance used for enveloping the mummies, both of peror Adrian, while hunting near Alexandria; yet the men and animals, shows how large a supply must have | lion is quite unknown there now. We have no evidence been kept for the constant demand at home, as well as | whether the Hebrews succeeded in taming lions, and in for that of the foreign market.” See APPAREL; FLAX; training them to assist in the chase, but the Egyptians, WEAVING.
it appears, did so. By them the animal was frequently In the New Testament, “fine linen,” Buooos, is brought up in a tame state, and many Egyptian monarchs mentioned, (Luke 16. 19, and Rev. 18. 12,) concerning seem to have been accompanied in battle by a favourite which a variety of opinions have been offered, but the lion, as we learn alike from the sculptures at Thebes and subject presents many difficulties as to whether cotton from the authority of Diodorus Siculus. Sir John or linen is referred to.
Gardner Wilkinson informs us that “the worship of the
lion was particularly regarded in the city of Leontopolis; LINTEL, nipun mashkoph. (Exod. 12. 22,23.)
and other cities adored this animal as the emblem of
of more than one deity. It was the symbol of strength, The lintel of the door is the head-piece; that part of the frame that lies on the side-pieces. The Israelites in
| and therefore typical of the Egyptian Hercules. With
he this idea, the Egyptian sculptors frequently represented Egypt were thus commanded, on the occasion of the
a powerful and victorious monarch, accompanied by it institution of the Passover: “ Ye shall take a bunch of
in battle, though, as Diodorus says of Osymandyas, some hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side-posts with the blood
suppose the king to have been really attended by a tame that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at
lion on these occasions. Macrobius, Proclus, Horapollo,
and others, state that the lion was typical of the sun; an the door of his house until the morning. For the Lord will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when
assertion apparently borne out by the sculptures, which
sometimes figure it borne upon the backs of two lions. he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side
It is also combined with other emblems appertaining to posts, the Lord will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite
the god Rê. In the connexion between the lion and you." See PASSOVER.
Hercules may be traced the relationship of the sun and
the god of strength. LINUS, a Christian mentioned by St. Paul. “ Macrobius pretends that the Egyptians employed (2Tim. 4. 21.) Irenæus, Eusebius, Jerome, and others, the lion to represent that part of the heavens where the affirm that he succeeded the Apostle Peter as bishop of sun, during its annual revolution, was in its greatest Rome; and Dr. Burton, in his History of the Christian force, the sign Leo being called the abode of the sun;' Church, expresses it as his opinion that such was the and the different parts of this animal are reputed by fact; he conceives Linus to have become bishop about him to have indicated various seasons, and the increas
eives Linas his opiniostory of the Cashop, ofs