Sidor som bilder
[blocks in formation]

affections. Dr. John Mason Good is of opinion, that | been very accurately distinguished; the Lacerta stellio such allusions, in order to convey their real signification, | is, however, that which appears to be most common in should be rendered not literally but equivalently: thus Palestine, and particularly in Judæa, where Belon states in Psalm 16. 9, “My heart is glad and my glory re that it sometimes attains the size of a weasel. This is joiceth," as it occurs in our authorized version, is literally the lizard which infests the pyramids; and, in other “My heart is glad and my liver rejoiceth;” but such an countries where it is found, harbours in the crevices and interpretation could scarcely be read without a smile. between the stones of old walls, feeding on flies and

In Ezekiel 21. 21, we read of various modes of divi other winged insects. This may be the species intended by nation practised by the king of Babylon; among others, Bruce when he says, “I am positive that I can say, with“ He looked in the liver." This form of divination was out exaggeration, that the number I saw one day, in the called Hepatoscopia, and constituted a chief part of great court of the Temple of the Sun at Baalbec, amounted those presages which were derived from observations to many thousands; the ground, the walls, the stones of made upon the internal parts of animals slain for sacri the ruined buildings, were covered with them; and the fice. The liver was the first part inspected, and if this various colours of which they consisted made a very appeared very bad, no observations were made on the extraordinary appearance, glittering under the sun, in other parts; any favourable appearances which they which they lay sleeping and basking.” Lord Lindsay offered not being in such a case thought worthy of atten- also describes the ruins at Jeraish as “absolutely alive tion. If the liver exhibited its natural healthy colour with lizards." Near Suez, he speaks of “a species of and condition, or if it was double, or there were two gray lizard;" and on the ascent towards Mount Sinai, livers, and if the lobes inclined inwards, the signs were “hundreds of little lizards of the colour of the sand, and highly favourable, and success in any proposed object called by the natives Sarabandi, were darting about." was deemed to be insured; but nothing but dangers And in the Syrian desert, Major Skinner writes:—“The and misfortunes were foreboded when there was too ground is teeming with lizards; the sun seems to draw much dryness, or a band between the parts, or if it was them from the earth, for sometimes when I have fixed without a lobe, and still more when the liver itself was my eye upon one spot, I have fancied that the sands wanting, which is said to have sometimes happened. were getting into life, so many of these creatures at once The omens were likewise considered full of evil when crept from their holes.” the liver had any blisters or ulcers; if it was hard, thin, Sir John Gardner Wilkinson says, “In Egypt, of the or discoloured; had any humour upon it; or if, in boiling, lizard tribe, none but the crocodile seems to have been it became soft, or was displaced. The signs which sacred. Those which occur in the hieroglyphics are not appeared on the concave part of the liver concerned the emblematic of the gods, nor connected with religion.” family of the person offering the sacrifice; but those on the gibbous side affected his enemies; if either of these parts were shrivelled, corrupted, or in any way unsound,

LOAF, 73 kikar, a circle, combined with anh the omen was unfortunate, but the reverse when it | lechem, bread, rendered in our version “loaf," in Exodus appeared sound and large. Æschylus makes Prome 29. 23 signifies a round cake, the usual form of bread theus boast of having taught man the division of the among the ancients. The word 1770 hhallah, “cake," entrails, if smooth and of a clear colour, to be agreeable | (2Sam. 6. 19,) often refers to a cake of oblation, (Levit. to the gods; also the various forms of the gall and the | 8. 26,) from the root 770 hhalal, to pierce through, liver. Among the Greeks and Romans it was consi- | because they were pricked, as among the Arabians and dered an unfortunate omen if the liver was injured by Jews of the present day. We also find, on the paintings a cut in killing the victim. See Caul; DIVINATION. in the monuments of Egypt, representations of offerings

of cakes pricked. LIZARD, 7805 lelaah, (Levit. 11. 30;) Sept.

The bread of the Jews was either in small loaves, or

else in broad and thick cakes, as is the present custom kalßwrns; Vulg. stellio. The root in Arabic signifies

in the East. Bread was always broken into such portions “ to adhere,” from which Bochart concludes that it is a red poisonous kind of lizard that is here meant; but

as were required, and distributed by the master of the the Lacerta stellio, or starry lizard, which, from its pre


The two wave loaves mentioned in Leviticus 23. 17 are called in Hebrew 17:00 ONS lechem tinuphah, signifying the act of waving or moving to and fro before Jehovah, a ceremony observed in the consecration of offerings; hence applied as a name to anything consecrated in this manner. See BREAD; Cakes.

LO-AMMI, DY-85 (Not my people,) a name given by Divine command to one of the sons of the prophet Hosea. (Hosea 1. 9.)

LOCK, Syia manoul, (Cant. 5. 5,) means properly a bolt or bar, though rendered in our version lock.”

The description given by Turner, in his Journal of a Tour in the Levant, of the wooden locks commonly used

in Egypt, may afford some idea of this kind of fastening, Lacerta ste?!10.

which was probably nearly the same in the time of sent abundance in Palestine and Egypt, is most probably Solomon. These locks “consist of a long hollow piece intended, is covered with tubercles, and is of a gray of wood fixed in the door, so as to slide backward and colour. It lives in the holes of walls, and under stones, | forward, which enters a hole made for it in the doorand covers itself with dirt. Lizards of different species post, and is there fastened by small bolts of iron wire, are extremely abundant both in the settled country and which fall from above into little orifices made for them in the deserts around Palestine. The species have not in the top of the lock. The key is a long piece of wood,

[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

haring at the end small pieces of iron wire of different nius likewise concurs, but Bochart follows some of the lengths, irregularly fixed in, corresponding in number Rabbins in rendering it a species of locust. and direction with the bolts which fall into the lock; these (6.) J'on hhasil, (1 Kings 8. 37; Psalm 78. 46,) is it lifts, upon being introduced into the lock, which it rendered in our version “caterpillar," but means prothen pulls back. The bolts of wire differ in number bably a kind of locust. The Septuagint renders it from three to fourteen or fifteen, and it is impossible to Bpovxos, a locust without wings. See CATERPILLAR. guess at the number a lock contains, or at the direction (7.) 999 hhargol, (Levit. 11. 22,) is rendered in our in which they are placed.” See Door.

version “beetle.” (See BEETLE.) Rosenmüller, in his LOCKS OF HAIR. See NAZARITE.

notes to Bochart, suggests that this may be the Gryllus onos or papus of Linnæus. It is the name of a kind

of locust, eatable and winged. Gesenius says the Arabic LOCUST, N ON arbeh, (Exod. 10. 4,) probably word signifies a drove of horses, or a swarm of locusts. from the root 737 rabah, to multiply.

(8.) po yalek, is rendered sometimes in our version The arbeh is often mentioned with other kinds of “ cankerworm,” (see CANKERWORM,) and sometimes locusts with which the East so much abounds. This caterpillar." Gesenius says it was a species of locust. species is supposed to be the Gryllus migratorius, which Oedman takes it for the Gryllus cristatus of Linnæus,

others for the Gryllus hæmatopus-horripilaus, of a hairy bristly kind.

(9.) Dydd solam, occurs in Leviticus 11. 22 only; our version renders it, “the bald locust.” Gesenius says it was a four-footed, winged, and eatable kind of locust, deriving the name from a root in Chaldee, signifying to deyour, consume.

(10.) 5858 tsilt sal, occurs in Deuteronomy 28. 42. Michaëlis says this was the Gryllus talpiformis. Tychsen believes it was the Gryllus stridulus of Linnæus, and that its name imports this. Gesenius thinks it was probably a kind of tree-cricket, so named from the noise which it makes.

One of the plagues inflicted upon the Egyptians was a plague of locusts, (Exod. ch. 10,) by which we must understand a swarm more numerous and destructive

than usual, perhaps sent at an unexpected time, for to The Locust.

the present day locusts infest not only Egypt, but all

the neighbouring countries, appearing in greater or less is about two inches and a-half in length, and is chiefly numbers almost every year. The operation of the female of a green colour, with dark spots. The mandibles or

locust in laying her eggs is highly interesting, and was jaws are black, and the wing coverts are of a bright observed in ancient times. Pliny says, “She chooses a brown, spotted with black. It has an elevated ridge or piece of light earth, well protected by a bush or hedge, crest upon the thorax, or that portion of the body to where she makes a hole for herself, so deep that her which the legs and wings are attached. The legs and head just appears above it; she here deposits an oblong thighs of these insects are so powerful, that they can substance, exactly the shape of her own body, which leap to a height of two hundred times the length of contains a considerable number of eggs, arranged in neat their bodies; when so raised, they spread their wings, order, in rows against each other, which remain buried and fly so close together, as to appear like one compact in the ground most carefully, and artificially protected moving mass.

from the cold of winter." Mr. Morier, in his Travels in Bochart enumerates ten different kinds of locusts, Persia, observes, “ The eggs are brought into life by the which he thinks are mentioned in the Scriptures; they | heat of the sun. If the heats commence early, the are as follow:

locusts early gain strength, and it is then that their (1.) 127X arbeh, is probably the general name in-depredations are most feared, because they commence cluding all the species. The word is sometimes rendered them before the corn has had time to ripen, and they in our version “grasshopper.” (Judges 6. 5; 7. 12; | attack the stem when it is still tender. I conjecture Job 39. 20.)

that camping in the hedges in the cold day,' mentioned (2.) ' gob, (Amos 7. 1,) is rendered in our version

by the prophet Nahum, (3. 17) may be explained by “grasshopper.” Bochart derives the word from 1722 | the eggs being deposited during the winter; and when gabah, to creep out of the earth, which is the case with the sun ariseth they flee away, may also be illustrated the young ones in spring

by the flying away of the insect, as soon as it had felt (3.) Did gazam, (Joel 1. 4; 2. 25; Amos 4. 9,) is the sun's influence.” The inhabitants of Syria have rendered in our version “palmer worm.” The Chaldee observed that locusts are always bred by mild winters, and Syriac versions understand it of the young yet un and that they constantly come from the deserts of fledged locust, or bruchus, which is peculiarly applicable Arabia. to the passage in Joel 1. 4, where the Old gazam causes The number of these insects is incredible to any person. the beginning of the devastation. The Septuagint ren- | who has not himself witnessed it. The Rev. Mr. Hartley, ders it kautin, Vulgate eruca, a caterpillar.

in his Travels in Greece and Asia Minor, says, speak(1.) in hhagab, (Levit. 11. 22,) a species of wingeding of the locusts, “I am perfectly astonished at their locust, and eatable, frequently rendered in our version multitudes. They are, indeed, as a strong people, set in “grasshopper," (Numb. 13. 33,) is supposed by some battle array; they run like mighty men; they climb the naturalists to be the Gryllus coronatus of Linnæus. See walls like men of war. I actually saw them run to and GRASSHOPPER.

fro in the city of Thyatira; they ran upon the wall; (5.) 53n hhanamal, occurs only in Psalm 78. 47. | they climbed up upon the houses; they entered into the Our version renders this word “hail," in which Gese- | windows like a thief.”

[blocks in formation]

Locusts in Syria and Arabia are observed to come the coast of the East (or Dead) Sea, and others into the invariably from the East, and hence the popular tradi- Utmost (or Mediterranean) Sea. (Joel 2. 20.) These tion that they are produced by the waters of the Persian locusts are larger than those which sometimes visit the Gulf. Syria is not equally with Arabia exposed to their southern parts of Europe. From their heads being ravages. The province of Nejed, in particular, is some shaped like that of the horse, the prophet Joel says, times overwhelmed to such a degree that, having de- that they “have the appearance of horses;” and on stroyed the harvest, they penetrate by thousands into the account of their celerity they are compared to horsemen private dwellings, and devour whatever they can find, at full gallop, (2. 4,) and also to horses prepared for even the leather of the water-vessels. It was in the battle. (Rev. 9.7.) The locust has a large open mouth; country east of the Dead Sea that Burckhardt first and in its two jaws four incisive teeth, which traverse obtained a view of a swarm of locusts. They so com- each other like scissors, and from their mechanism are pletely covered the surface of the ground, that his horse calculated to grasp and cut everything of which they killed numbers of them at every step, while he had the lay hold. These teeth are so sharp and strong, that the greatest difficulty in keeping from his face those that prophet, by a bold figure, terms them, the teeth of a great rose up and flew about.

lion. (Joel 1. 6.) Their numerous swarms like a sucFrom the Scriptures it appears that in Palestine the cession of clouds, sometimes extend a mile in length, country was frequently laid waste by vast bodies of and half as much in breadth, darken the horizon, and migrating locusts; and the brief notices of the inspired intercept the light of the sun. Should the wind blow writers as to the habits of the insects, their numbers, briskly, so that the swarms are succeeded by others, they and the devastation they cause, are amply borne out by afford a lively idea of that similitude of the Psalmist, the more laboured details of modern travellers.

(109. 23,) of being “ tossed up and down as the locusts." By the prophet Joel (2. 11) they are termed the Wherever they alight, the land is covered with them for “ army of the Lord,” from the military order which they the space of several leagues, and sometimes they form a appear to observe: disbanding themselves and encamping bed six or seven inches thick. The noise which they in the evening, and in the morning resuming their flight make in browsing on the trees and herbage may be in the direction of the wind, unless they meet with food. heard at a great distance, and resembles that of an army (Prov. 30. 27; Nahum 3. 17.) They fly in countless foraging in secret, or the rattling of hail-stones; and hosts, (Judges 6. 5; Jerem. 46. 23,) so as to obscure the whilst employed in devouring the produce of the land, sun and bring a temporary darkness upon the land; it has been observed that they uniformly proceed one (Exod. 10. 15; Joel 2. 2;) and the noise made by them way, as regularly as a disciplined army upon its march. is compared to the noise of chariots. (Joel 2. 5.) If the fire itself, indeed, consumes not so rapidly. Wherever weather be cold, they encamp in the hedges, until the their myriads spread, the verdure of the country dissun rises, when they resume their progress, (Nahum | appears as if a covering bad been removed; trees and 3. 17,) climbing or creeping in perfect order. Regard- plants, stripped of their leaves, and reduced to their less of every obstacle they mount the walls of cities and naked boughs and stems, cause the dreary image of houses and enter the very apartments. (Joel 2. 7-9.) winter to succeed, in an instant, to the rich scenery of They devour every green herb, and strip the bark off the spring. When these clouds of locusts take their every tree, (Exod. 10. 12,15; Joel 1. 4,7,10,12,16,18,20,) flight, to surmount any obstacle, or traverse more rapidly so as to render the land which before was as the garden a desert soil, the heavens may literally be said to be of Eden, a desolate wilderness, as if it had been laid obscured by them. waste by fire. (Joel 2. 3.) The noise they make, when “The devastations of the locust,” says Dr. Bowring, committing their ravages, is compared to the crackling in his Report on Syria, “ are often a great detriment to noise of fire among the dry stubble, or a mighty host set the agriculturist: they sometimes cross the country, in battle array. (v. 5.) So fearful are the effects of destroying everything before them. A few years ago their devastations that every one was filled with dismay, | the army of Ibrahim Pacha, in the attempt to extirpate (v. 6,) and vainly attempted to prevent them from | them, gathered up no less than 65,000 ardebs, each settling on their grounds by making loud shouts, equal to five English bushels, and therefore equivalent (Jerem. 51. 14,) as the inhabitants of Egypt and the in the whole to 325,000 bushels. No one can estimate Nogai Tartars do to this day. What increases this tre | the damage caused by these crcatures; when they are mendous calamity is, that when one host is departed, it | grown to a certain size, it is impossible to conquer or is succeeded by a second, and sometimes even by a resist them; they come like flights of birds, darkening third or a fourth, by which everything that has escaped the air, and the destruction of hundreds of thousands the ravages of the preceding is inevitably consumed. seems in no respect to diminish their numbers.” Arabia is generally considered as the native country of Dr. Shaw thus describes a visitation of these insects; he these insects, and we learn that they were carried thence is speaking of Syria: “The locusts were no sooner hatched into Egypt by an east wind, (Exod. 10. 13,) and were in June, than each of the broods collected itself into a removed by a westerly wind, (v. 19,) which blew from compact body of a furlong or more in square, and marchthe Mediterranean Sea, (that lay to the north-west of ing afterwards directly forward towards the sea, they let that country,) and wafted them into the Red Sea, where nothing escape them; eating up everything that was green they perished. On their departure from a country they and juicy, not only the lesser kinds of vegetables, but the leave their fetid excrements behind them, which pollute vine likewise, the fig-tree, the pomegranate, the palm the air, and myriads of their eggs deposited in the and the apple-tree, even all the trees of the field, (Joel ground, whence issue in the following year a new 1. 12.) in doing which they kept their ranks like men and more numerous army. They are generally carried of war, climbing over, as they advanced, every tree or off by the wind into the sea, where they perish; and wall that was in their way; nay, they entered into our their dead bodies putrefying on the shore, emit a most | very houses and bed-chambers like thieves. The inhaoffensive smell.

bitants, to stop their progress, made a variety of pits The plague of locusts predicted by Joel entered and trenches all over their fields and gardens, which they Palestine from Hamath, one of the northern boundaries, filled with water; or else they heaped up therein heath, whence they are called the northern army, and were stubble, and such like combustible matter, which were carried away by the wind, some into the dreary plain on severally set on fire upon the approach of the locusts.

[blocks in formation]

But this was all to no purpose, for the trenches were / Singular as the permission to eat locusts may appear, quickly filled up, and the fires extinguished by infinite as recorded in Leviticus 11. 22, yet nothing is more swarmıs succeeding one another, whilst the front was certain, than that several nations, both of Asia and regardless of danger, and the rear pressed on so close, | Africa, anciently used these insects for food, and that that a retreat was altogether impossible. A day or two they are still eaten in the East. The locusts which after one of these broods was in motion others were formed part of the food of John the Baptist, (Mark 1.6,) already hatched to march and glean after them, gnawing were these insects, and not as has been sometimes supoff the very bark, and the young branches of such trees, posed the fruit of the locust tree. Diodorus Siculus as had before escaped with the loss only of their fruit mentions a people of Ethiopia, who were so fond of and foliage. So justly have they been compared by the eating them that they were called acridophagi, eaters of prophet to "a great army,' who further observes, that locusts. They made large fires which intercepted the *the land is as the garden of Eden before them, and flight of the locusts, which they collected and salted; behind them a desolate wilderness.""

thus preserving them palatable till the season for again In Light's Travels in Africa, edited by Campbell, the collecting them returned. Pliny relates that, in some writer remarks, “I never saw such an exhibition of the parts of Ethiopia, the inhabitants lived upon nothing helplessness of man as I have seen to day. While we were but locusts salted, and dried in the smoke; and that the sitting at dinner, a person came into the house, quite pale, Parthians also accounted them a pleasant article of food. and told us that the locusts were coming. Every face The modern Arabs catch great quantities of locusts, gathered darkness. I went to the door- I looked above, of which they prepare a dish by boiling them with and all round, and saw nothing. 'Look to the ground,' salt, and mixing a little oil, butter, or fat; sometimes was the reply, when I asked where they were. I looked they toast them before a fire, or soak them in warm to the ground, and there I saw a stream of young locusts water, and without any other culinary process, devour without wings, covering the ground at the entrance of the almost every part except the wings. They are also said village. The stream was about five hundred feet broad, to be sometimes pickled in vinegar. At Bushire, in and covering the ground, and moving at the rate of two Persia, Mr. Price saw “many Arab women employed in miles an hour. In a few minutes they covered the filling bags with locusts, to be preserved and eaten like garden wall, some inches deep, and the water was imme- shrimps." “ Locusts,” says Jackson, in his Account of diately let into the channel, into which it flows to water Morocco, “are esteemed a great delicacy, and during the the garden. They swim with the greatest ease over time of their swarming, dishes of them are generally standing water, but the stream carried them away, and served up at the principal repasts. There are various after floating in it about a hundred pacés, they were ways of dressing them; that usually adopted is to boil drowned. All hands were now at work to keep them them in water half an hour, then sprinkle them with from the gardens, and to keep them from crossing the salt and pepper, and fry them, adding a little vinegar. stream. To examine the phenomenon more clearly, I The head, wings, and legs, are thrown away, the rest of walked about a mile and a half from the village, follow the body is eaten, and resembles the taste of prawns. ing the course of the stream. Here I found the stream As the criterion of goodness in all eatables among the extending a mile in breadth, and, like a thousand rivu- Moors is regulated by the stimulating qualities which lets all flowing into one common channel. It appeared they possess, so these locusts are preferred to pigeons, as if the dust under my feet was forming into life, and | because supposed to be more invigorating. A person as if God, when he has a controversy with a people, may eat a plate full of them containing two or three could raise the very dust of the earth on which they hundred without any ill effects." tread in arms against them. Man can conquer the tiger, Locusts are also eaten by the Bedouins, who collect the elephant, the lion, and all the wild beasts of the them in great numbers in the beginning of April. After desert; he can turn the course of the mighty rivers, he having been roasted a little upon the iron plate on which can elude the violence of the tempest, and chain the bread is baked, they are dried in the sun, and then put wind to his car; he can raise the waters into clouds, and, into large sacks with the mixture of a little salt. Anoby the means of steam, create a power that is yet beyond ther way is to throw them alive into boiling water, in human measurement; he can play with the lightnings which a good deal of salt has been mixed; after a few of heaven, and arrest its thunders; but he is nothing minutes they are taken out and dried in the sun; the before an army of locusts. Such a scene as I have wit heads, feet, and wings are then torn off, the bodies are nessed this afternoon would fill England with more con cleansed from the salt and perfectly dried, after which sternation than the terrific cholera. One of the people they are stowed away in sacks. They are never served here informs us, that he had seen a stream that conti up as a dish, but every one takes a handful of them when nued ten days and nights flowing upon his place. | hungry. They are sometimes eaten broiled in butter; During that time every person in the place was at work and they often contribute materials for a breakfast when to preserve his garden; as to the corn fields they were spread over unleavened bread mixed with butter. In obliged to give them up. They continued to the fifth some parts, after being dried, the Arabs grind them to a day defending their gardens; on the evening of the fifth powder, of which a kind of bread is made in small cakes. day, the locusts were between five and ten feet deep, Of all the Bedouins encountered by Burckhardt, those of and the mass by this time became terrible, and literally Sinai alone abstain from using locusts as an article of fell in pieces over the garden walls."

food; and in the towns of Arabia there are shops in Major Moore, when at Poonah, had the opportunity which locusts are sold by measure. They are not eaten of seeing an immense army of these creatures which by the peasants of Syria; although some poor fellahs in ravaged the Mahratta country, and was supposed to the Haouran will make a meal of them when pressed by have come from Arabia. “The column they composed,” | hunger. They break off the heads, and take out the says he, "extended five hundred miles; and so compact entrails before drying them in the sun, whereas most of was it when on the wing, that like an eclipse it com the Bedouins swallow them entire. pletely hid the sun, so that no shadow was cast by any From their swarming together, and the havoc 'they object;" and some lofty tombs, distant from his resi make, locusts are in Scripture an ordinary symbol of denee not two hundred yards, were rendered quite hostile armies, the words “caterpillars," or “cankerinvisible.

worm,” being, however, often used in our translation.

[blocks in formation]

As the symbolical locusts mentioned in Revelation 9. 4, / a shade in the wilderness, then should I be happy; I are said to hurt man, which the natural locusts do not, will become a pilgrim, and leave you. Nor is this further than by injuring vegetation, this must be under- mere empty declamation to alarm his family; for núm. stood of a class of persons who resemble that insect only bers in every town and village thus leave their homes in some of its more remarkable qualities; such as num and are never heard of more. There are, however, many ber, noxiousness, and capacity of devastation, especially who remain absent for a few months or years, and then when they are represented (v.7) as having human faces, return. Under these circumstances, it is no wonder, and (v. 8) “hair like women," and wearing golden crowns. when a father or husband threatens his family he will Almost all interpreters agree, that by the locusts in the retire to the Katu (wilderness), that they become greatly Apocalypse, the Saracens are intended, and the rise of alarmed. But men who have been reduced in their the Mohammedan imposture and power, about A.D. circumstances become so mortified, that they also retire 606. Mede, Daubuz, Lowman, and Bishop Newton, from their homes, and wander about all their future appear to agree on this subject. To explain the ima- lives as pilgrims. “Alas, alas! I will retire to the gery of Revelation 9. 1-11, Taylor has translated the jungle and live with wild beasts,' says the broken hearted following passage from Niebuhr:-"An Arab of the widow.” desert, near Bussorah, informed me of a singular compa

LOFT, 7by aleyah, (1 Kings 17. 19,) signifies a rison of the locust with other animals. The terrible locust of chapter 9 of the Apocalypse not then occurring

small covered place on the flat roof of an Oriental to me, I regarded this comparison as a jest of the

house. In Acts 20. 9, the large upper chamber of the Bedouin, and paid no attention to it, till it was repeated

house in which St. Paul was preaching when Eutychus

fell down, is called “the third loft." See CHAMBER; by another from Bagdad. It was thus: he compared the head of the locust to that of the horse; its breast to

EutychUS; HOUSE. that of the lion; its feet to those of the camel; its body LOG, as (Levit. 14. 10,) a small measure for to that of the serpent; its tail to that of the scorpion; its

liquids, being, according to the Rabbins, the twelfth part horns, if I mistake not, to the locks of hair of a virgin; of bin: thus, equal to five-sixths of a pint. and so of other parts.”

awl was presupper chamber Oriental


LOINS, D'ang mathnayim, (Exod. 12. 11,) the

upper part of the hip where the girdle is worn. LODEBAR, 727 85 (Without pasture,) the name

D'ing yan hhagar mathnayim, “to gird the loins," of a place in Gilead, (2Sam. 17. 272) probably the same ) is an expression of frequent occurrence in the Scriptures. which in Joshua 13. 26 is called Debir. (See DEBIR.) In Eastern countries those who travel on foot are In 2Sam. 9. 4,5, the name is spelled 72915

obliged to fasten their garments at a greater height from LODGE, 72950 miloonah, (Isai. 1. 8,) signifies a

their feet than they are accustomed to do at other

times. This is what is understood by girding their shed or lodge for the watchman in a garden; it also refers

loins: not simply having girdles about them, but the to a sort of hanging bed or hammock, which travellers in hot climates, or the watchmen of gardens or vineyards,

wearing their garments at a greater height than usual.

Sir John Chardin remarks there are two ways of doing hang on high trees to sleep in at night, probably from the fear of wild beasts. The word occurs in Isaiah

this; the dress of the Eastern people is a long vest 24. 20, where it is said in our version, “ The earth shall

reaching down the calf of the leg, more or less fitted to reel to and fro like a drunkard, and shall be removed

the body, and fastened upon the loins by a girdle, which like a cottage;" the latter clause should read, “and

goes three or four times round them. “This dress is shake like a hammock.”

fastened higher up two ways: the one, which is not The lodge here referred to was a little temporary hut

much used, is to draw up the vest above the girdle, just covered with boughs, straw, turf, or similar materials,

as the monks do when they travel on foot; the other, for a shelter from the heat by day and the cold and dews

which is the common way, is to tuck up the fore parts

of their vest into the girdle and so fasten them. by night, for the watchmen that kept the garden, or

All vineyard, during the short season while the fruit was

persons in the East that journey on foot always gather

up their vest, by which they walk more commodiously, ripening, (Job 27. 18,) and speedily removed when it | had served that purpose. It is usually erected on a naving the leg and knee unburdened and unembarassed slight artificial mound of earth, with just space sufficient

by the vest, which they are not when that hangs over

them.” In this manner he supposes the Israelites were for one person, who, in this confined solitude, remains constantly watching the ripening crop, as the jackals

prepared for their going out of Egypt when they ate the

first Passover. during the vintage often destroy whole vineyards, and likewise commit great ravages in the gardens of

Roberts informs us, “ When people take a journey, cucumbers.

they have always their loins well girded, as they believe

they can walk much faster and to a greater distance. LODGING-PLACE, iso malon. The prophet Before the palanquin bearers take up their load, they Jeremiah says, (ch. 9. 2,) “Oh that I had in the wil- assist each other to make tight a part of the sali or robe derness a lodging-place of wayfaring men, that I might round the loins. See the man who has to run a race or leave my people and go from them!”. “People in the take a journey; he girds up his loins with a long robe East,” Roberts remarks, “on their journeys to other or shawl. Elijah (1 Kings 18. 46) therefore thus pretowns or countries, are obliged to travel through the pared himself to run before the chariot of the king. most lonely wilds. Hence the native sovereigns, or Great persons have always men running before them, opulent men, erect what are called rest-houses, or choul- with an ensign of office in their hands. Elijah probably tries, where the travellers or pilgrims reside for the did this in consequence of the wonderful events that had night. It is in the wilderness where the devotees and taken place: fire having come from heaven, Baal's ascetics live retired from men; there either for life, or priests having been destroyed, the rain having descended, for a short period, they perform their austerities, and and the proud king his enemy having been reconciled, live in cynical contempt of man. When a father is he ran before as the priest of the Lord, to show from angry with his family he often exclaims, 'If I had but I whom the blessings had come.

assist each onlanquin beare

Wayfaring men, that he will

« FöregåendeFortsätt »